Ana səhifə

When 1st hampton Hill Sea Scout Group was accepted in to the Royal Navy 100 recognised Groups we adopted the name of hms achilles. Below is a brief resume of the six ships that have born this name


Yüklə 167.03 Kb.
tarix13.06.2016
ölçüsü167.03 Kb.


When 1ST Hampton Hill Sea Scout Group was accepted in to the Royal Navy 100 recognised Groups we adopted the name of HMS Achilles. Below is a brief resume of the six ships that have born this name.

Six ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Achilles, after the Greek hero Achilles. Four others, mostly prizes, have had the French spelling of the name, Achille.



  • HMS Achilles (1747) was an 8-gun schooner purchased in 1747. She was captured in 1748 by the Spanish.

  • HMS Achilles (1757) was a 60-gun fourth rate launched in 1757, hulked in 1780, and sold in 1784.

  • HMS Achille* - a 74-gun French third rate launch in 1798. She was captured and fought as a British flagged ship in the Battle of Trafalgar and was later sold in 1865.

  • HMS Achilles (1863) was a broadside ironclad frigate launched in 1863. She became a base ship in 1902 and was renamed HMS Hibernia. She was renamed HMS Egmont in 1904, HMS Egremont in 1916, and HMS Pembroke in 1919. She was sold in 1923.

  • HMS Achilles (1905) was a Warrior-class armored cruiser launched in 1905 and sold in 1921.

  • HMNZS Achilles (70) was a Leander-class light cruiser launched in 1932. She was transferred to the Royal New Zealand Navy as HMNZS Achilles in 1941, but was returned in 1946. She was transferred to the Royal Indian Navy in 1948 as HMIS Delhi, eventually becoming INS Delhi. She was scrapped in 1978.

  • HMS Achilles (F12) was a Leander-class frigate launched in 1968. She was sold to Chile in 1990 and renamed Ministro Zenteno.

HMS Achilles (1747) (1st)
Schooner 8-gun 

This the first ship to carry the name HMS Achilles was an 8-gun schooner, bought 1747, and captured by the Spanish 1748.



HMS Achilles (1757)

HMS Achilles was a 60-gun fourth rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built by Barnard and Turner at Harwich to the draught specified by the 1745 Establishment as amended in 1750, and launched in 1757. She was ordered in November 1755. HMS Achilles was a Dunkirk-class fourth rate, along with HMS Dunkirk and HMS America.[1]

Career


HMS Achilles was launched on 6 February 1757 at Harwich.[2] In 1758, she was detached along with HMS Dorsetshire in pursuit of the 64-gun French ship Raisonnable. The Dorsetshire engaged the Raisonnable first, followed by the Achilles. After sustaining 35 casualties, Raisonnable was taken and later purchased for the navy as HMS Raisonnable.

On 4 April 1759 Achilles engaged and captured the 60-gun French privateer, Comte de St. Florentine in a two hour battle. The Achilles sustained 25 casualties - 2 killed and 23 wounded. The Comte de St. Florentine was later brought into the Royal Navy as HMS St. Florentine.

Later that year, the Achilles was the flagship of Rear-Admiral George Rodney when he sailed to L'Havre on 3 July. The fleet of four 50-gun ships along with 5 frigates, a sloop and 6 bomb ketches destroyed landing barges assembled in the harbor for a possible invasion of England. The Achilles remained at L'Havre for the rest of the year.

On 28 March 1762 the Achilles, along with several other warships and transports carrying 10,000 troops, set sail from Saint Helens to attack the French at Belleisle. The fleet arrived on 7 April and anchored in the Palais road. The next day the army attempted a landing under the cover of the Achilles's guns. The attack was forced back and the army lost 500 soldiers killed, wounded, or captured. The army finally landed successfully on 22 April, and besieged the French in le Palais until 7 June - when the French surrendered.



Achilles became the guard ship at Portsmouth in 1763. Achilles was hulked in 1782 and sold on 1 June 1784.

