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The Wonderful World of the Department Store in Historical Perspective: A

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, Philadelphia, Lippincott.

Harris, Leon A. (1979), Merchant Princes An Intimate History of Jewish Families Who Built Great Department Stores, first ed. NY: Harper and Row. Rosenwald (Sears), Filene, Gimbels, Rich, Lazarus, Kaufmann, and others are discussed. Second edition published in 1994 by Kondansha America, New York.

Harris, Neil (1978), “Museums, Merchandising, and Popular Taste: The Struggle for Influence,” in Ian M. G. Quimby ed. Material Culture and the Study of American Life, NY: W. W. Norton, pp. 140-174. The article looks at the relationship of art museums, various world’s fairs, and how these helped transformed the merchandising appeals of the department store. The author considers the department store as an exposition. Reprinted in Harris (1990), chapter 3.

Harris, Neil (1981), “The Drama of Consumer Desire,” in Otto Mayr and Robert C. Post eds. Yankee Enterprise: The Rise of the American System of Manufactures a symposium, National Museum of American History, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. 181-216. Reprinted in Harris (1990), chapter 9, pp. 174-197, and pp. 395-397.

Harris, Neil (1987), “Shopping–Chicago Style,” in John Zukowsky ed. Chicago Architecture 1872-1922, Munich: Prestel-Verlay, in association with the Art Institute of Chicago, pp. 137-155. A well-illustrated and well written article on the Chicago shopping district, including a worthwhile discussion on the various Chicago department stores. The book was also published in French and German. Discussion on the department store can also be found elsewhere in the book.

Harris, Neil (1990), Cultural Excursions Marketing Appetites and Cultural Tastes in Modern America, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. See chapters 3, 6, 9, and 13.

Harrod's Ltd. (1909), The House That Every Woman Knows, London, Harrods, Ltd., Harrods' Diamond Jubilee.

“Harrods’ Tube System,” Stores, January 1938, pp. 488-490. See also Jefferys (1954), pp, 325-326, 161-162, Adburgham (1964), p. 140, Williams (1994), p. 186. Clow (1995), Wanamaker (1911), p. 68, Scull. (1923).

Harrod's Ltd. (1949), A Study of British Achievement, 1849-1949, London, Harrods, Ltd. On page 34, it states that the first escalator was installed in Nov 1898 where two attendants were stationed at the top of it to revive alarmed customers with cognac and salt volatile (see Artley 1976, p. 8).

Hartmann, G. (1909), “Les anciens merciers et les magasins de nouveautés,” published in Vieux Papiers from a presentation given on Mars 23 1909, reference cited in Bouveret-Gauer (1997).

Harvey, A.D. (1997), “Painted Advertisements on Houses,” Historian, Vol. 54, pp. 14-15.


Hattem, Maurice (1988), “Who Really Built the First Supermarket?,” The Californians, Vol. 6 (May/June No. 3), pp. 34-37. According to the article, it was in LA on December 17, 1927. See Will (1983) for more information.

Hattem, Maurice (1979?), “I. M. Hattem and His Los Angeles Supermarket,” Western States Jewish History, Vol. 11 (3).

Hatton, John Matthews (1931), “The Architecture of Merchandising,” The Architectural Forum, Vol. 54 (April No. 4), pp. 443-446. Also the entire issue of Vol. 40 (June) 1924 of this publication is on department store design, and other store architecture.

Hauser, Michael and Marianne Weldon (2004), Hudson’s: Detroit’s Legendary Department Store, Mt Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing. Lots of illustrations in this 120 page book.

Hauser, Michael and Marianne Weldon (2010), Remembering Hudson’s: The Grand Dame of Detroit Retailing, Mt Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing.

Hautecoeur, Louis (1933), “De l’échoppe aux grands magasins,” La Revue de Paris, Volume 40 (July-August 15), pp. 811-841. This article traces the history of small shops in Paris from the Middle Ages to the grands magasins of the later part of the 19th and early 20th c. The article was published in the August 15th issue. The Hector Lefuel’s book was reedited in 1926 “Collection des maisons de Paris et des intérieurs les mieux décorés,” of the later part of the 18th c. (see Lefuel 1925).

Hauzeur de Fooz, C. (1969), Historique de la grande distribution dans le monde et spécialement en France, aux U.S.A. et en Belgique, avec monographies consacrées aux importantes entités assurant la distribution en Belgique, Bruxelles. See pp. 26-47 and 190-191 in particular.

Haven, Alice B. (1863), “A Morning at Stewart’s.” Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine, (May), pp. 429-433. This magazine was a popular fashion oriented one at the time. She was more enthused about Stewart’s than Crapsey. Here is how she described the silk department on the first floor “we are dazzled by the display of delicate and gorgeous fabrics” (p. 431). According to her, Stewart’s 1862 store at Astor Place had a woman’s lavatory (bathroom) in the basement (p. 431).

Hawkins, E. R. and Carl Wolf Jr. (1946), "Merchandising Displays for Simplified Services in Department and Specialty Stores," US Dept. of Commerce, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. A good review of sales floor display issues.

