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The Wonderful World of the Department Store in Historical Perspective: A

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,” American Sociological Association. Paper of the Association. Capitalist productivity is often measured through the effectiveness of the retailing (or distribution) of available consumer commodities. The retail industry faces two essential problems: a pronounced trend toward economic concentration that limits competition & consumer options, and a general economic downturn that has produced lessened retail industry profitability. In one case, Campeau, a British conglomerate, acquired Bloomingdale's, Abraham & Straus, and B. Altman's, and incurred prohibitive debt that resulted in an inability to properly capitalize these large retail businesses. As a result, several potential buyers made offers for Bloomingdale's, B. Altman's has been sold, and Abraham & Straus is experiencing serious economic deficits. Analyzed are: (1) economic concentration in the retailing industry; (2) the role of the department store in a diversified capitalist economy; (3) economic trends in consumer debt and shopping activity; and (4) how retail industry failures reflect contradictory trends in predicting consumer desires vs. capitalist expansion.

Kleinhaus, H. I. (1938), “Why Operating Costs Are Lower in Scandinavian Stores,” Bulletin of the National Retail Dry Goods Association, Vol. 20 (September), pp. 21-22, 74, 76.


Klemke, Lloyd (1982), California Sociologist Vol. 5 (Winter), pp. 88-95. M. O. Cameron's study of shoplifting (The Booster and the Snitch: Department Store Shoplifting, New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1964) is critically reviewed and new data are presented. Cameron's data led her to the conclusion that shoplifters stop shoplifting after being apprehended by store personnel. Self-report data from questionnaires administered to 1,189 California high school students show that many of those apprehended for shoplifting (40%) do not terminate that activity.

Klepper, Michael and Robert Gunther (1996), The Wealthy 100 From Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates A Ranking of the Richest American Past and Present, Secausus, NJ: Citadel Press Book, Carol Publication Group. The book lists a large number of names with a short bibliography. The men of relevance to us are: A. T. Stewart, Marshall Field, Sam Walton, Frank Woolworth, Richard Sears, and others.

“Kleptomania as a Disease and Defense” (1896), American Lawyer, Vol. 4, page 533.

“Kleptomania” (1896), Atlantic Medical Weekly, Vol. 6 (December 26), pp. 401-406.

Knee, Derek (1968), Merchandising Decision Models for Department Stores, Reviewed in Journal of Retailing, Vol. 43 (Winter No. 4), p. 70-71.

Knee, Derek (1985), “Department Stores in the United Kingdom: Struggle for Profitability Today, Survival Tomorrow,” International Trends in Retailing, Vol. 2 (1), pp. 56-63.

Knell, Michael (2000), “Eatons reopens doors with downtown appeal,” Home Textiles Today, Vol. 21 (December 11), pp. 6, 14.

Knell, Michael (2002), “Eatons exits Canadian landscape,” Home Textiles Today, Vol. 23 (February 25 No. 25), p. 10.

Koehn, Nancy (2001), “Marshall Field, 1834-1906,” in Brand New How Entrepreneurs Earned Consumers’ Trust from Wedgwood to Dell, Boston: Harvard business School Press, chapter 4, pp. 91-130. There is also chapter 2 “Josiah Wedgwood, 1730-1795,” pp. 11-42.

Koehn, Nancy (2002), “Marshall Field and the Rise of the Department Store,” Harvard Business School, case 9-801-349, revised December.

Koehn, Nancy (2001), Brand new how entrepreneurs earned consumers’ trust from Wedgwood to Dell, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Kornbluth, Jesse (1979), “The Department Store as Theater," The New York Times Magazine, (April 29), pp. 30-32, 65-66, 68, 72, 74.

“Korvette (The Discounter) Goes Elegantly Suburban” (1956), Sales Management, November 2. Reprinted in Harper Boyd, Richard Clewett and Ralph Westfall eds. (1957), Contemporary American Marketing Readings on the Changing Market Structure, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 123-130.