Name:

HMS Achilles

Ordered:

14 November 1755

Builder:

Barnard & Turner, Harwich

Laid down:

December 1755

Launched:

6 February 1757

Completed:

By 17 May 1757

Fate:

Sold on 1 June 1784

General characteristics

Class and type:

1750 amendments 60-gun fourth rate ship of the line

Tons burthen:

1,234 21/94 bm

Length:

153 ft 10 in (46.9 m) (overall)
127 ft 6 in (38.9 m) (keel)

Beam:

42 ft 8 in (13.0 m)

Depth of hold:

18 ft 9 in (5.7 m)

Propulsion:

Sails

Sail plan:

Full rigged ship

Complement:

420

Armament:

  • Lower deck: 24 x 24pdrs

  • Upper deck: 26 x 12pdrs

  • Quarter deck: 8 x 6pdrs

  • Forecastle: 2 x 6pdrs


HMS Maria Anna, Earl of Chatham and Achilles (far right) off a coastal town




HMS Achilles (1863)

The broadside ironclad HMS Achilles was the third member of the 1861 programme, was described as an armored frigate, and was originally projected as a modified version of the earlier HMS Warrior .

She was one of the first large warships to be built in dry-dock, and hence was floated out rather than being launched.

Her amour scheme was revised to give her a complete waterline belt. She was the only British warship ever to have four masts, and on them she spread the greatest area of canvas ever shown by a warship of any nationality.

HMS Achilles was subjected to more changes of her main armament than any other British warship, before or since.

Service history


She was commissioned at Chatham in 1864, and served in the Channel Fleet until 1868. After a refit and her first major re-armament, she served as guard ship at Portland until 1874. After her second major re-armament she became guard ship at Liverpool until 1877. In 1878 she was one of the ships in the Particular Service Squadron which Admiral Hornby took through the Dardanelles at the time of the Russian war scare in June–August. Her final service was again with the Channel Fleet from 1880 to 1885.

She lay derelict in the Hamoaze until 1902, when she was sent to Malta as a depot ship with the new name Hibernia. She was renamed Egmont in 1904, and remained in Malta until 1914. She was brought home to Chatham, and served there as a depot ship under the successive names of Egremont and Pembroke until she was sold for breaking up.






Builder:

Chatham Dockyard, England

Laid down:

1 August 1861

Floated out:

23 December 1863

Completed:

26 November 1864

Fate:

Broken up, 1925

General characteristics

Displacement:

9,829 tons

Length:

380 ft (120 m)

Beam:

58 ft 3 in (17.75 m)

Draught:

27 ft 3 in (8.31 m)

Propulsion:

One-shaft Penn trunk engine; I.H.P.= 5,720

Speed:

14.32 knots

Complement:

709

First Rig:

Four masts, sail area 44,000 sq ft (4,100 m2).

Second Rig:

Three masts, sail area 30,133 sq ft (2,799 m2).

Armament:

1864 :
• 20 × 100-pounder Somerset cannons
Added 1865 :
• 6 × 68-pounders
1868:
• 22 × 7 in (180 mm) muzzle-loading rifles
• 4 × 8 in (200 mm) muzzle-loading rifles
1874 :
• 14 × 9-inch (229 mm) muzzle-loading rifles

• 2 × 7 in (180 mm) muzzle-loading rifles



Armour:

Belt: 4.5 in (110 mm) amidships, 2.5 in (64 mm) fore and aft
Battery: 4.5 inches
Bulkheads: 4.5 inches.


HMS Achilles (1905)

HMS Achilles was a Duke of Edinburgh-class armored cruiser built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1900s. She served with the 2nd Cruiser Squadron for most of the First World War. Achilles did not Achilles displaced 13,550 long tons (13,770 t) as built and 14,500 long tons (14,700 t) fully loaded. The ship had an overall length of 505 feet 4 inches (154.0 m), a beam of 73 feet 6 inches (22.4 m) and a draught of 27 feet 6 inches (8.4 m). She was powered by four-cylinder triple-expansion steam engines, driving two shafts, which developed a total of 23,650 indicated horsepower (17,640 kW) and gave a maximum speed of 23.3 knots (43.2 km/h; 26.8 mph).[1] The engines were powered by 19 Yarrow water-tube boilers and six cylindrical boilers. The ship carried a maximum of 2,050 long tons (2,080 t) of coal and an additional 600 long tons (610 t) of fuel oil that was sprayed on the coal to increase its burn rate. At full capacity, she could steam for 7,960 nautical miles (14,740 km; 9,160 mi) at a speed of 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph).[2]