Hayward, Walter S. (1924), "The Chain Store and Distribution," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 115 (September), pp. 220-225.

Hayward, Walter S. and Percival White (1922), Chain Stores: Their Management and Operation, NY: McGraw-Hill. The book may also have other editions, a 1928 edition and/or a 3rd edition.

Haworth, Robert and Richard Magnus (1949), “A New Deal for the Independent Department Stores,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 25 (Summer), pp. 75-79.

Hazen, Lee (1929), “The Central Buying Experiment,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 5 (April No. 1), pp. 10-14. This section is part of the Journal's Buying and Merchandising Division. Reprinted in Daniel Bloomfield ed. (1931) Trends in Retail Distribution, NY: H. W. Wilson, pp. 193-200.


Heath, Tom and Tony Moore (1963), “Sydney’s Arcades: An Historical Note,” Architecture in Australia, Vol. 52 (June), pp. 85-90.

Heathcote, Phyllis (nd), Great Stores of the World, A Guardian pamphlet, article on the Bon Marché by the author. Articles on other stores may have been written by other authors.

Heflbower, Richard (1957), “Mass Distribution: A Phase of Bilateral Oligopoly or of Competition?,” American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 47 (May No. 2), pp. 274-286.

Heidingsfield, Myron (1949), “Why Do People Shop in Downtown Department Stores? Journal of Marketing, Vol. 13 (April No. 4), pp. 510-512. A number of reasons are given based on a survey done by students taking a marketing research course at Temple University. Special events did not seem to have an important effect in building store patronage, nor did the possession of a charge account. Lack of time was the main reason why people did not shop downtown.

Heilbronn, Max (1989), Galeries Lafayette, Buchenwald, Galeries Lafayette, Paris: Economica.

Hein, Peggy (1963), Merchandise Management Accounting: A Retailing Experiment in Explicit Marginal Calculation,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 47 (November), pp. 671-675.

Helbronner, Jules (1890), Exposition universelle de 1889 Paris France, Rapport sur la section d’économie sociale, Ottawa: Brown Chamberlin Queen’s Printer. The Bon Marché is mentioned on page xxxiii, and pp. 41-42, and 388. Helbronner was a Montreal journalist whose mandate given to him by the federal govt was to see what social policies and practices (i.e. économie sociale) existed in Europe for workers, in terms of health, accident prevention, pension, family, etc.

Helfant, Seymour and Beatrice Judelle (1969), Management manual for independent stores; a handbook for the head of the owner-operated department or specialty store, NY: National Retail Merchants Association.

Helfert, Erich A., Eleanor G. May and Malcolm McNair (1965), Controllership in Department Stores, Boston, Mass: Harvard University, Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration. This 154-page publication analyzes the controller’s job in detail in relationship to the other major functions and division in a department store.

Héliès, Louis (1912), La Bellevilloise, Paris. The book is about this Parisian department store which opened in 1877.

Heller, Laura (1999), “Sears drops ‘Soft Side’ image in face of discount challenge,’ Discount Store News, Vol. 38 (March 8 No. 5), pp. 1, 39.

Hendrickson, Robert (1979), Grand Emporiums The Illustrated History of America's Great Department Stores, NY: Stein and Day. See pp. 131, 135 for discussion on AC in department stores. He said on page 35: The Marble Palace catered exclusively to women...In the famous "Ladies' Parlor" on the second floor were full-length mirrors imported from Paris that the ladies could preen in, the first used in an American store. Here were held the first fashion shows. The next page (p. 36) he discusses Abraham Lincoln's wife shopping at the store. Obviously, it was the Cast Iron Palace, and not the Marble Palace. He too made an error. I really cannot believe fashion shows were held in the Marble Palace.


Herbst, René (1927), Modern French Shop-Fronts and their Interiors. With a foreword by James Burford, London: John Tiranti. The book contains an excellent set of plates showing a wide variety of the best ‘smartistics’ French artwork, according to Artley (1970, p. 128). It has only 3 pages of text with 54 plates only two that are on the department store as of the 20th. The Au Bon Marché one is rather neat to see.

Herndon, Booton (1956), Bergdorf's on the Plaza The Story of Bergdorf Goodman and a Half-Century of American Fashion, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.

Héron De Villefosse, R. (1952), Cent de jeunesse: Le Bon Marché, 1852-1952, Paris: Édition Marchot.

Hess, Max, Jr. (1952), Every Dollar Counts: The Story of the American Department Store, NY: Fairchild Publications.

Hicks, Otho (1928), “Training in Personality Adjustments,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 4 (October), pp. 22-24. A short article on how to train sales clerks in a department store.

Hicks, Otho (1928), “Manufacturer’s Demonstrators” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 4 (October), pp. 24-25. A short article discussing Macy’s elimination of manufacturers’ booth for cosmetics. Instead, consumer surveys showed that it was better to arrange cosmetics by lines. On the cash register?

Higbee Co. (1911), Fifty years of service, celebrated by the Higbee Company in its new store, Cleveland ,OH.

Higinbotham, Harlow N. (1906), The Making of A Merchant, Chicago: Forbes and Company. A book copywrited in from 1902 to 1906. He has 2 full chapters on the department store, including his own analysis of its origins which is quite well done. He also says on page 103 that one store in Chicago ‘a careful estimate of the number of persons entering this place during its banner day of trade is 225,000. .. with an average force of employees of 3,300 increased to 4,000 to meet the demands of a prosperous holiday trade.” He does not name the store but it’s obvious it’s Marshall Field with 15.5 acres of floor space (p. 100).

Higgens, Delwyn (1991), “Art Deco, Marketing and the T. Eaton Company Department Stores: 1918-1930,” unpublished Master’s thesis (MA), Toronto: York University.

Higgins, Brian (2003), “Lazarus: Will not Rise From the Dead,” Columbus Dispatch, October 29, While this is a letter to the editor, nevertheless it offers good insights. One of the reasons of the demise of Lazarus is the building of Polaris, Easton and Tuttle Mall retail complexes.

Higinbotham, Harlow Niles (1902), The Making of a Merchant, Chicago: Curtis Publishing.

Hill, J. A. (1900), “Taxes of Department Stores,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 15 (No. 2), pp. 299-304.

Hill, Ralph Nading (1958), “Mr. Godey’s Lady,” American Heritage, Vol. 9 (October No. 6), pp. 20-23, 97-101. The article discusses the life and contributions of Sarah Hale, the women who wrote 'Mary had a little lamb', plus two dozen books. She created the 1st successful women's magazine as editor of Godey's Lady's Book, a Philadelphia magazine for 40 years. She was for


women's rights, and her elegant readers sought her advice on child rearing, shopping, fashion, etiquette, and homemaking. Antoine Godey, a shrewd businessman, founded The Lady's Book in 1830. Then in 1837, he offered to buy Sarah Hale's Ladies' Magazine, a Boston magazine. She accepted and it was renamed Godey's Lady's Book and American Ladies Magazine, to be called Godey's Lady's Book. It had 150k subscribers in the mid 1800s. She disliked fashion and fashion plates were not common in the magazine. On the other hand, she suggested clothing designs, and promised to buy and ship any article of clothing to subscribers, including 'lingerie' a word she popularized. This may have been the forerunner of the mail order catalogue. She sought the help of inventors to produce a better washing machine. In the April 1854 issue, she ran a picture of the new machine. She established the Female Medical School in Philadelphia, told women to go out and work and earn a living in department stores or as waitresses, and not be confined in the household. She fought hard to have Thanksgiving recognized as a national holiday, urged the founding of a school for nursing (1st one in 1873), and helped in the preservation of Mount Vernon. She hated the Victorian fashion where a woman had layers upon layers of clothes, told them to exercise, and to participate in outdoor activities such as swimming, croquet, and horseback riding. But surprisingly, in spite for her crusade for women's rights, she did nothing for the women's suffrage movement. She felt that politics was a man's domain. She stopped writing in December of 1877, and died a year later at the age of 91. The magazine continued until 1898 under different titles, but it was never the same after her death.

Hill, Richard (1959), “Merchandise Planning Organization in Department-Store Chains,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 35 (Summer), pp.73-79, 113, 114.

Hilliard, Kathleen (2004), “Museum and Exhibits,” The Public Historian, Vol. 26 (Spring No. 2), pp. 116-119. The article discusses the Memphis Pink Palace Museum and Clarence Saunders. Saunders revolutionized grocery industry creating one of the first self-service, cash and carry grocery stores. He had 1k stores in US and Canada. He built a 35k sq foot pink marble-fronted residence. Due to financial hardship, he never lived in it and the city took it over and finished it. It has an exact replica of a 1916 Piggly Wiggly store, with ads and store atmosphere. See McNair (1950) and Soper (1983).

Hilson, Gary (2001), “A 300-year-old IT innovator,” Computing Canada, Vol. 27 (November 30), page 22. Hudson’s Bay’s use of IT to better positioning itself in the marketplace.

Hilton, Marjorie (2004), “Retailing the Revolution: The State Department Store (GUM) and Soviet Society in the 1920s,” Journal of Social History, Vol. 37 (4), pp. 939-964.

Hilton, Matthew (2000), “Class, Consumption and the Public Sphere,” Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 35 (October No. 4), pp. 655-666. A review essay of 3 books: Geoffrey Crossick, and Serge Jaumain eds. (1999), Cathedral of Consumption; A. Kidd and D. Nicholls eds. (1999), Gender, Civic Culture and Consumerism: Middle-Class Identity in Britain, 1800-1940, Manchester, Manchester University Press; and B. Strasser, C. McGovern, and M. Judt eds. (1998), Getting and Spending: European and American Consumer Societies in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. These books “overcome the problem of specialization that has plagued scholarly research on consumption, by including studies about instances of consumption, as well as principles of consumerism. Crossick and Jaumain tackle the broader issue of consumer-based class/gender identities within modern cities.” The other books stress the significance of consumption in bourgeois civil culture and the wide range of consumer politics. Taken together, these books emphasize that consumerism can only be understood in relation to social and economic developments in the broader society. See also Monod’s (1990) review of the Crossick and Jaumain book.