Kotval, Zenia , John Mullin and Edward Murray (1991), “The Mall Comes to Town,” Economic Development Commentary, Vol. 15 (Summer), pp. 15-21.


Mullin, John, Zenia Kotval and Edward Murray (1991), The Mall Comes to Town: Planning for Its Development,” Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publications Series. Paper 20. Available at: http;//

Kowinski, William S. (1984), The Malling of America An Inside Look at the Great Consumer Paradise, NY: William Morrow.

Kresge, Stanley S. (1957), S. S. Kresge and Its Builder Sebastian Spering Kresge, NY: The Newcomen Society in North America. This is a hardbound copy of a speech given by the author in honor of the founding father of the S. S. Kresge stores.

Kroneberger, Louis (1937), “Dallas In Wonderland,” Fortune, Vol. 17 (November No. 5), pp. 112-120, 200, 202, 204, 206, 209-210. An article on Neiman-Marcus.

Krugman, Paul (1995), Development, Geography, and Economic Theory, MIT Press.

Kumcu, Erdogan (1985), "Historical Analysis of Distribution Systems: An International Research Agenda", in Stanley Hollander and T. Nevitt eds. Marketing in the Long Run, Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Historical Research in Marketing, East Lansing: Michigan State University, pp. 98-111.

Kumcu Erdogan (1987), “A Historical Perspective Framework to Study Consumer Behavior and Retailing Systems,” in M. Wallendorf and Paul Anderson eds. Advances in Consumer Research, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, pp. 439-441.

Kurz, Donald (1982), “A Strategic Look Inside the Department Store,” Retail Control, Vol. 50 (January), pp. 22-30.

Kzauo, Ido (1988), “Technology in a Japanese Department Store,” Retail and Distribution Management, March/April, pp. 9-10.

Labarthe, Jules Jr. (1948), “Development of Commodity Standards for Department Stores,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 24 (April No. 2), pp. 63-68, 80. Retail laboratories using commodity standards Fellowship at Melon Institute of Industrial Research for Kaufman Department Stores, Pittsburgh since January 19, 1931. Over 600 own brand items were tested. Kaufman Fellowship Laboratory not located in house but elsewhere. He was a textile expert.

Labov, William (1997), “The Social Stratification of (r) in New York City Department Stores,” in Adam Coupland, Nikolas and Jaworski eds. Sociolinguistics: A Reader, NY: St Martin’s Press, pp. 168-178. An investigation of the pronunciation of postvocalic [r] as a marker of social status in New York City. Data were collected via casual & anonymous interviews in which researchers would request the location of a department known to be on the fourth floor from customers in a high-, middle-, & low-ranking department store (N= 68 in Saks Fifth Avenue, 125 in Macy's, & 71 in S. Klein's, respectively). When the response fourth floor was received, clarification was requested & resulted in a more emphatic fourth floor. Because previous research indicated that a store's prestige tended to be reflected in the social-class level of its employees, it was hypothesized that postvocalic [r] would be more likely to be present in the speech of employees in the high-ranking store, followed by those in the middle-ranking store. Findings supported this hypothesis.


Labrèche, Stéphane (1999), « Eaton l’heure de vérité, » Commerce, Mars, pp. 32-37.

Lacassagne, Alexandre (1896), “Les vols à l’étalage dans les grands magasins,” Revue de L’Hypnotisme et de la Psychologie Physiologique, Vol. 2 (September), pp. 77ff.

Lacrosse, Jacques, Pierre de Bie and P. Vandromme (1972), Émile Bernheim. Histoire d’un grand magasin, Bruxelles: Labor.

La Dame, Mary (1930), The Filene Store: a study of employes' relation to management in a retail store, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. An excellent book on various issues of managing a large scale department store. Many issues related to a store's operation are presented, along with the store's relation with employees. Filene's many innovations are mentioned such as the Filene Co­Operative Association established late in the 19th c. or early 20thc. The establishment of an Arbitration Board and its subsequent abolishment. The Filene profit sharing plan is presented. The Automatic Basement is presented (pp. 84-85 and 446); many other aspects of managing the store are also discussed.

