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Volume 5: Product Identification


Content

Volume 5: Product Identification 1

Grains and Plant Products (excluding Horticultural) 3

Barley 3


Canola 3

Chickpea 3

Field Peas 4

Faba Bean 5

Hay and Straw 5

Lentils 6

Lupins 6

Oats 6


Sorghum 7

Soybeans 7

Timber 8

Rice 8


Cotton 9

Vetch 9


Horticultural Products 11

Apple 11


Apricot 11

Avocado 12

Banana 12

Broccoli 13

Capsicum 13

Carrot 14

Celery 14

Cherry 15

Citrus 15

Cut Flowers 15

Grape 16

Honey Dew 16

Kiwi Fruit 17

Lettuce 18

Mango 18

Nectarine 18

Onion 19

Peaches 20

Pear 20

Persimmon 21



Plum 21

Rockmelon 21

Tomato 22

Watermelon 23



Relevant eLearning Module 23

Questions 23

Grains and Plant Products (excluding Horticultural)

Barley


Scientific name(s) - Family:

Poaceae

Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Hordeum vulgare (or H. vulgare) and other Hordeum spp.

Alternative common name(s):

H. vulgare - Common Barley seed. H. jubatum - Squirreltail grass seed, Foxtail grass seed, Wild barley seed. Cereal seed.

Description:

Barley and wheat seeds look quite similar and can be difficult to differentiate visually. Barley seed has a golden coloured husk. It is boat-shaped with a groove down the centre of one side. The seed is slightly flattened longitudinally on the back making it flatter than a wheat seed. Barley seed is bigger than wheat seed but when the husk is removed ie. pearled barley, it more closely resembles wheat seed.

Different forms:

Whole seeds; pearled barley ie. dehulled and polished; malted barley ie. sprouted and roasted; malt extract; barley flour (by-product of pearling barley).

Uses:

Human consumption (eg. pearl barley, malted barley used in beer production and barley flour); seeds for sowing; animal feed.

Quarantine risks:

Lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica) , rice and maize weevil (Sitophilus spp.), rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), saw toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis) flat grain beetle (Cryptolestes spp.), and carpet beetle (Anthrenus spp.) Smut For more information on grain diseases please access www.padil.com.au and select View Diseases/ Hosts/ Grains

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Hordeum jubatum ie. Wild barley is considered a weed species.

Canola


Scientific name(s) - Family:

Brassicaceae

Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Brassica napus

Alternative common name(s):

Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed

Description:

Canola, is a yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family).

Different forms:

 

Uses:

Canola Oil - Human consumption High protein stock feed Biodiesel - fuel from vegetable oils

Quarantine risks:

Saw toothed grain beetle, rust red flour beetle, angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella) and psocids (Psocoptera) Beet Western Yellow Virus (BWYV) For more information on grain diseases please access www.padil.com.au and select View Diseases/ Hosts/ Grains

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Canola is a cultivar of the rapeseed plant from which rapeseed oil is obtained.Australia has a large Canola industry and Export market

Chickpea


Scientific name(s) - Family:

Leguminosae

Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Cicer arietinum and other Cicer spp.

Alternative common name(s):

Garbanzo beans; legumes; pulses; besan flour (ground chickpeas); chana dahl (split chickpeas); kabuli channa (white chickpeas); kala channa (black chickpeas).

Description:

Two main types of chickpeas are grown: Desi – small and angular with thick seed coats and darker in colour (yellow to brown/black); Kabuli – large rounded seed that is white to cream coloured.

Different forms:

Whole seeds, split (ie. chana dahl), ground (ie. besan).

Uses:

Human consumption; seeds for sowing; animal feed.

Quarantine risks:

Rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) and psocids (Psocoptera). Ascochyta blight

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Contamination – soil/seed/other plant material. General comments: Chickpea is the world’s third most important pulse crop after dried beans and peas. Australia has a significant chickpea industry centred around Goondiwindi, NSW and Southern Queensland. Desi chickpeas are mainly split to form dhal or ground for flour.

Field Peas


Scientific name(s) - Family:

Leguminosae (Subfamily: Faboideae)

Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Pisum sativum

Alternative common name(s):

Legumes; pulses; Garden peas; Green peas; Common peas; Boiler peas; mangetout; snow peas; sugar snap peas; split peas; yellow split peas; green split peas; channa; chana dhal; gram lentils.

Description:

Peas are spherical seeds that grow in a pod. Green peas are the immature seeds. Dried peas are the mature seeds. Removing the thin shell coat from the whole mature seeds produces split peas.

Different forms:

Whole seeds (fresh or dried); split peas (yellow and green); flour.

Uses:

Human consumption; seeds for sowing (whole seed only); animal feed.