Hines, Thomas (1974), Burnham of Chicago: Architect and Planner, NY. The book discusses the project Burnham undertook for Wanamaker on pp. 303-307, and the Filene store in Boston. Chapter 13 (especially pp. 291-307). Hines discusses Burnham as the most famous department store builder in the USA.

Hines, Mary Alice (1983), Shopping Center Development and Investment, NY: Wiley. Chapter 5: Development of Shopping Centers, especially pp. 41-43. She says the shopping center has its roots in retail bazaars, farmers’ markets and flea markets, even before the invention of money where barter was prevalent in central market places of the past.

“Hints to Retailers and State Street Observations” (1898), Chicago Dry Goods Reporter, Vol. 28 (June 4), pp. 28 and 34; see also October 22, p. 45. These short articles discuss problems of ventilation and cooling store interiors to increase shoppers’ comfort.

Hirano, Takashi (1999), “Retailing in Urban Japan, 1868-1945,” Urban History, Vol. 26 (December No. 3), pp. 373-392.

Hirayama, Hina (1993), “Curious Merchandise: Bunkio Matsuki’s Japanese Department Store,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. 129 (No. 2), pp. 216-231. Matsuki was an importer and sold his wares in Almy department store, in Salem Mass.

Hirschman, Elizabeth (1979), “Intratype Competition Among Department Stores,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 55 (Winter), pp. 20-34. The article has nothing to do with the department store per se except that consumer’s store choice behavior is analyzed. Intratype means ten department stores are considered similar and consumer measurements are made to see what can be used to know more about store choice.

Historique des magasins du Bon Marché, (1911), Paris: Archives on the Bon Marché.

Hitchcock, Henry Russell (1968), Architecture Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, 3rd edition Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books. The 1st edition was published in 1958. The book was translated in French by L. and K. Merveille (1981) as Architecture: dix-neuvième et vingtième siècles, Bruxelles: Éditions Pierre Mardaga. The third edition has 196 plates with an extensive set of notes (pp. 439-478) and a bibliography (pp. 479-491). Chapter 14 “The Rise of Commercial Architecture in England and America,” pp. 233-252, discusses the department store, among other buildings. The author also has a succinct discussion on the Crystal Palace built for the 1851 London Exhibition (p. 126) and he has a terrific illustration of it, plate 64.

Ho, Philip (1933), "The Development of Chinese Department Stores," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 11 (April No. 3), pp. 280-288.

Hoagland, W. John and William Lazer (1960), "The Retailer's Manual of 1869", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 24 (January), pp. 59-60.

Hobart, Donald ed. (1950), Marketing Research Practice, NY: Ronald Press. A review of the history of marketing research at the Curtis Publishing Compagy which is presented as if the company invented the field. Many department store research projects are discussed.

Hobbs, W.P. (1958), “Department Stores Seek Full Automation of Clerical Work,” Office, pp. 116ff.


Hobhouse, Christopher (1937), 1851 and the Crystal Palace; being an account of the Great Exhibition and its contents; of Sir Joseph Paxton; and of the erection, the subsequent history and the destruction of his masterpiece, London: John Murray. A list of goods that is very detailed.

Hobson, Barbara Mell (1982), “Sex in the Marketplace: Prostitution in an American City, Boston, 1820-1880,” doctoral dissertation, Boston University. Some discussion on sales clerks who worked in department stores.

Hodge, A. C. (1925), “The Use of Estimates in Control of Merchandise Operations,” The University Journal of Business, (September), pp. 257ff, is it June? Cost of operating a sale department of a store. His book: Retail Accounting and Control?

Hodge, A. C. (1925), “A Merchandise Budget in a Department Store,” The University Journal of Business, (reprinted from Retail Accounting and Control) Vol. 4 (December No. 1), pp. 21-37.

Hodge, A. C. (1929), “Some Type of Retail Mergers Chain Store Mergers,” from an address before the American Management Association, Cincinnati, April 3. Reprinted in Daniel Bloomfield ed. (1931) Trends in Retail Distribution, NY: H. W. Wilson, pp. 446-450. He discusses Retail Research Association, which comprises a group of very high class and well-managed department stores (p. 448).

Hodge, Donald (1935), “Trends in Department Stores’ Lines of Goods and Services,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 11 (October No. 3), pp.

Hoffman, D. (1978), Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater, NY: Dover.

Hoffman, William and Donald Vaughn (1963), “Departmental and Item Profitability for Retailers,” Journal of Accountancy, August, pp. 50-58. Reprinted in Ronald Gist ed. (1967), Management Perspectives in Retailing, NY: John Wiley, pp. 344-353. The article is on the technique of Merchandise Management Accounting (MMA), a refined expense center accounting procedure developed earlier.

Hoge, Cecil C. Sr. (1988), The First Hundred Years Are the Toughest What Can We Learn from the Century of Competition between Sears and Montgomery Ward, Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.

Holland, Donald (1973), “The Story of Volney Palmer, The Nation’s First Agency Man,” Advertising Age, April 23, pp. 107, 111-112. Reprinted in James Littlefield ed. Readings in Advertising, St. Paul: West Publishing Co., pp. 288-297.

Holland, Donald (1974), “Volney B. Palmer: The Nation’s First Advertising Agency Man,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 98 (July), pp. 353-381. Palmer was a key advertising man for Wanamaker.

Hollander, Stanley, (1954), “Discount Retailing–An Examination into Some Divergences in the Price System of American Retailing,” unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. Reprinted in 1986 by Garland Publishing of NY. A Garland series of outstanding dissertations in American Business History. The meticulous research done and the thoroughness of the topic discussed in the dissertation are truly amazing. The large number of references used and their diversity are mind-boggling for the time! Hollander traces the history of discounting,


mainly in the USA which existed long before Walmart appeared. For e.g. during the depression years and during the 1950s with apparel discounting.

Hollander, Stanley (1960), "Competition and Evolution in Retailing", Stores, Vol. 42 (September), pp. 11-24. Reprinted in Ronald Gist ed. (1967), Management Perspectives in Retailing, NY: John Wiley, pp. 176-186. The article is a broad view of retailing history, from the late 1899 to modern times. The department store is discussed along with some neat illustrations, notably Macy’s on page 13. His last paragraph needs to be repeated “…the basic change in retailing results from the fact that while shopping may be a pleasure for some consumers, for many others purchasing is primarily a means to a more pleasant life.” This article also presents many new department store innovations that are truly outstanding, for e.g. the adv dept and window dressing dept, according to Hollander (p. 20).

Hollander, Stanley and Gary Marple (1960), Henry Ford: Inventor of the Supermarket?, Marketing and Transportation Paper No. 9, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Michigan State University, East Lansing: MI. A fifty-page monograph outlining the start and closure of the Ford Company stores, from December 1919 to beyond 1927, when the public was no longer allowed to shop there. The stores were closed down due to public outcry. The stores sold meat, grocery, clothing, shoes (i.e. dry goods), and sales were high for the time reaching $12m. Did Ford really develop the first supermarket?

Hollander, Stanley (1980), “Oddities, Nostalgia, Wheels and Other Patterns in Retail Evolution,” in Ronald Stampfl and Elizabeth Hirschman eds. Competitive Structure in Retail Marketing: The Department Store Perspective, Proceedings, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 78-87.

Hollander, Stanley (1987), “Retailing and the Quality-of-Life,” in A. Coskun Samli ed. Marketing and the Quality-of-Life Interface, NY: Quorum Books, pp. 188-204. Hollander makes a brief but rather important comment on the social role of the department store as a way for “the lower income and less well-dressed customers” to feel more comfortable shopping in department stores as opposed to small fashion shops where salesclerks would no doubt glance disparaging at them and make them feel as if they did not belong there, similar to high fashion shops selling exclusive or high priced goods that exist even today.

Hollander, Stanley and Glenn Omura (1989), "Chain Store Developments and Their Political, Strategic, and Social Interdependencies", Journal of Retailing, Vol. 65 (Fall), pp. 299-325. The article discusses the evolution of the chain store and presents some information on the department store as well.

Hollander, Stanley and William Keep (1992), “Mass Merchandising/Traditional Retailing,” in Robert A Peterson ed. The Future of U.S. Retailing An Agenda for the 21st Century, NY: Quorum Books, pp. 129-160. Comments by Donald J. Stone, former vice chairman of Federated Department Stores, on pp. 160-163. A must read chapter for anyone interested in knowing more about the traditional department store and where it is going. In fact, traditional retailing in the title refers to the traditional department store. The chapter focuses on how other retail formats, technological changes and other factors will impact on this retail institution in the next ten years. Hollander’s insights are impeccable, fun to read and they proved to be more right than wrong.

Holloway, Robert (1955), “Looking Around,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 33 (March-April No. 2), pp. 131-140, A thorough examination of the reasons why downtown shopping is in decline and why it is hurting the downtown department store.


Holmes, Stacy (1972), A Brief History of Filene’s, rev. ed. Boston Wm Filene’s Sons Co.

“Holt Renfrew & Co., Limited, Montreal” (1939), Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, Vol. 15 (February), pp. 36-37.

Holt, Richard (1985), “Social History and Bourgeois Culture in Nineteenth Century France,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol., pp.

Hone, Philip (1927), The Diary of Philip Hone 1828-1851, 2 volumes in one, in Allan Nevins ed. NY: Dodd, Mead and Company, a Kraus Reprint Co. NY, 1969. Hone was a shrewd businessman at an early age, was a commission auctioneer working with his brother and then at 40 withdrew from the business to travel and enjoy life. That’s when he wrote his dairy. The Table of Content in Volume 2 has a heading “1846 War with Mexico; Trinity opened; A. T. Stewart’s Store.” On page 896, for Friday, May 31 1850, Hone says “this is already the most magnificent dry-goods establishment in the world. I certainly do not remember anything to equal it in London or Paris; with the addition now in progress this edifice will be one of the ‘wonders’ of the Western World.” Spann also says Stewart and Co. were the largest importers by every vessel from France and England” (p. 455). The information from Spann (1981, page 455, note 10), is not verbatim what Hone actually wrote. Lockwood (1976) discusses Hone in numerous pages in his book stating that Hone wrote 2 million words in his diary. Hone served as mayor of NY in 1825.

Honeycombe, Gordon (1984), Selfridges, Seventy-Five Years, The Story of a Store, London: Park Lane Press. Harry Selfridge, the founder of this British department store, was also a brilliant manager of a department store in the US (Marshall Field). He decided to go to London to seek fame and fortune and opened his first department store in 1908. He was well known for his artistic prowess in merchandising displays.

Honoré, Frédéric (1895), “Les employés de commerce à Paris,” La Réforrme sociale, Vol. 30 pp. 277-289.

Hood, Julia and Basil Yamey (1957), “The Middle-Class Cooperative Retailing Societies in London, 1864-1900,” Oxford Economic Papers, n. s. Vol. 9 (October), pp. 309-322. Reprinted in K. A. Tucker and Basil Yamey eds. (1973), Economics of Retailing Selected Readings, UK: Penguin Books, pp. 131-145. The article discusses the origin of the UK department store. They state that the numerous London retail cooperatives, such as the Civil Service Supply Associations (CSSA), formed in 1865, the Civil Service Cooperative Society (CSCS), formed in 1866, and the Army and Navy Cooperative Society (A&N), formed in 1872 were the precursors of the department store in England. Initially, the CSSA did not carry stocks of all merchandise for sale, and groceries made up the bulk of their sales. They explained that numerous such organizations appeared with even more officially sounding names, with over 80 such retailing organizations coming into existence from 1868 to 1890, as imitators of the established ones. Such “societies played a large part in bringing about changes which have generally been credited to the ordinary department store (that is stores not organized on cooperative lines). It is probable that their shops were the first major department stores in England” (pp. 139-140). These Coops accepted cash only, had marked prices, the buyer had to pay extra for delivery, wrote his own invoice, with prices from a price list. He then needed to have the invoice accepted. With his receipt in hand, he had to stand in line while the goods were being assembled while he waited. Not all goods were in stock so affiliated retailers gave discount to members. In 1866, 70 such retailers had such partnership with CSSA, which greatly expanded the assortment of goods (books, boots, shoes, coal, carpets, milk, butter, meat, pianos, and services. Some members were professionals (i.e. surgeons, architects, surveyors, stockbrokers, accountants), and these were buying goods such as


surgical instruments. But such purchases were more B2B than B2C. The authors also state that A&N was also in the manufacture of an assortment of goods as well (p. 137). In 1879, CSSA had 31,800 members with sales exceeding ₤1 million (1.475) while A&N had sales of ₤1.528 (see p. 137). The three major department stores, which existed along side these coops were Harrod’s, Whiteley’s and Shoolbred’s. They state that Harrod’s branched out from a grocery shop into perfumes, patent medicines, and stationery in 1868. Harrod’s had sales of ₤½ million in 1891, while A&N was about ₤2.75 million and by 1898, sales of A&N were more than ₤3 million, which made it “the largest department store in Britain,” but its sales was far below the Bon Marché (₤7 million in 1898) and the Louvre ₤6 million in 1898.

Hope, Timothy (1991), “Crime Information in Retailing: Prevention Through Analysis,” Security Journal, Vol. 2 (October No. 4), pp. 240-245.

Horgan, Charles (1968), “A Systems Approach to Manpower Planning in Department Stores,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 44 (Fall), 13-30.

Horsey, J. William (1959), “Food Distribution in Canada,” The Business Quarterly, Vol. 24 (Summer No. 2), pp. 71-76.

Hosgood, Christopher (1989), “The Pigmies of Commerce and the Working Class Community in England, 1870-1914,” Journal of Social History, Vol. 22 (3), pp.

Hosgood, Christopher (1999), “‘Doing the Shops’ at Christmas: Women, Men and the Department Store in England, c. 1880-1914,” in Geoffrey Crossick and Serge Jaumain eds. Cathedrals of Consumption The European Department Store, 1850-1939, Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 97-115.

Hotchkiss, George B. (1938), Milestones of Marketing A brief history of the evolution of market distribution, NY: The Macmillan Company. Chapter 11 “The Rise of Large-Scale Retailing,” pp. 184-202. The department store is discussed from page 191.

Houghton, Walter (1886), Kings of Fortune or the Triumphs and Achievements of Noble Self-Made Men, Chicago: A. E. Davis. Chapter 3 has a unique discussion on A. T. Stewart, pp. 80-101. Chapter 10 is on Marshall Field, pp. 184-1190. He considered the 1862 Stewart store a tourist attraction when he stated, “few strangers ever go to New York and depart without visiting Stewart’s famous store at the corner of Tenth Street and Broadway” (p. 93).

Houser, T. V. (1959), “The True Role of the Marketing Executive,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 23 (April), pp. 363-369. He was chairman of the Board of directors of Sears and he worked there for 30 years. An article on him may have been published in Fortune, a magazine not accessible in e-format and difficult to get in paper format.

Hoving, Walter (1929), “More Science in Merchandising,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 5 (October No. 3). Reprinted in Larry Rosenberg ed. (1978), The Roots of Marketing Strategy A Collection of Pre-1950 Readings, NY: Arno Press.

Howard, D. H. (1903), “Progress in Store Lighting,” Merchants Record and Show Window, Vol. 12 (January), pp. 4-5.

Howard, George (1970), “A Congruency Study of the Training Needs of Middle Management in Department Stores as Perceived by Post Secondary Marketing Educators and Businessmen in the


Department Store Industry,” unpublished doctoral dissertation, Madison: University of Wisconsin.

Howard, Vicki (2008), “‘The Biggest Small-Town Store in America’: Independent Retailers and the Rise of Consumer Culture,” Enterprise & Society, Vol. 9 (September), pp. 457-486.

How Department Stores Are Carried on in America (1903) London: G. Richards.

Howell, Debbie 92001), “JC Penney focuses on rebuilding assortments,” DSN Retailing Today, June 4 pp. 6, 108.

“How Escalators Contributed to the Development of a Great Store” (1913), Dry Goods Economist, January 25, p. 61. This is really an ad for the Otis Elevator Company but this one page has lots of useful information.

Hower, Ralph (1935), “Wanted: Material on the History of Marketing,” Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, Vol. 9 (October), pp. 79-81.

Hower, Ralph (1938), "Urban Retailing 100 Years Ago,” Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, Vol. 12 (December No. 6), pp. 91-101. An article discussing Stewart, Macy's and other department stores, as well as urban retailing in general. Reprinted in part as "Revolution of Retailing" in Edward Bursk Donald Clark and Ralph Hidy eds. (1962), The World of Business, Vol. 1 NY: Simon and Shuster, pp. 301-310.

Hower, Ralph (1940),"Captain Macy," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 18 (Summer, No. 4), pp. 472-487. A life history of Captain Macy prior to his coming to NY.

Hower, Ralph (1943), History of Macy's of New York 1859-1919: Chapters in the Evolution of the Department Store, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Appendix A: "Some Notes on the Rise of Department Stores in Paris," pp. 411-416. This Appendix discusses the question of where the department store first appeared: Paris or USA? While the question is moot, one thing is certain, US department stores were ahead of the French ones in customer service, the selling of non textile merchandise, the variety and amount of goods sold. Also Chapter 4 "An Interlude on the Revolution of Retailing," pp. 67-97. On page 289, Hower says “I have yet to find a single instance in which a Wanamaker first can be substantiated.” I can almost agree with Hower on that point given that far too many academics feel he was the innovator of many marketing practices. See his discussion on retail specialization, pp. 82-88.

Hower, V. A. (1930), "Department-Store Importing," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 9, (October, No. 1), pp. 101-110.

Hoyt, Edwin P. (1962), The Supersalesman, NY.

Hoyt Homer (1963), “The Prospects for Planned Shopping Centre in South Africa,” South African Journal of Economics, Vol. 31 (June No. 2), pp. 153-158.

Hubbard, Elbert (1907), A Dozen and Two Pastelles in Prose, Being Impressions of the Wanamaker Stores Written in as Many Moods, East Aurora, NY: Roycrofters. Reference from Fullerton (1990), p. 78.


Hubbard, Elbert (1909), “A. T. Stewart,” in his Little Journeys to the Homes of Great Business Men, Vol. 2. East Aurora, NY: The Roycrofters, pp. 97-126. Hubbard wrote a biography on a number of well-known businessmen in a series of small volumes, about 30 pages each. Hubbard’s biographies are also available in a book under the same title where all the small volumes have been bounded, pp. 329-355. He also wrote a short biography of Peter Cooper (Vol. 25 No. 1 July, 1909, 28 pages, also available in the book), one of the contributors of the elevator. On page 24, Hubbard says he bought the lot on 3rd and 4Th Avenue and the Bowery around 1836, where A. T. Stewart eventually built his Business Palace.” His short account of Stewart is mostly on his retail savvy. At the end of the text, he gives far too much credit to Wanamaker for retail innovations he did not invent and he also makes a small number of errors. Note Hubbard’s role in marketing and advertising.

Hudson, Alastair (1962), "The Applications of the Electronic Computer as a Tool for Merchandising Management in Department Stores," Ph.D. dissertation, Columbus: The Ohio State University (William R. Davidson, adviser).

Hudson's Bay Company (1920), Two Hundred and Fifty Years, 1670-1920, London: Hudson's Bay Company.

Hudson’s Bay Company (1977), The Autumn and Winter Catalogue 1910-1911 of the Hudson’s Bay Company, Winnipeg: Watson & Dwyer.

Huff, Lois (2004), Industry Outlook: Department Stores, Columbus, OH: Retail Forward, February 2004, 40 pages.

Hughes, G. Bernard (1958), “Europe’s First Department Store?,” Country Life, Vol. 123 (May 15), pp. 1058-1059. The Schomberg House built in the 1698 on Pall Mall, was a sumptuous and palatial building. Part of it was a retail shop in 1784. More of it was converted into a much larger retail shop when Harding, Howell and Co bought the business from 2 previous shop owners in 1796. They acquired more space until the House became a single entity known as No. 89, Pall Mall, a well-known street for shopping in the 18th c. as discussed by Adburgham (1979, pp. 80-85). The middle block of the House expanded into five shops, with glazed partitions of mahogany, selling chintzes (printed cotton), textiles and accessories. One shop sold furs and fans; a 2nd one sold haberdashery, dress silks, muslins, lace, and gloves; a 3rd shop sold jewelry, ornamental articles, French clocks, as well as perfumes and toilet articles. A 4th shop sold millinery, dresses, and underwear. The neat picture on page 1059 depicts what the store looked like in 1809. It was a shop for high society women-only looking for exclusive goods. The upper floor had 40 men and women employed in the workrooms. The restaurant (called Mr. Cosway’s breakfast room) served tea, coffee, wine, and sweetmeats. It advertised using circulars and “press display.” The firm even secured sole selling rights to green on chintz. The firm declined in importance when printed chintz became cheaper to make from steam-driven machines. Their “exclusive appeal to high fashion” was lost. By 1850, Schomberg House became part of the War Office, and until 1939 was the dwelling of Princesses Marie Louise and Helena Victoria. But to call it a department store is incorrect because it was a store for the very rich of London/British/foreign society (some goods were bought by royalty, e.g. Prince of Wales, etc.). Many of the goods were made to order, unlike a true department store. The shop was typical of other stores then except it offered more assortments. There’s no indication the five internal shops were managed as profit centers, each having a manager in charge. The store was for high society (class conscious store), and only the selected few could shop there or enjoy tea. The very essence of a department store is classless!


“Human-Interest Story of Richard W. Sears” (1914), Printers’ Ink, Vol. 89 (October 3 No. 2), pp. 13, 17, 18, 21, 22, 25. This is an article on the practices and policies of the founder of Sears, Roebuck & Co., Richard Sears. Sales were over $100 million by 1914. In the 17 years he was in charge, his sales grew from zero to $50m. He sold his business and retired in 1909, having accumulated a fortune of $25m. The person who wrote this article is unknown.

Humphrey, Don (1958), “Training for Sales Development,” Chain Store Age, Grocery Executives edition, December, pp. A13-15ff. An article discussing sales training at Montgomery Ward.

Hungerford, Edward (1921) “Big Store Business,” Saturday Evening Post, Vol. 194 (No. 26), pp. 10-11.

Hungerford, Edward (1922), The Romance of a Great Store, NY: Robert M. McBride & Co. The story of Macy’s. A discussion on odd/even pricing, on pp. 26-27. He also reports Macy’s type of equipment used for customer deliveries, from 1873, in chapter 1. The book has a lot of pertinent information but the information is presented here and there. The author discusses the 3 Macy stores: the 1858 (14th Street one), the 9-story-1902 store (34th street one, also called Herald Square), and the upcoming but yet to be built 19-story store (1932) as additions to the 1902 one. He discusses elevators, escalators, logistics, company vacation plan, health plan, restaurant, savings, and other employee benefits. It is not an in depth history of Macy’s, unlike others it offers redeeming value. He also presents 2 RPM cases, won by Macy’s, and one case went all to the Supreme Court of the US (around 1914). He does not mention Macy’s presence in other cities (Toledo and Atlanta) because it was a post 1922 strategy (see Palmer 1929). Finally, there are no references and no index at the end.

Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine (1847), “Method in Trade Carried to Perfection”, Vol. 17, pp. 441-442, as part of a section called ‘Mercantile Miscellanies’ pp. 439-442. This article is from Jones (1936, p. 137) and the author is unknown. The information reported is from columns of a Southern Journal. It discusses the beginning of the department store, with departmentalized responsibilities by clerks and goods (for sales, commissions, etc.) from a pre-1847 dry goods store doing $300,000 per year located in Philadelphia. There’s even a communication system established between a clerk and the proprietor via a tube. The name of the magazine varies (Merchant’s, Hunt’s Magazine and Review, etc.). See Amicus (National Library of Canada data bank) for a more complete list).

Hutchinson, Brian (1996), “Is This Any Way to Run a Discount Store?,” Canadian Business, Vol. 69 (September), pp. 34-38. A look at the Bay’s Zellers.

Hutchinson, E. Lillian (1922), Housefurnishings, kitchenware and laundry equipment, NY: Ronald Press.

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