Armament


Her main armament consisted of six BL 9.2-inch (234 mm) Mark X guns in single Mk V turrets distributed in two centerline turrets (one each fore and one aft) and four turrets disposed in the corners about the funnels. Her secondary armament of four BL 7.5-inch (191 mm) Mark II or Mark V guns in single Mk II turrets was carried amidships, between the wing 9.2-inch guns. Twenty-six Vickers QF 3-pounders were fitted, ten on turret roofs and eight each on the forward and aft superstructures. The last four ships of the Duke of Edinburgh-class cruisers had a secondary armament of turreted 7.5-inch guns rather than the 6-inch (152 mm) guns in open barbettes of the first two ships; these latter four were sometimes referred to as the Warrior class.[3] Because of the extra top weight of the turrets in comparison to their half-sisters their stability was reduced which made them very good sea boats and steady gun platforms because they did not roll as much.[1] The ship also mounted three submerged 18-inch (457 mm) torpedo tubes, one of which was mounted in the stern.[2]

Wartime modifications


A single Hotchkiss QF 6-pounder anti-aircraft gun on a high-angle Mark 1c mounting was mounted on the quarterdeck in 1915.[1] It had a maximum depression of 8° and a maximum elevation of 60°. The gun fired a 6-pound (2.7 kg) shell at a muzzle velocity of 1,765 ft/s (538 m/s) at a rate of fire of 20 rounds per minute. They had a maximum ceiling of 10,000 ft (3,000 m), but an effective range of only 1,200 yards (1,100 m).[4] Achilles's foremast was converted to a tripod mast to support the weight of a fire-control director after the Battle of Jutland in 1916, but when the director was actually fitted is not known.[5]

Career


Achilles was ordered as part of the 1903–04 naval construction programme as the third of four armored cruisers. She was laid down on 22 February 1904 at Elswick by Armstrong Whitworth.[6] The ship was launched on 17 June 1905 and completed on 22 April 1907 at the cost of £1,191,103.Like her sister ships, she joined the 5th Cruiser Squadron in 1907, and made a port visit to Russia in 1908.[8] The ship was later transferred to the 2nd Cruiser Squadron in 1909.[9] Achilles, accompanied by her sister Cochrane, and three other armored cruisers were sent to reinforce the defenses of the Shetland Islands on 2 August 1914, days before the start of the First World War.[10] She, and her squadron, was assigned to the Grand Fleet after the beginning of the war.[8]

Achilles missed the Battle of Jutland on 31 May 1916 because she was refitting.[8] On the evening of 18 August, the Grand Fleet put to sea in response to a deciphered message that the High Seas Fleet, minus the II Battle Squadron, would be leaving harbor that night. The Germans planned to bombard the port of Sunderland on 19 August, with extensive reconnaissance provided by airships and submarines. The Germans broke off their planned attack to pursue a lone British battle squadron reported by an airship, which was in fact the Harwich Force under Commodore Tyrwhitt. Realizing their mistake, the Germans then set course for home. During the Grand Fleet's sortie, Achilles spotted a U-boat.[11] During another sortie by the High Seas Fleet on 18 October 1916, Achilles and three other armored cruisers were ordered to patrol the northern end of the North Sea, between the approaches to Pentland Firth and Hardangerfjord in Norway, but they saw no German ships.[12]

On 16 March 1917, Achilles and the armed boarding steamer Dundee were patrolling north of the Shetland Islands when they encountered the disguised German auxiliary cruiser Leopard. The latter ship heaved to when commanded, but maneuvered to prevent Dundee from boarding her and then fired two torpedoes which missed. Dundee retaliated by raking Leopard's stern, badly damaging the German ship and then Achilles opened fire herself. The German ship sank an hour later with no survivors. Achilles was transferred to the North America and West Indies Station in August 1917 for convoy escort duties, but returned to Britain for a refit between February and December 1918. Upon completion of this refit Achilles became a stoker's training ship at Chatham.[9] The ship was sold for scrap on 9 May 1921.



Participate in the Battle of Jutland in 1916, but did sink the German raider Leopard in 1917. Achilles became a training ship in 1918 and was sold for scrap in 1921.



Name:

HMS Achilles

Namesake:

Achilles

Builder:

Armstrong Whitworth, Elswick

Laid down:

22 February 1904

Launched:

17 June 1905

Completed:

22 April 1907

Reclassified:

Training ship, 1918

Fate:

Sold for scrap, 9 May 1921

General characteristics

Class and type:

Duke of Edinburgh-class armoured cruiser

Displacement:

13,550 long tons (13,770 t) (normal)
14,500 long tons (14,700 t) (deep load)

Length:

505 ft 4 in (154.0 m)

Beam:

73 ft 6 in (22.4 m)

Draught:

27 ft 6 in (8.4 m) (maximum)

Installed power:

23,650 ihp (17,640 kW)

Propulsion:

2 shafts, 4-cylinder triple-expansion steam engines
19 Yarrow water-tube boilers and 6 cylindrical boilers