Laermans, Rudi (1993), "Learning to Consume: Early Department Stores and the Shaping of Modern Consumer Culture 1860-1914," Theory, Culture and Society, Vol. 10 (November No. 4), pp. 79-102.

Lahey, Anita (1996), “Retail Renovations,” Marketing Magazine, June 3, pp. 15, 18. A short article on the Canadian department store scene.

Lainé, André (1911), Les demoiselles de magasin à Paris, Paris: Arthur Rousseau. The book is based on the author’s 1911 Thèse de droit with the title “La situation de femmes employées dans les grands magasins.” It discusses, among other topics, how a woman’s private life affected her ability to hold a job. The rules demanded by store managers were very harsh. For example, if she were found to have an “unsavory” lifestyle, she would be fired. These rules also applied to men workers.

Laird, Gordon (2009), The Price of a Bargain The Quest for Cheap and the Death of Globalization, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.

“La journée d’une demoiselle de magasins” (1907), Lectures Pour tous.

Lally, Elizabeth Hale (1939), "The Big Department Stores: The Advertising Manager's Job," in Blanche Clair and Dorothy Dignam eds. Advertising Careers for Women, NY: Harper and Brothers. This book is from a series of 22 lectures on advertising vocations presented by the Philadelphia Club of Advertising Women.

Lam, Shawn (1999), “The Adventurers in Retailing,” in Barbara Austin ed. Proceedings of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, Marketing History Division, Saint John, New Brunswick, June Vol. 20 (24), pp. 62-73. A paper on the Hudson’s Bay Company, store management and Patrick Joseph Parker.

Lambert, Richard S. (1938), The Universal Provider, A Study of William Whiteley and the Rise of the London Department Store, London: George G. Harrap. The life story and tragic death of William Whiteley, the entrepreneur-merchant who gave London her first department store. The book has a number of interesting illustrations. On the inside cover page a quote from Aldous Huxley who once said, "I'll get you a hedgehog at once, they're sure to have some at Whiteley."


Lampugnani, Vittorio Magnago and Lutz Harwig eds. Lift Escalator: A Cultural History of Vertical Transport, Berlin: Ernst and Sohn. This book of reading is on vertical transport and many pages are devoted to the department store and the use of elevators and escalators. Some of the articles are quite fascinating to read. The overall problem with the book is that the written English is rather poor. An editor should have been used to make the articles more readable.

Lancaster, Bill (1995), The Department Store: A Social History, London: Leicester University Press. This book provides good information about the history of department stores but there is an emphasis on the development of British department stores. The book was reviewed by Nancy Klos (1997), Canadian Journal of Urban Research, Vol. 6 (December No. 2), pp. 208-210. The book was also reviewed by Susan Porter Benson (1997), Journal of American History, Vol. 84 (September No. 2), pp. 674-675. Michael Miller (1996), Journal of Social History, Vol. 30 (Winter No. 2), pp. 527-528. Mark Liddiard (1997), British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 48 (March No. 1), pp. 158-159. Michael Winstanley (1996), Business History, Vol. 38 (October No. 4), pp. 96-97. Leigh Sparks (1996), Journal of Macromarketing Vol. 16 (Fall), pp. 115-116.

Lancaster, H. V. (1913), “The Design and Architectural Treatment of the Shop,” Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Vol. 61. pp. 577-589. An article that discusses the design and architecture of Harrod’s, the London department store.

Landau, Sarah Bradford and Carl Condit (1996), Rise of the New York Skyscraper 1865-1913, New Haven: Yale University Press. The A. T Stewart store is discussed as one of many buildings that led to the development of the skyscraper (pp. 7-9 and 43-44).

Landes, David (1949), "French Entrepreneurship and Industrial Growth in the Nineteenth Century", Journal of Economic History, Vol. 9 (May), pp. 45-61. While the article does not have much to say about the department store, it shows the way a typical economist treats the French entrepreneurs in general. In fields other than part of the distributive trades (service sector).

Lapointe, Patricia (1993), “The Goldsmith’s A Memphis Department Store Family, West Tennessee Historical Society Papers., Vol. 47, pp. 1-10.

Larke, Roy (1994), Japanese Retailing, London and NY: Routledge, chapter 6: “Department Stores: Traditional Large-Format Retailing,” pp. 165-194. His list of refs at the end (pp. 246-266) contains a number of refs on the department store but they were in Japanese and are not include here.

Lasègue, Charles (1879), “Le vol aux étalages,” L'Union Médicale December.

Latham, Frank B. (1972), 1872-1972 A Century of Serving Customers: The Story of Montgomery Ward, Chicago: Montgomery Ward Co.

Laudet, Fernand (1933), La Samaritaine, le génie et la générosité de deux grands commerçants, Paris: Dunod. This is the history of this French department store, which began in Paris in 1870.

Lavertu, Shirley (2002), “Le catalogue: vehicule de la mode,” Cap-aux-Diamants, No. 68 (Winter), page 53.


Lavin, William and A.T. Hollingsworth (1990), “Woolworth Corporation: A Case of Creativity in Action,” Review of Business of the Business Research Institute of St. John’s University, Vol. 12 (No. 2), pp. 39-47.

Laurenson, Helen B. (2005), Going Up Going Down The Rise and Fall of the Department Store, Auckland, NZ: Auckland University Press. This 165 page book is on the history of the department store, but it’s not clear if it only applies to NZ.

Larvor, Dominique, François Menicot, Hélène Chandeler et Gilles Viau (1987), Hypermarchés, Horizon 1995, Collection : Les Dossiers Distribution-Vente, Paris : Chotard et Associés. Much information was obtained from LSA (libre service actualité) and Points de Vente French trade magazines. Trujilio is mentioned in this book. The book is not well structured and not well written. Its value is questionable for academic work. It covers retail distribution in France from when the first hypermaeket opened in 1963 by Carrefour in Annecy, suburb of Paris called Sainte Genevièvre des Bois to today (i.e. approx. 1985). The authors are sure it was a French invention. They give the impression that self-service was also a recent techological innovation. Pages 101 to 108 discusses retail/supplier relations and outlined who has the power.

Lawrence, Carl (1982), “The Hudson’s Bay—Simson’s-Sears Merger: Economic and Social Perspectives,” in Stanley J. Shapiro and Louise Heslop eds. Marketplace Canada Some Controversial Dimensions, Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, pp. 150-174.

Lawrence, Jeanne C. (1990), “Steel Frame Architecture versus the London Building Regulations: Selfridges, the Ritz, and American Technology,” Construction History, Vol. 6, pp. 23-45. The author discusses Harry Selfridge and his quest to build a London department store. The article says that in order to construct the enormous, technically advanced department store Selfridge envisioned, he had to overcome the obstacles that prevented him to build the type of store he wanted. The building codes in force in London at the end of the 19th century prevented him from doing so. Until fate brought him to London, he had worked for Marshall Field for many years and was familiar with American steel frame and reinforced concrete construction methods. But such methods were largely unknown in Britain at the end of the 19th c, according to Lawrence, and they were mistrusted. The Ritz Hotel constructed in the mid 1890s used steel frame but had to abide by the codes under the provisions of the old Building Act of 1894. The steel frame was covered in masonry to the specified thickness. However, Selfridge’s design could not respect this way of erecting his department store. His department store could not adhere to the code because of the wide plate glass windows, which gave it a near absence of external walls. Nevertheless he persevered and his engineering approach brought on a new architectural paradigm to the London business district. Selfridge was able to build his Chicago-style department store, the first such store in Britain and perhaps in Europe. Not only was he able to build his store but he was instrumental in having the new London Building Act reforms of 1908, the same year his department store opened. His determination paid off because their passage made it possible for other builders to use modern structural engineering methods that Selfrige had brought with him from the US.

Lawrence, Jeanne C. (1992), "Geographical Space, Social Space, and the Realm of the Department Store," Urban History, Vol. 19, pp. 64-83. The article is a case study of the Higbee Company of Cleveland, Ohio. This department store is presented as it operated in the early to mid 20th century. The store is discussed as part of a hierarchy of other stores in a context of a complex changing urban environment.

Lazarus, Arthur (1926), Department Store Organization, NY: Dry Goods Economist.


Lazarus (1947), Lazarus, Columbus, Ohio. A 47-page booklet available only at the main public library in Columbus, Ohio (ref #OH 381.45 L431 and OH 977.13C72cdi). The booklet celebrates Lazarus's 96th year of founding in Columbus in 1851. The Columbus library has four documents on Lazarus, one of which is a binder full of newspaper clippings and mostly local magazine articles, some dating back to the early part of the 20th c. Was this department store progressive and innovative? The answer appears to be no. Escalators, air conditioning, parking, branch stores, etc. appeared later than in other department stores. Perhaps the use of electricity in the store by using Lazarus’ own power station, the weather reporting service offered in the early 1900, the installation of the soda fountain, or the selling of radio equipment in 1922 can be considered innovative. Attempts were made at the Lazarus executive office in Columbus in July of 2001 and July of 2002 to obtain more historical information about this famous Columbus department store with no success. It seems that a history of this department store has yet to be written or if one exists, it was privately published and thus not easily available. In 2003, the store was part of FDS but was purchased by Macy, and is now called Lazarus-Macy. Soon though, the Lazarus name will disappear. Another department store bites the dust.

Lazarus, Fred Jr. (1954), “A Retailer Looks at Marketing,” presented before a meeting of the National Industrial Conference Board, September 24. Reprinted and excerpted as "Meeting Discount House Competition” in John Wingate and Arnold Corbin eds. (1956), Changing Patterns in Retailing Readings on Current Trends, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 123-126.

Lazarus, Fred Jr. (1954), “Department Store Selling Techniques Must be Improved,” Vital Speeches,” Vol. 21 (October 15), pp. 796-799.

Lazarus, Fred (1954), “Take Your Ideas to department stores,” Coronet, Vol. 35 (January), pp. 30-33.

Lazarus, Fred Jr. (1957), Up from the Family Store: Federated Department Stores, NY: Newcomen Society. An address given by Fred Lazarus dealing with the history of Federated Department store delivered in Cincinnati Ohio on October 24, 1957 before a meeting of Business University and Industrial leaders. The booklet is 16 pages of text.

Lazarus, Fred Jr. (1958), “The Department Store’s Great Opportunities,” Stores, Vol. 40 (February), pp. 12-14. An address he gave at the closing session of the NRMA Convention on January 9th. He was then Chairman of the Board, FDS.

Lazer, William and Robert Wyckham (1969), “Perceptual Segmentation of Department Store Markets,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 45 (Summer No. 2), pp. 3-11.

Leach, William (1984), “Transformations in a Culture of Consumption: Women and Department Stores, 1890-1925,” Journal of American History, Vol. 71 (September), pp. 319-342.

Leach, William (1989), True Love and Perfect Union: The Feminist Reform of Sex and Society, second edition, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. The first edition was published by Basic Books in 1980. The book is an historical wonder on the social history of women in the nineteenth century. Leach discusses various social movements (i.e. positivism, scientific revolution, etc) that transformed the role (and occupational status) of women in American society. Chapter 9 "The Bee and the Butterfly: Fashion and the Dress Reform Critique of Fashion" (pp. 213-60), discusses the role played by department stores in making women fashion conscious and developing a culture of consumption. It also has an excellent discussion of the


impact department stores had in other areas. A. T. Stewart is discussed (among other merchants), and we see a side of him not presented elsewhere. The book has over 75 pages of footnotes (11 pages in chapter 9 alone) with most of them from the 1850s to late 1890s. It is interesting to note that even though A. T. Stewart, R. H. Macy, Marshall Field, Potter Palmer, and many others are discussed, the word "marketing" does not appear once in the book.

Leach, Williams (1989), "Strategists of Display and the Production of Desire," in Simon Bronner ed. Consuming Visions, Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920, NY: W. W. Norton, pp. 99-132. An historical account of store displays and shop window mannequins, and, in general, the art of visual merchandising as used by retailers. For e.g. women’s clothes were displayed using headless/armless mannequins, then full life wax figures were used. He discusses a number of artists who were masters at displays, such as Culin, Urban, Kratz, and Baum. His focus is more in the 1910s and 1920s then the late 19th c. My only concern about the article is that it’s too US focused with nothing much from Europe as if they were not as creative or innovative. In fact, he does not discuss at all previous attempts at visual merchandising done in London or Paris shops and European department stores at the turn of the century. “Leach explains major changes in retail practices and the rise of the urban retail store in the late 19th century. He outlines a cultural shift from a "Land of Comfort" in which Americans were surrounded by natural abundance and restraint to a "Land of Desire" centered on accumulation and the creation of wants and desires by advertisers and store windows. A key element in this shift was the use of electric lighting, colored glass, realistic mannequins, and music to transform a shop into a "retail environment,"creating a spectacle and attracting potential customers. John Wanamaker of Philadelphia, in particular, was a major innovator in the use of these modern techniques. Leach expanded greatly on these points in his 1993 Land of Desire.”

Leach, William (1993), Land of Desire Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture, NY: Pantheon Books. The author puts the department store at the center of American cultural history. The book analyzes the rise of department store at the end of the 19th century and its effect on values and the consumption behavior of consumers to modern times. The book is well documented with almost 100 pages of notes accompanying this textbook of 500 pages.

Lears, T.J. Jackson (1983), "From Salvation to Self-Realization, Advertising and the Therapeutic Roots of the Consumer Culture, 1880-1930", in Richard W. Fox and T.J. Jackson Lears (eds.) The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History, 1880-1980, NY: Patheon Books, pp. 1-38.

“Leased Departments” (1961), Stores (October), pp. 8-16, 46-52.

“Leased Departments” (1964), Stores (July-August), p. 31.

LeBel, Alyne (1988), “Une vitrine populaire : les grands magasins Paquet,” Cap-aux-Diamants, Vol. 4 No. 2 (décembre), pp. 45-48.

Lebel, Jean-Marie (1995), “La capitale prise d’assaut Québec sous l’invasion des ‘5-10-15’,” Cap-aux-Diamants, No. 40 (Winter), pp. 52-56.

“Le Bon Marché,” (1924), l’Architecture.

Lebhar, Godfrey (1963), Chain Stores in America, 1859-1962, 3rd edition, New York: Chain Store Publishing Corporation. The first edition was published in 1952 with the time period 1859-1950. The second edition was published in 1959 (1859-1959).


Lederman, Martin (1949), “The Future of the Department Store,” Stores, Vol. 31 (April), pp. 19-20, 58, 60, 62, 63.

Leeds, Herbert (1961), "The Department Store is Here to Stay", Department Store Economist, Vol. 24 (July No. 7), pp. 24-26, 30.

“Le grand magasin et le magasin populaire prennent l’offensive,” (1974), L. S. A. (24 janvier), pp. 70-82. (Libre-Service Actualités, a French trade magazine).

Legutko, Ryszard (2002), Society as a Department store Critical Reflections on the Liberal State (Religion, Politics, and Society in the New Millennium, Lanham, Md: Lexington Books. Society as a department store.

Lehman, Helen Mary and Beulah Elfreth Kennard (1922)

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