Quarantine risks:

Pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum), cowpea weevil (Callosbruchus maculatus) and rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) For more information on grain diseases please access www.padil.com.au and select View Diseases/ Hosts/ Grains

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Split peas may look similar to lentils. Lentils have an even curve on each side of the side whilst split peas have a curve on one side and are flat on the other side The ornamental flower Sweet Pea is a member of the subfamily Faboidae also but belongs to a different genus, Lathyrus spp.

Faba Bean


Scientific name(s) - Family:

Leguminosae

Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Vicia faba

Alternative common name(s):

 

Description:

Most beans are roughly kidney shaped and have an elongated eye where the seed attaches to the inside of the pod.

Different forms:

Whole seeds, ground (ie. flour).

Uses:

Human consumption; seeds for sowing; animal feed; decorative purposes eg. clocks, wall hangings.

Quarantine risks:

Bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus) and Pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Larvae of field insects - including Heliocoverpa spp. which bore into the seeds in the pods For more information on grain diseases please access www.padil.com.au and select View Diseases/ Hosts/ Grains

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Beans as food are used in 3 different ways: entire pod eaten; mature fresh beans removed from pod; dried mature beans.

Hay and Straw


Scientific name(s) - Family:



Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:



Alternative common name(s):

Hay means hay from any pasture plant, wheat, oat, barley, rye, or triticale. Straw means straw from a cereal plant including wheat, oat, barley, rye and triticale but not including straw from rice.

Description:

Hay for export may contain ryegrass. (Lolium spp.)

Different forms:

Triticale is a cereal crop developed by human intervention from crosses between wheat and rye

Uses:

Stockfeed

Quarantine risks:

Psocids (Psocoptera), foreign grain beetle (Ahasverus advena), mould beetles (Corticaria sp. Corynetoxins (CT) means the toxins produced by bacteria Rathayibacter toxicus. Annual Ryegrass Toxicity (ARGT) means the disease in livestock caused by consuming grasses and ryegrasses containing Corynetoxins produced by R. toxicus.

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS The contamination of hay and straw by CT is a major concern for Australian hay and straw exports. CT is a powerful tunicamycin-like poison that infects some annual grasses. CT is produced when the nematode, Anguina spp., carries the bacterial organism, Rathyibacter toxicus (“R. toxicus”), into developing seed heads of some pastoral and cereal plants ELISA means enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay for testing corynetoxin or R.toxicus. These tests have been developed by Western Australia Department of Agriculture and the CSIRO



Lentils


Scientific name(s) - Family:

Leguminosae (Subfamily: Faboideae)

Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Lens culinaris

Alternative common name(s):

Legumes; Pulses Red lentils; split masoor dal; split masoor dhal Brown lentils; green lentils; whole masoor dal; whole masoor dahl. Yellow lentils; toor dal; toor dahl.

Description:

The lentil is a lens shaped seed. Lentils come in a variety of colours: red, brown, green, yellow.

Different forms:

Whole seeds, flour/meal.

Uses:

Human consumption; seeds for sowing; animal feed.

Quarantine risks:

Rice and maize weevils (Sitophilus spp.), rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and cowpea weevil (Callosbruchus maculatus) Heliocoverpa sp. and Etiella larvae bore into the seeds in the pods. Ascochyta blight For more information on grain diseases please access www.padil.com.au and select View Diseases/ Hosts/ Grains

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Lentils are used to make dahl a spiced Indian porridge-like dish. Lentils are closely related to peas, both belonging to the Faboideae subfamily.

Lupins


Scientific name(s) - Family:

Fabaceae

Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Lupinus spp.

Alternative common name(s):

Narrow Leaf Lupins - Stock feed Albus Lupins - Human consumption Yellow Lupins - Stock feed

Description:

Lupins are also cultivated as forage and grain legumes. Phomopsis fungus can cause liver disease in animals.

Different forms:

 

Uses:

Human Consumption Stock Feed Like most members of the Legumes lupins fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into ammonia and hence fertilises the soil for other plants

Quarantine risks:

Cowpea weevil (Callosbruchus maculatus) and rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) Cowpea weevil (Callosbruchus maculatus) and rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) Blight, Wilts

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. The majority of Australian production is L. angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) and more than 80% is grown in Western Australia. L. albus (European white lupin) production in Australia peaked in 1996 prior to the outbreak of the disease anthracnose. Since 1996 most L. albus has been produced in New South Wales where anthracnose has limited distribution.



Oats


Scientific name(s) - Family:

Graminae

Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Avena sativa and other Avena spp.

Alternative common name(s):

Avena fatua Wild oats. Cereal seed. Rolled oats; porridge.

Description:

Oats seed is a long skinny seed compared to wheat and barley seeds. There is a longitudinal groove down one side of the seed. Avena sativa (commonly cultivated species) is a white/cream seed. Avena fatua (Wild oats) is a dark brown coloured hairy seed.

Different forms:

Whole seeds; rolled oats

Uses:

Human consumption (eg. rolled oats); Animal feed; seeds for sowing.

Quarantine risks:

Lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica) , rice and maize weevil (Sitophilus spp.), rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), saw toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis) Loose Smut

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Numerous other diseases of oats may also infect other cereal crops such as wheat and barley.

Sorghum


Scientific name(s) - Family:

Poaceae

Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Sorghum bicolor

Alternative common name(s):

Millet (NB. Millet is a common name that also includes other species that not Sorghum spp.); Broomcorn.

Description:

Sorghum seeds are small hard and spherical, about 3mm in diameter with a small pointed end. Sorghum seed is commonly red/brown in colour but may also be white.

Different forms:

Whole seeds, flour.

Uses:

Human consumption; animal feed; seeds for sowing.

Quarantine risks:

Lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica) , rice and maize weevil (Sitophilus spp.), angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella)Sorghum midge (Contarinia sorghicola) a major pest of sorghum crops – not present in WA Ergot, Covered smut of sorghum

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Sorghum is a staple foodstuff for the human populations of many parts of Asia and Africa, including Ethiopia, Somalia and other countries fringing the Sahara desert where other cereal crops do not grow well. 98% of sorghum usage in developed countries is as animal feed. S. vulgare var. technicum is a sorghum species



Soybeans


Scientific name(s) - Family:

Fabaceae

Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Glycine max

Alternative common name(s):

Soya Bean

Description:

Seed shape varies from spherical to flat and elongated. A wide range of seed sizes exists.

Different forms:

 

Uses:

Human and animal consumption

Quarantine risks:

Seed weevils (Bruchudius spp.) and rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) Stored product pests Contamination – soil/seed/other plant material. Soybean rust disease

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Glycine max, a legume native to China. A major source of vegetable protein and oil for human and animal consumption Industrial uses for soybeans include medicines, soaps and disinfectants, pesticides, fertilizers, candles, varnish, fire extinguisher fluid, and paint.

Timber


Scientific name(s) - Family:



Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:



Alternative common name(s):



Description:



Different forms:



Uses:



Quarantine risks:

Mould beetles (Latridiidae), sap beetles (Nitidulidae) and rove beetles (Staphylinidae)

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS



Rice


Scientific name(s) - Family:

Gramineae

Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Oryza sativa

Alternative common name(s):



Description:

A cereal grass (Oryza sativa) that prefers warm climates.

Different forms:



Uses:

Rice grain is used as a staple food throughout the world.

Quarantine risks:

Rice weevils (Sitophilus spp.), cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne)

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS Rice is viable as long as the embryo (or germ) is still intact. The bran layer and outer husk protect the embryo. Milling the rice grain may partially or fully remove the bran layer. Even after milling, the germ of black (non-glutinous), red and brown rice is often still intact (see image at bottom right) thus maintaining grain viability. Polished white rice and black glutinous rice are not viable as the embryo is removed during milling. It is difficult however to visually differentiate black glutinous & black (non-glutinous) rice. A magnifying handlens or magnifying lamp and a little expertise is required to identify the rice germ on a rice grain. Rice contains high levels of starch.

Cotton


Scientific name(s) - Family:



Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Gossypium

Alternative common name(s):



Description:



Different forms:



Uses:



Quarantine risks:

Pest: Cotton Aphid Disease: Pests Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, and native budworm Helicoverpa punctigera are caterpillars that damage cotton crops. Some other Lepidoptera larvae also feed on cotton - see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Cotton plants. Green mirid (Creontiades dilutus), a sucking insect Spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, T. ludeni and T. lambi Thrips, Thrips tabaci and Frankliniella schultzei Diseases Alterna

General comments:


Vetch


Scientific name(s) - Family:

Fabaceae

Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:

Vicia sativa

Alternative common name(s):

Tare

Description:

Seeds are globose or somewhat compressed, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, smooth, dull or velvety, greenish gray to maroon or black, rarely yellowish white

Different forms:

 

Uses:

Green fodder, hay and as a cover and green-manure crop

Quarantine risks:

Pea weevils (Bruchus spp.), cowpea weevil (Callosbruchus maculatus) and rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella)Stored product pests Aphids Broad bean stain virus (BBSV) Contamination – soil/seed/other plant material.

General comments:

REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Vetch was substituted as lentils in 1997 leading to an enquiry in the Export of split lentils and split vetch - open the website below on Vetch substitution http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt/stories/s22429.htm



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