Speed:

23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph)

Range:

7,960 nmi (14,740 km; 9,160 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)

Complement:

712

Armament:

6 x 1 - BL 9.2-inch (234 mm) Mk X guns
4 x 1 - BL 7.5-inch (191 mm) Mk II or Mk V guns
26 x 1 - Vickers QF 3-pounder guns

3 x 1 - submerged 18 in (460 mm) torpedo tubes



Armour:

Belt: 3–6 in (76–150 mm)
Decks: 0.75–1.5 in (19–38 mm)
Barbettes: 3–6 in (76–150 mm)
Turrets: 4.5–7.5 in (110–190 mm)
Conning tower: 10 in (250 mm)

Bulkheads: 2–6 in (51–150 mm)


HMNZS Achilles (70)

HMNZS Achilles (pennant number 70) was a Leander class light cruiser which served with the Royal New Zealand Navy in World War II. She became famous for her part in the Battle of the River Plate, alongside HMS Ajax and HMS Exeter.

She was the second of five ships of the Leander class light cruisers, designed as effective follow-ons to the York class. Upgraded to Improved Leander class, she was capable of carrying an aircraft, becoming the first ship to carry a Supermarine Walrus, although both Walruses were lost before the Second World War began


Service


Achilles was originally built for the Royal Navy; she was commissioned as HMS Achilles on 10 October 1933. She would serve with the Royal Navy's New Zealand Division from 31 March 1937 up to the creation of the Royal New Zealand Navy, into which she was transferred in September 1941 and renamed HMNZS Achilles. Her crew was approximately 60% from New Zealand.

At the outbreak of the Second World War, Achilles began patrolling the west coast of South America looking for German merchant ships, but by 22 October 1939 she had arrived at the Falkland Islands, where she was assigned to the South American Division under Commodore Henry Harwood and allocated to Force G (HMS Exeter and Cumberland).


Battle of the River Plate

In the early morning of 15 December 1939, a force consisting of Achilles, Ajax and Exeter detected smoke on the horizon, which was confirmed at 06:16 to be a pocket battleship, thought to be the Admiral Scheer but which turned out to be the Admiral Graf Spee. A fierce battle ensued, at a range of approximately 20 kilometers (11 nmi). Achilles suffered some damage. In the exchange of fire, four crew were killed, her captain, W. E. Parry, was wounded; 36 of Graf Spee’s crew were killed.

The range reduced to about 4 nautical miles (7.4 km) at around 07:15 and Graf Spee broke off the engagement around 07:45 to head for the neutral harbor of Montevideo which she entered at 22:00 that night, having been pursued by Achilles and Ajax all day. Graf Spee was forced by international law to leave within 72 hours. Faced with what he believed to be overwhelming odds, the captain of the Graf Spee, Hans Langsdorff, scuttled his ship rather than risk the lives of his crew.

See video showing this here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dy_qiaOlHn0 and here:



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TmpIh4P1O-A

Pacific theatre


Following the Atlantic battle, HMS Achilles returned to Auckland, New Zealand on 23 February 1940, where she underwent a refit until June.(See video of this return at the following link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQGZRlABIq0. After Japan entered the war, she escorted troop convoys, and then joined the ANZAC Squadron in the south-west Pacific. While operating off New Georgia Island with US Navy forces, a bomb damaged her X turret on 5 January 1943. Between April 1943 and May 1944, Achilles was docked in Portsmouth, England for repairs. Her damaged X turret was replaced by four QF 2 pounder naval guns. Sent back to the New Zealand Fleet, the Achilles next joined the British Pacific Fleet in May 1945 for final operations in the Pacific War.

Indian Navy


Main article: INS Delhi (1948)

After the war, Achilles was returned to the Royal Navy at Sheerness in Kent, England on 17 September 1946. She was then sold to the Indian Navy and recommissioned on 5 July 1948 as INS Delhi. She remained in service until decommissioned for scrap in Bombay on 30 June 1978. As part of the scrapping her Y turret was removed and presented as a gift to the New Zealand government. It is now on display at the entrance of Devonport Naval Base in Auckland.



