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The Wonderful World of the Department Store in Historical Perspective: A

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Published 1918 as one of the Department store merchandise manuals under the title. The house furnishings department.”

Hutter, Mark (1987), "The Downtown Department Store as a Social Force," The Social Science Journal, Vol. 24. (July Number 3), pp. 239-246.

Hutton, N. H. (1876), “Fire-Proof Construction,” American Architect, Vol. 1 (February 5), pp. 43-44. This reference was obtained “somewhere” but I looked for it in the Fine Arts Library at OSU (under lock and key: rare book collection), but the article was not there!

Hyde, Linda and William R. Davidson (1984), Future Stores of the ‘Big Four, The RIS Retail Focus/Critical Issue Series (November), Columbus, OH: Management Horizons.


Hypps, Frank Thomson (1937), “The Department Store: A Problem of Elephantiasis,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 193 (September), pp. 70-87. A review and discussion of the problems facing the department store industry.

Iarocci, Louisa M. (2003), "Spaces of Desire: The Department Store in America," PhD dissertation, Boston University.

Idoux, Raymond (1995), “Marchandises en vedette: Eaton et l’imagerie commerciale,” Cap-aux-Diamants, No. 40 (Winter), pp. 48-51.

Iglauer, Jay (1944), “Department Store Distribution,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 8 (January), pp. 326-328.

“Illinois Department Store Bill (1897), Chicago Dry Goods Reporter, Vol. 27 (April 3), page 10. Tarr (1971) quotes “In no other city of Illinois does the department store exist as it is in Chicago. Until this evil…becomes more widespread, it is not probable that many State legislatures will take it into serious consideration.” In the April 17 issue “Ebb of Department Store Fight,” Tarr reports this quote “The great consuming public has no quarrel with an institution which it believes to have been instrumental in reducing the cost of living,” (pp. 9-10). The April 17 issue reports that on April 8, the anti-department store bill failed in the house by a vote of 63 to 77. The following quote was made in the Tarr article: “It is no crime to sell dry goods and shoes under one roof, and the department store stands vindicated.” This last quote reminds me of the series of retail and manufacturing restrictions imposed in Parisian business from the 13th to the 18th c. as reported by Franklin (1894) where the state restricted who could make what, who could buy from whom and who could sell to whom in order to protect apprenticeship system in place (guilds). It was France’s way of dictating the roles and positions in this pre-industrial, pre-market capitalistic society.

Imoto, Shogo (1993), “Department Store Depression (Hyakkaten fushin),” Nikkei Business, June pp. 5-12.

Imus, Harold (1961), “Projecting Sales Potentials for Department Stores in Regional Shopping Centers,” Economic Geography, Vol. 37 (January No. 1), pp. 33-41. Reprinted in Ronald Gist ed. (1967), Management Perspectives in Retailing, NY: John Wiley, pp. 207-220. The article is a step-by-step example of how to estimate the trade area (i.e. sales potential) of department stores by focusing on the geographical distribution of income data with the important notion of primary and secondary trading areas.

Ingels, Margaret (1952), Willis Haveland Carrier: Father of Air Conditioning, Garden City, NJ: See pp. 107-170, "a chronological table of events which led to modern air conditioning, 1500-1952." Also, Eugene Ferguson (1976), “A Historical Sketch of Central Heating, 1800-1860,” in Charles Peterson ed. Building Early America: Contributions toward the History of a Great Industry Radnor, PA: Chilton Book, pp. 165-185. The article discusses only household heating and has no reference to the department store or other commercial buildings. The reference list is a good. Specifically, Ferguson says "precursors of cooling and air conditioned will be found throughout the nineteenth century, that is a subject whose early history has not yet been traced" (p. 183).

Ingene, Charles and Robert Lusch (1980), “Market Selection Decisions for Department Stores,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 56 (Fall), pp. 21-40.


Ingene, Charles and Robert Lusch (1999), "Estimation of a Department Store Production Function," International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 29 (No.7/8), pp. 453-464.

Ingersoll, W. H. (1920), “Can the Middleman Be Eliminated?,” Marketing, January, February, March. Reprinted in part as “The Department Store Aims to Eliminate the Jobber (Wholesaler),” in Ivan Wright and Chas. Landon eds. (1926), Readings in Marketing Principles, NY: Prentice-Hall, pp. 314-315.

“Inside Sears, Roebuck and Co.” (1965), Printers’ Ink, October 22, p. 15-30. See also Sears’ Suppliers (1965), Financial World, November 5, pp. 5ff.

International Association of Department Stores/Association internationale des grands magasins, Annual Reports, France: Paris.

International Correspondence School (1909), I.C.S. Reference Library, Vol. 205, Scranton, International Textbook Company. “Advertisement display--Mediums--Retail management--Department-store management.”

Ireland, H. I. (1918), Department Store Advertising, Scranton, PA: International Textbook Press. There was a 1919 and 1926 edition with and Edward Schulze.

Irvine, F. Owen, Jr. (1981), “The Influence of Capital Costs on Inventory Investment: Time-Series Evidence for a Department Store,” Quarterly-Review of Economics and-Business, Vol. 21 (Winter No. 4), pp. 25-44.

Israel, Fred ed. (1968), Sears Roebuck Catalogue, introduction SJ Perelman and Richard Rovere, NY: Chelsea House.

Ivins, O. and H. Troy (1990), “We need department store and boutique serials vendors,” Serials Librarian, Vol. 17 (No. 3-4), pp. 99-106.

Jackson, Kenneth (1996) “All the World’s a Mall: Reflections on the Social and Economic Consequences of the American Shopping Center,” American Historical Review, Vol. 101 (October No. 4), pp. 1111-1121.

Jacobs, Laurence (1963), "Organizing Non-Procuring Merchandising Function in Branch Department Stores," Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Columbus: The Ohio State University (William R. Davidson, adviser).

James, Anthony (1950), “Consumer Revolution,” Journal of Property Management, Vol. 15 (March No. 3), pp. 184-192. He calls department stores merchandise museums “catering to those who can afford the luxury of their atmosphere and service” (p. 192). These will be replaced by discount stores, or those stores that can offer “a standard product and a standard value but at a sacrifice in comfort and convenience” (p. 189).

James, Daniel (1959), “Sears, Roebuck’s Mexican Revolution,” Harper’s Magazine, June, pp. 2ff.

James, Kathleen (1997), Erich Mendelsohn and the Architecture of German Modernism, NY: Cambridge University Press. The book discusses Mendelsohn, the great German architect, who built not only department stores but many other types of stores including, office buildings,


theaters, and the famed Einstein Tower, and so forth. But he is better known as the German department store architect. The book is dry to read and the references are, as expected in German. The book was selected because Coles (1999) stated that the previous guru of German architecture, Alfred Messel, had built his Wertheim department store in the 1870s, as claimed. Yet according to James, it was in 1904, which would put the department store industry considerably behind relative to other European, US, and Canadian department store merchants (e.g. Stewart, Boucicaut, Field, Chauchard, Wanamaker, Cognacq, Lehmann, Eaton, etc.). Chapter 5 is interesting because it links advertising with architecture and says that advertising in Germany “expanded enormously during the second half of the twenties. Yet Coles (1999) gave the impression that it was in the late 19th c. Chapter 6 is on the department store and Mendelsohn and is a must to read. Page 208 discusses the Nazi hatred for the department store but does not state that many were burnt down as a result of that ideology in the 1930s. Note that the German controversy over the department store coincided with the early 1930s USA and Canada’s government investigations of the economic impact of large scale retailing on small retailers and prices, notably the chain store and the department store chain.

James, Kathleen (1999), “From Messel to Mendelsohn: German Department Store Architecture in Defence of Urban and Economic Change,” in Geoffrey Crossick and Serge Jaumain eds. Cathedrals of Consumption The European Department Store, 1850-1939, Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 252-278.

James, Peter (1992), “Retailing in Hungary: Centrum Department Store,” International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, Vol. 20 (No. 6), pp.

Janet, Pierre (1911), “La Kleptomanie et la dépression mentale,” Journal de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique, Année 8, pp. 97-103.

Jansen, Frans (1993), “Distribution of Ready-Made Clothing in the Twentieth Century in the Netherlands,” Textile History, Vol. 24 (Spring No. 1), pp. 105-115.

“Japan’s Big Department Store” (1908), Dry Goods Economist, October 31, pp. 38-39.

“Japanese executive sees a frugal future at department stores” (1994), Wall Street Journal, (Eastern edition) December 2, p. A9A.

Jaros, Alfred (1944), “Department Store Air Conditioning,” The Architectural Record, Vol. 96 (November), page 97.

Jarry, Paul (1948), Les magasins de nouveautés: histoire rétrospective et anecdotique, Paris: André Barry et fils. The book has 32 illustrations, some of which have appeared in other books but some are quite original. For example on page 81, an ad (perhaps a loose leaf one) for La Belle Jardinière on opening day (October 25, 1824) informing the public that the store had fixed prices. The author traces such stores from the 13th c. and beyond. The book is quite hard to find.

Jaumain, Serge (1995) Les petits commerçants belges face à la modernité (1880-1914), Brussels: Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles.

Jay, Martin (2003), “Dream Kitsch and the Debris of History: An Interview with Martin Jay,” Journal of Consumer Culture, Vol. Vol. 3 (March No. 1), 109-120. Consumption behavior and the department store are discussed.


Jaycox, Emily (2002), “The Bygone Era of Dining Out in St Louis,” Gateway Heritage, Vol. 23 (2), pp. 32-40. The article has 14 illustrations including dining in department stores among other places.

“J. C. Penney 100th Anniversary: A Century of Progress” (2002), Chain Store Age, Vol. 78 (June), pp. 54-55.

Jeacle, Ingrid (2003), “Accounting and the construction of the standard body,” Accounting, Organizations and Society, Vol. 28, pp. 357-377.

Jefferys, James B. (1954), Retail Trading in Britain 1850-1950, London: Cambridge University Press. This is a voluminous book of 500 pages. It traces British retailing from 1850 to 1950, not only in general but by trade area as well (i.e. grocery, meat, milk, clothing, footwear, furniture, etc.). In each trade area, Jefferys gives an account of the role played by department stores (as well as other types of retail stores) in selling the particular type of goods in question. His main goal was to show "the importance of these trades in the social structure and economy in general" (page XV). He also makes a clear distinction between the retail trade before 1914, from 1914 to 1939, and from 1939 to 1950, with three separate chapters analyzing the distributive trades (part of the service sector) of each period (i.e. chapters 1 to 3). Finally, he has a neat chapter (chapter 4), which looks at the development of large scale retailing from 1850-1950. Much information on department stores is contained in this book. See pages 161-162, 325-326 on cash handling systems.

Jefferys, James and Derek Knee (1962), Retailing in Europe Present and Future Trends, London: Macmillan, pp. 59-62. The book has a short discussion on the department store, along with other retailing format. The authors say that the department store began to appear in Germany from 10 to 20 years after they first appeared in Paris and London in the 1860s and the 1870s. The only exception was in Rome when by 1914, the city still did not have any.

Jefferys, James and Derek Knee (1988), The Policies of European Department Stores in the Past Decade, changes in commercial policies and the strategy of diversification, Essex, UK: Longman Group. Harlow: Longman in association Oxford Institute of Retail Management.

Jenista, Robert (1927), “Development of Retail Delivery,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 3 (April No. 1).

Jensen, Joan (1984), “Needlework as Art, Craft, and Livelihood Before 1900,” in Joan Jensen and Sue Davidson eds. A Needle, A Bobbin, A Strike: Women Needleworkers in America, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 3-19. The article provides excellent historical facts as to why department stores were so successful in selling ready to wear clothes (dry goods), a major reason of their success.

Jeuck, John edited (1966), "Richard Warren Sears Cheapest Supply House on Earth," in Daniel Boorstin ed. An American Primer, Vol. 2 Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 551-559.

Jeune, M. (1895), “The Ethics of Shopping,” Forthnightly Review, Vol. 63 (Jan 1), pp. 124-125.

Jin, Byoungho and Byungsook Hong 2004), “Consumer Susceptibility to Salesperson Influence in Korean Department Stores,” Journal of International Consumer Marketing, Vol. 17 (1), pp. 33-53.


Johnson, Curtiss S. (1964), The Indomitable R. H. Macy, NY: Vantage Press.

Johnson, Denis B. (1991),"Structural Features of West Edmonton Mall," Canadian Geographer, pp. 249-261.

Johnson, Hubert (2000), “Book review of Geoffrey Crossick and Serge Jaumain eds. Cathedrals of Consumption,”Canadian Journal of History, Vol. 35 (December), pp. 562-563.

Johnson, Jay (1999), “Kmart’s Solution,” Discount Merchandiser, November, pp. 27, 28, 30-33.

Johnston, John W. (1969), The Department Store Buyer A View from Inside the Parent-Branch Complex, Studies in Marketing No. 12, Bureau of Business Research, University of Texas at Austin.

Johnson, Lawrence, edited by Marcia Ray (1961), Over the Counter and on the Shelf, Country Store Keeping in America 1620-1920, Rutland, Vermont: C.E. Tuttle.

Johnson, Val Marie (2009), “‘Look for the Moral and Sex Sides of the Problem’: Investigating Jewishness, Desire, and Discipline at Macy’s Department Store, New York City, 1913,” Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 18 (September), pp. 457-485.

Jolly, Florence (1997), “Théophile Bader et la création des Galeries Lafayette,” in Jacques Marseille ed. La révolution commerciale en France du Bon Marché à l’Hypermarché, Paris: Le Monde-Éditions, pp. 91-99.

Jonassen, C. T. (1952), Downtown Versus Suburban Shopping A Study of Attitudes Toward Parking and Rekated Conditions, December, Columbus, OH: Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University. The report was submitted to the National Research Council Highway Research Board. A study of consumer practices and attitudes on downtown versus suburban shopping in Columbus, Ohio in order to find out which factors attract or repel customers from shopping in either location. Jonassen was a sociology professor and was helped by Prof. Maynard for this study, along with others. The scales used to measure shopping preferences are unique.

Jonassen, C. T. (1955), The Shopping Center Versus Downtown: A Motivation Research on Shopping Habits and Attitudes, Columbus, OH: Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University.

Jones, A. Tillman (1980), “The Burdine Heritage,” Update, published by the Historical Association of Southern Florida, Vol. 7 (November No. 4).

Jones, Edward (1913), “Some Propositions Concerning University Instruction in Business Administration,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 21 (March No. 3), pp. 185-195. Jones, Eric (1973), “The Fashion Manipulators: Consumer Tastes and British Industries, 1660-1800,” in Louis Cain and Paul Uselding eds. Business Enterprise and Economic Changes: Essays in Honor of Harold F. Williamson, Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, pp. 201-207.

Jones, Fred (1936), “Retail Stores in the United States 1800-1860,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 1 (October), pp. 134-142. A review of general stores and department stores. He gives a good definition of what is a department store vs. a general store or a specialty store. He gives a rather long quote on how goods were displayed and arranged (see pp. 137-138). But is the time period acceptable?


Jones, Fred (1937), Middlemen in the Domestic Trade of the United States, 1800-1860, Urbana: University of Illinois Press. This publication discusses retailing development of the time and includes a few pages on the department store. The sections on various retailing institutions, including department stores, are reproduced in Stanley J. Shapiro and Alton Doody eds. (1968) Readings in the History of American Marketing, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 285-294.

Jones, Fred (1954), “The Development of Marketing Channels in the United States to 1920,” in Richard Clewett ed. Marketing's Role in Scientific Management, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 35-64, especially from p. 55.

Jones, Kathleen W. (1980), “Mother’s Day: The Creation, Promotion and Meaning of a New Holiday in the Progressive Era,” Texas Studies in Literature and Language, Vol. 22 (Summer No. 2), pp. 175-196. While the department store per se did not invent Mother’s Day, this institution popularized and institutionalized this day in America due to the marketing efforts of Wanamaker, among others.

Jones, Kenneth and James Simmons (1990), The Retail Environment, London: Routledge. The authors pesent retaling form a locational geiographical perspetive. The book has lots of Canadian content given that both authors are from Toronto. The department store is often mentioned through out the book and the authors provide original insights as to why the department store has lost market share. The book avoids the 4P approach that far too many retail books have adopted. It is a solid macro-oriented book on retailing the authors show the complexity of locational retail analysis. The book’s description by the publishers: “Despite its great size and importance within the economy, the retail sector is controlled by a relatively small number of retail chains, shopping centre developers and government agencies. At the same time retail activities and commercial services are a significant and visible part of our social system-they both reflect and shape our preferences, lifestyle and more. We are what we consume, and our comsumption priorities describe our society; but these preferences are mediated through the actions of such institutions and organizations as the chains, shopping plazas and urban planners, acting either jointly or in competition. This book describes and explains retailing with a particular emphasis on the problem of store location and on the spatial supply side. The text is divided into four parts and in part one the student is introduced to the basic principles and components of the retail system. The spatial pattern of demand is emphasized, but income and demographics are discussed as well. The chapter on the supply side looks at the corporate composition of retailing in some detail, stressing the degree of concentration in the industry. A final chapter introduces the study of consumer behaviour. Part 2 describes the spatial structure of retail activity, at both the settlement and intra­urban scale, but always with an eye on the location decisions of retail chains and developers. The complementary chapters on the directions and processes of change in retail structure introduce new topics and themes and lay the framework for later applied studies. In part 3, retail structure is examined from the viewpoint of business, introducing many of the most widely used procedures in store location studies. Students are urged to evaluate these techniques in terms of the retail chain's strategies and requirements. How much information and model building is appropriate for a new chain that is moving into a rapidly growing market? Finally, part 4 takes a brief look at the policy implications of retail activities and the possible direction for change in the retail system of tomorrow.”

Jones, Robert (1958), “Objectives and Basic Principles of M.M.A.,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 34 (Spring), pp. 2-15. A review of MMA (merchandise management accounting), a cost control procedure developed for department stores and other types of retailer operations.


Jones, Robert (1973), “Mr. Woolworth’s Tower: The Skyscraper as Popular Icon,” Journal of Popular Culture,” Vol. 7 (Fall No.2), pp. 408-424.A good article on the Woolworth building, even though the building was not a department store, it was built by a retailing giant, who supervised a lot of the building’s construction. He wanted to have his very own “cathedral of commerce,” as the building was called, much in the same way as Stewart and other department store entrepreneurs built their own buildings. Is it a trait to have retail giants immortalize their achievement via a building?

Jordan Marsh and Company (1991), Jordan, Marsh Illustrated Catalog of 1891: An Unabridged Reprint, Athenaeum of Philadelphia, NY: Dover Publications.

Jordy, William (1972), American Buildings and Their Architects: Progressive and Academic Ideals at the Turn of the Twentieth Century, NY: Oxford University Press. The author offers a favorable opinion of the Chicago Carson Pirie department store (on pp. 135-164) and Louis Sullivan as the architect. The book was reprinted in 1986.

Jordy, William (1986), “The Tall Buildings,” in Wim de Wit ed. Louis Sullivan: The Function of Ornament, NY: W. W. Norton. The author offers a favorable opinion of the Chicago Carson Pirie department store (on pp. 128-137), and Louis Sullivan as the architect.

Journal of Commerce (1946), “Sales by Department Stores New Trend in Distribution,” April 29. Reference from Tracey (1949).

Journal of Retailing (1928), “A Roman Department Store,” Vol. 4 (July No. 2), pp. 12-13. The short note discusses the excavation of an ancient nine story high department store in Via Maganapoli adding on page 13 “that a full fledged department store existed in Rome centuries before the Christian era naturally makes one wonder how many more present-day inventions and organizations are merely modern reincarnation of devices that were in common use back in forgotten ages.” Of course, all of this is pure nonsense written by an overoptimistic journalist. The building might well have been real, but to conclude that it was erected as a department store insinuating that it was managed as a department store of the mid-19th c. and beyond is garbage.

Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (1999), “Julius Rosenwald: The Great American Philanthropist Who Decided What Blacks Should Teach,” No. 24 (Summer), pp. 52-55.

Journal of Retailing (1928), “Department Store Services to Customers,” Vol. 3 (January No. 4).

Judelle, Beatrice ed. (1952), The Organization and Operation of Branch Stores, NY: National Retail Dry Goods Association.

Judelle, Beatrice (1962), “National Brands and Private Brands in the Fashion Departments,” Stores, Vol. 44 (September), pp. 28-38.

Juhel, Étienne (1907), La patente des grands magasins, France: Caen.

Julian, Barnard (1970), “The Master of Harrods’ Meat Hall: W. J. Neatby,” Apollo, March, pp. 232-234. This article and the next two below are according “from the great Victorian ceramist, whose designs still makes the Meat Hall the showpiece of Harrods Ltd., Knightsbridge, London” (Artley 1970, page 128).


Julian, Barnard (1970), “Some Work by W. L. Neatby,” The Connoisseur, November, pp. 165-171.

Julian, Barnard (1971), “Victorian on the Tiles: the Work of W. J. Neatby,” The Architect, September, pp. 46-51.

Juquelier, P. and Jean Vinchon (1914), “L’Histoire de la kleptomanie,” Revue de Psychiatrie et de Psychologie Expérimentale.

K., D. J. (1869), “Shopping at Stewart’s,” Hearth and Home, Vol. 1 (January 9), page 43.

Kahn, Ely Jacques (1929), “The Modern European Shop and Store,” The Architectural Forum, Vol. 50 (June No. 6), pp. 789-867. The article has 32 pages of plates (one sided). Part of the whole issue is on retail store design, especially the exterior, and the plates (pictures) are of stores, including department stores. The issue has also numerous articles on the architectural engineering of retail stores, notably on department stores (from pages 921 to 959). The specific articles on department stores have been duly referenced in this extensive bibliography on department stores.

Kahn, Ely Jacques (1930), "Designing the Bonwit Teller Store," The Architectural Forum, Vol. 53 (November), page 571. This page is an introduction to the main article, which follows next, pp. 572-579 (see the article by James Newman 1930).

Kalbfleisch, John (2008), “Henry Birks began his glittering career as a sales clerk,” The Montreal Gazette, December 21, p. A20.

Kalman, Harold and Terry McDougall (1985), “Big Stores on Main Street,” Canadian Heritage, Vol. 11 (February-March), pp. 16-23. A short article on the role of the department store in Canada and its role in the development of downtown. Eaton’s is the main focus of the article with much discussion of its history, evolution and new life as the department store is returning to the downtown core in the 1980s. Apart from the dreadful Sears’ error (i.e., Richard Sears opened a department store in 1864, p. 18; it was in 1924), the article has information not seen elsewhere, with a good discussion on the architecture of the department store.

Kanuk, Leslie (1976), “Leadership Effectiveness of Department Managers in a Department Store Chain: A Contingency Analysis,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 52 (Spring), pp. 9-16.

Kantz, Donald (1987), The Big Store: Inside the Crisis and Revolution at Sears, NY: Viking.

Kaplan, A. D., H Joel Dirlam and Robert Lanzillotti (1958), Pricing in Big Business a Case Approach, Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. A&P is discussed on pages 182-184 and 222-224, Sears on pages 188-198 and 237-239, and Kroger on pages, 206-207, respectively. Some pages reprinted in Stanley Hollander ed. (1959), MSU Business Studies 1959, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, pp. 208-216. Sears, A&P and Kroger are briefly discussed in the Hollander book.

Kaplan, Steven (1989), “Campeau’s Acquisition of Federated, Value Destroyed or Value Added?,” Journal of Financial Economics, Vol. 25 (December No.2), pp. 191-212.

Kaplan, Steven (1994), “Campeau’s Acquisition of Federated Post-Bankruptcy Results,” Journal of Financial Economics, Vol. 35 (February No. 1), pp. 123-136.


Karberg, Richard (2001), The Higbee Company and the Silver Grille, Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Laumarks Press.

Katz, Donald R. (1987), The Big Store Inside the Crisis and Revolution at Sears, NY: Viking. A 600 page book describing the origin of Sears and focusing its attention on the events of the 1980s. Surprisingly no references are provided. There is an index though with no reference to Stewart, Macy, or other department store merchants.

Katzin, Harold (1963), Greek Revival Shop Fronts on Saint Paul Street, Montreal, Architectural Report 160, McGill University call number AS42M38. This short student report has some interesting photographs. St Paul Street is the oldest street in Montreal and many buildings of the mid-1850s and beyond reflected the Greek revival architectural movement that was occurring in the US. This style had been in vogue in England before it came to the US. Stewart’s Marble Palace simply was a reflection of this modern movement away from Roman architecture. The period 1820-1860 is cited as to when this style was in vogue, even though many buildings reflected it before and after this suggested time frame.

Kibarian, Barkev (1960/61), “Why Department Stores Can Meet Discount House Competition,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 36 (Winter), pp. 201-207ff. Reprinted in C. Dirksen, A. Kroeger, and L. Lockley eds. (1963), Readings in Marketing, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 159-166.

Kaufman, Maxwell (1933), "Present-Day Department-Store Organization," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 11 (April No. 3), pp. 244-252.

Kelley, William (1954), “Specification Buying by the Large-Scale Retailer,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 18 (January), pp. 255-265. The first two pages are about the department store’s involvement in vertical integration, specifically Macy’s, Marshall Field and Wanamaker. Surprisingly, he does not mention AT Stewart.

Kelly, D. F. (1928), “A Department Store Complains About Profit Margins on Advertised Brands,” Printers’ Ink, Vol. 142 (January 26 No. 4), pp. 3, 4, 6, 160, 163, 164, 166, 169. The Fair department store of Chicago was founded in 1875. Kelley was GM of Mandel Brothers, Chicago. The Fair was purchased in 1922. He says as an e.g. Listerine, a brand selling at 79 cents when it cost 63 cents to buy. It cost the Fair 17 cents to sell the item or 80 cents. So selling this branded item at 79 cents does not offer the margin the store needs.

Kelton, Christina and Robert Rebelein (2007), “Can We Have a High-End Retail Department Store?,” Economic Development Journal, Vol. 6 (Winter No.1), pp. 22-29. Some refs on the importance of retailing to economic development.

Kendrick, J. G. (1969-70), “Retailing in Canada Past, Present, Future,” The Canadian Marketer, pp. 11-15. Reprinted in M. D. Beckman and R. H. Evans eds. (1972), Marketing: A Canadian Perspective, Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall of Canada, pp. 202-213. A good but short discussion on the Canadian department store industry (see pp. 204-206).

Kessner, Thomas (2003), Capital City: New York City and the Men Behind America's Rise to Economic Dominance, 1860-1900, NY: Simon and Schuster. AT Stewart is well documented in this book, which details the history of NYC viewed from the men who helped build it into the most modern capitalistic city in the world.


Ketchum, Morris Jr. (1948), Shops and Stores, NY: Reinhold Publishing. The book should have been entitled shops and department stores because over 200 pages of this 300-page book are on the department store. The author discusses every facet of the department store including: fixtures, displays, water supply, wiring, walls, windows, elevators, escalators, store fronts, sprinkler systems, fire alarm systems, flooring, lighting, marble, drainage systems, fitting rooms, delivery, etc.

Keyes, H. J. (1928), “Big Jobs in Big Stores,” Woman’s Journal, Vol. 13 (December), pp. 15-17. I could not find this article.

Khermouch, Gerry, Robert Berner, Ann Therese Palmer and Anand Natarajan (2003), “It’s Not Your Mom’s Department Store,” Business Week, December 1, pp. 98-99. They say that bringing young shoppers is important. Department stores “are creating more theatrical environments that use music and light to mimic the excitement young shoppers have learned from specialty store.” They are forgetting that department stores of old invented such an environment.

Kidwell, Claudia and Margaret Christman (1974), Suiting Everyone: The Democratization of Clothing in America, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. This book is published by the National Museum of History and Technology and was sold through the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office Cat # SI 3.2:SU 3, stock # 047-001-00119-2. The book is a gold mine of old ads from the late 18th to modern times, with an emphasis of 19th. c. ads. There are many pages devoted to the department store, notably pp. 154-164. The book discusses in detail the history of ready-made clothes in the US and argues that, unlike European countries, clothes as a form of class distinction did not exist in the US. The authors discuss the lower cost of buying ready to wear vs. sewing, as quoted on page 149 in the book and on page 158, a discussion on the elaborate window displays by Jordan Marsh, dated 1883. Overall, a neat book to read for it traces the history of ready to wear clothes from its modest beginning to the invention of proportional measurements, paper patterns, cutting tools, the sewing machine, electricity, iron for pressing clothes, and so forth. Ready-made clothes became a mass market only in the late 1800s and early 1900s even though such clothes were sold much earlier. Tailoring required expert craftsmanship. These later became merchants, and finally, mass distribution was required (i.e. large stores like the ‘specialized’ department store such as Filene’s, Wanamaker, and Jordan Mash).

Kiesler, Frederick (1930), Contemporary Art Applied to the Store and Its Display, NY: Brentano's. A brief but very stimulating book even if the amount of text is minimal. This architect has a lot of insight and what he says has often profound meaning. The department store is discussed throughout the book in short but insightful comments about the building, displays, storefronts, etc.

Kimball, Arthur (1963), “Sears-Roebuck and Regional Terms,” American Speech, Vol. 38 (October No. 3), pp. 209-213.

Kimbrough, Emily (1952), Through Charley's Door, NY: Harper and Brothers. A book on Marshall Field and Co. as reported by an employee working in the advertising department in the 1920s.

King, Moses (1893), King's Handbook of New York City, An Outline History and Description of the American Metropolis, second edition, Boston, Mass. This one thousand-page book was planned, edited and published by Moses King. It is similar in content to a tourist guidebook, but with detailed information. The book provides a detailed description of the city from hotels, retail,


manufacturing, monuments, hospitals, government offices, etc. The late A. T. Stewart is mentioned repeatedly but not the stores because they were long gone. Two fascinating points are that Moses refers to the department store as the bazaar (pp. 240, 844) or emporium (p. 146). The use of the word 'department' was reserved for a manufacturing firm's various departments (i.e., accounting, shipping and handling). For e.g. on page 898, he refers to the Francis Leggett's 25 departments, 'each of which is in charge of a competent manager.' Thus the term 'department store' may have been a spin-off of the term used to refer to the various departments in a manufacturing firm, given the nature of the retailing business. The first edition published in 1892 used the term 'bazaar' and 'emporium' on pp. 214, 786-788, 796-797. Similar to Benson (1884), King does not use the term ‘department store’ but instead he calls the new institution a dry-goods store, large bazaar store, houses, and distinguishes between the dry goods store and the modern bazaar store. Hopkins (1899) uses the expression "known generically as the department store" p. 4. The other important point in King's (1893) book is that he states on p. 210, that the Western Union Telegraph Company uses pneumatic tubes which "extend under Broadway from 23d Street to Dey Street…messages are sent a distance of about 2.5 miles. Similar tubes extend from Dey to Broad Street." This fact means that pneumatic tubes were used earlier than originally thought.

Kirby, Gail and Rachel Dardis (1986), “Research Note: A Pricing Study of Women’s Apparel in Off-Price and Department Stores,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 62 (Fall No. 3), pp. 321-330.

Kirkpatrick, Samuel R. (1899), “The Department Store in the East–Large Stores in Philadelphia” The Arena, Vol. 22 (August), pp. 181-186.

Kirstein, George (1950), Stores and Unions: A Study of Unionization in the Dry Goods Trade and Department Stores, NY: Fairchild Publications. A history of the growth of unionism in department and dry goods stores.

Klassen, Henry (1992), “T. C. Power and Bro: The Rise of a Small Western Department Store, 1870-1902,” Business History Review, Vol. 66 (Winter No. 4), pp. 671-722. This long article on a Fort Benton, Montana, department store is discussed at length.

Klein, Maury (1980), “John Wanamaker,” American History Illustrated, Vol. 15 (December 8), pp. 8-15. A short but pertinent article on Wanamaker and his retail/business genius.

Klein, Lloyd (1990), “Going Out of Business: Consequences of Economic Concentration in the Retail Industry

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