Achilles played herself in the film The Battle of the River Plate in 1956



Name:

HMS Achilles

Builder:

Cammell Laird, Birkenhead, England

Laid down:

11 June 1931

Launched:

1 September 1932

Commissioned:

10 October 1933

Out of service:

Loaned to Royal New Zealand Navy 1 October 1936

Fate:

Sold to Indian Navy 5 July 1948

Career (New Zealand)




Name:

HMNZS Achilles

Commissioned:

1 October 1941

Decommissioned:

17 September 1946

Fate:

Returned to Royal Navy 17 September 1946

General characteristics

Class and type:

Leander-class light cruiser

Displacement:

7,270 tons standard
9,740 tons full load (Oct 1945)

Length:

555.5 ft (169.3 m)

Beam:

56 ft (17 m)

Draught:

19.1 ft (5.8 m)

Propulsion:

Four Parsons geared steam turbines
Six Yarrow boilers
Four shafts
73,280 shp

Speed:

32.5 knots (60 km/h)

Range:

5,730 nmi at 13 knots

Complement:

peacetime 550
wartime 680

Armament:

Original configuration:
8[1] × BL 6 inch Mk XXIII naval guns[2]
4 × 4 in guns
12 × 0.5 in machine guns

8 × 21 in torpedo tubes



Armour:

3 in magazine box 1 inch deck

1 inch turrets



Aircraft carried:

Honours and awards:




One catapult-launched aircraft
Original type was a Fairey Seafox
catapult and aircraft later replaced

with Supermarine Walrus

River Plate 1939, Guadalcanal 1942-43, Okinawa 1945[3

Pennant number 70


HMS Achilles (F12)

HMS Achilles (F12) was a Leander-class frigate of the Royal Navy.[1] She was built by Yarrow at Glasgow. She was launched on 21 November 1968 and commissioned on 9 July 1970.[2] Unlike other ships, Achilles would not undergo Exocet modernisation due to the 1981 defense review by John Nott. In 1970, Achilles deployed to the Far East where there was, at that time, a large British naval presence. She escorted a number of larger vessels while there, including Eagle.

In 1974, Achilles joined the 3rd Frigate Squadron, and later that year deployed to the Far East on a nine-month deployment as part of Task Group 317.2. The Task Group (TG) visited a number of African ports on their way to the Far East and Indian Ocean, including South Africa, a visit that caused some controversy back in the UK at the time. The TG visited a variety of ports in the Far East and took part in a number of exercises; Achilles was active as a radio relay vessel during the fall of South Vietnam.

Upon the TG's return from the Far East, they made their way around the Cape of Good Hope to South America where a large exercise with the Brazilian Navy known as, which included Ark Royal, took place. Achilles returned to the UK in June 1975. Later that year, Achilles collided with the Greek tanker Olympic Alliance while in the Dover Strait, causing a number of wounded, as well as heavy damage to Achilles bow. It was later repaired. The following year, Achilles joined the Fishery Protection Squadron during the Third Cod War with Iceland.

After her deployment during the Third Cod War, Achilles went on a number of deployments including to the Persian Gulf as well as being involved in a number of naval exercises. In 1982, Achilles deployed to the West Indies as guard ship. The following year, Achilles deployed to the Falkland Islands to patrol the area in the aftermath of the Falklands War. Later that year Achilles took part in Exercise Orient Express, which took place in the Indian Ocean. She deployed to the Persian Gulf that same year.

By the late 1980s, Achilles career was coming to an end. In 1989 she joined the Dartmouth Training Squadron, and in a busy year became the first RN warship to visit East Germany as well as hosting a Dinner to mark the 50th Anniversary of the Battle of the River Plate. In January 1990, Achilles decommissioned, ending her eventful career, though only with the Royal Navy. However, the name Achilles lives on as TS Achilles, in the British Sea Cadet Corps. In Trowbridge, Wiltshire, England. Sold to Chilean Navy and served in 1991 until 2006 with the name "Ministro Zenteno".

From the year 2006 until late February 2010 was in Reserve. But, by the Earthquake and Tsunami that struck Chile on February 27, 2010, the ship was moved by the force of the sea by several nautical miles from the site in the Talcahuano Naval base, until near the coastal city of Dichato.

In March 2010, the Chilean Navy decided to sink the ship to ensure free navigation on the area where the ship aground. The mission was performed for the crew of the ship " Piloto Pardo"OPV 81, probably opening security valves and explosive charges.

The Former HMS Achilles/Zenteno was sunk in March 2010.-





Name:

HMS Achilles (F12)

Operator:

Royal Navy

Builder:

Yarrow Shipbuilders

Laid down:

1 December 1967

Launched:

21 November 1968

Commissioned:

9 July 1970

Decommissioned:

January 1990

Fate:

Sold to Chilean Navy





Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©kagiz.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət