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The Wonderful World of the Department Store in Historical Perspective: A

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Fairbairn, Kenneth J. (1991), "West Edmonton: Entrepreneurial Innovation and Consumer Response," Canadian Geographer, Vol. 35, pp. 261-268.

Faircloth, Christopher (2009), Cleveland’s Department Stores, Mt Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing. Publisher’s comments: “Originating as simple one- or two-room storefront operations, Cleveland’s department stores grew as population and industry in the region boomed throughout the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th. They moved into ever larger and elaborate structures in an attempt to woo the shopping dollars of blue-collar and genteel Clevelanders alike. Stores such as Halle’s, Higbee’s, May Company, Bailey Company, Sterling-Lindner-Davis, and others both competed with and complemented one another, all the while leaving an indelible mark on the culture of northeast Ohio and beyond. From the humble origins of Halle’s horse-drawn delivery wagons and the elaborate design of Higbee’s on Public Square to Christmas favorites like Mr. Jingeling and the massive Christmas tree at Sterling-Lindner-Davis—it is all here in crisp, black-and-white images, many of which have not been seen in print for decades.”

Falk, David R. (1930), "Central Buying by Department-Stores Mergers," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 8 (April No. 3), pp. 265-273. Reprinted in Daniel Bloomfield ed. (1931) Trends in Retail Distribution, NY: Wilson, pp. 193-200.

Fantl, Alfred (1926), “’Styling’ the American Department Store with Foreign Merchandise, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 2 (October), pp. 3-5.

Faraut, François (1987), Histoire de la Belle Jardinière, Paris: Belin. The book is based on the author’s thèse de 3e cycle, “La Confection masculine depuis le XIXe siècle. Le cas de la Belle Jardinière,” Paris: E.H.E.S.S. Advisor, Louis Bergeron.

Faure, Alain (1979), “L’épicerie parisienne au X1X siècle ou la corporation éclatée,” Le mouvement social, No. 108 (July-September), pp. 113-130. The article discusses the emergence of independently owned grocery storeowners in Paris, notably from 1880 to 1895. Traditionally, such food stores were family owed, handed down from one generation to the next and such stores were also under the control of wholesalers. The article has a few neat points of discussion but is not easy to read due to the author’s style.

Faure, Alain (1984), “The Grocery Trade in Nineteenth-Century Paris: a Fragmented Corporation,” in Geoffrey Crossick and Heinz-Gerhard Haupt eds. Shopkeepers and Master Artisans in Nineteenth-Century Europe, London: Methuen, pp. 155-174. Similar to many European articles on the topic, the class status and struggle of the small grocer (i.e. small shop owner/keeper) is discussed.

Fawcett, Trevor (1990), “Eighteenth-Century Shops and the Luxury Trades,” Bath History, Vol. 3 pp. 49-55. The text lacks depth and far too many exaggerated statements are made about how savvy these 18th c. merchants were without any supporting evidence. As a result, the text lacks credibility. The author says on p. 72 that a ‘toyshop’ had so many items that these were “imitations of the future department store”. It is not only the number of items sold in a store that determines if the


store can be called a department store. Also, he states that such 18th c. store had “extra large street-level windows” (p. 54). The widows were nevertheless small. He also says “Shop interiors relied on light from the windows in daytime and candles and oil-lamps once it grew dark. They were well, sometimes sumptuously, equipped with counters (perhaps in mahogany), shelves, cabinets and drawers, showcases, boxes and canisters, cash-tills, scales and measures, supplies of wrapping paper…” p. 55).

Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1952), “What is Wrong with Department Stores Sales?” Monthly Review of Credit and Business Conditions, December, pp. 176-181. An analysis of the decline of department store sales located in metropolitan New York City. A similar article published earlier in the June issue discussed the long-term department store sales in NYC.

Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland (1946), Sales by Departments, Dept. of Research and Statistics, Cleveland, OH. Also Department Store Sales by Cities (1946).

Federhen, Deborah A. et al. (1986), Accumulation and Display: Mass Marketing Household Goods in America, 1880-1920, Winterthur, DE: Winterthur Museum.

Felski, Rita (1996) Cultural Studies, Vol. 10 (October No. 3), pp. 498-505. A review essay of Lesley Johnson (1993), The Modern Girl: Girlhood and Growing Up and Gail Reekie (1993), Temptations: Sex, Selling and the Department Store, Sydney: Australia: Allen and Unwin. Reekie offers a feminist view of consumption by examining the growth of modern sexed subjectivity in the development of the department store in Sydney, Australia. It is suggested that, although Reekie is at times inconsistent with theoretical stances, her presentation of the facets of department store culture help to form a strong feminist work on consumerism.

Feinberg, Richard and Jennifer Meoli (1991), “A Brief History of The Mall,” in Rebecca Holman and Michael Solomon eds. Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 18, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, pp. 426-427.

Feinberg, Samuel (1960), What Makes Shopping Centers Tick, NY: Fairchild Publications. The history of the shopping center in the U.S. See also Feinberg and Meoli (1991), and

Feinberg, Samuel (1962), “Keys to Survival of Downtown Department Stores,” Women’s Wear Daily, July 16, p. 6.

Feinberg, Samuel (1963), “Who’s Minding the Customer?,” Women’s Wear Daily, February 27, p. 14. A short discussion on department stores’ excessive preoccupation with costs and management’s lack of attention to customer service.

Ferry, John (1960), A History of the Department Store, NY: The Macmillan Co. The book has some information on Wanamaker. Also, "The T. Eaton Company, LTD., Toronto, Canada," pp. 304-310. A number of nice pictures are included as well. Reviewed by Samuel Thumin (1962), Journal of Marketing, Vol. 26 (January No. 1), pp. 118-119.

Feyeux, A. (1883), “La question des grands et des petits magasins,” La Réforme sociale, Vol. 5 (Janvier 16), pp. 358-364. A rather strong attack on the department store, especially the Bon Marché, in favor of the small shop, which was being eliminated. His distaste for le grand detail is quite strong and demonstrates the hatred some social critics had about the department store. It seems the author wrote another article on the topic later on. I checked until 1891 (Juillet-décembre), but did not find it.


Fife, George Buchanan, (1925), “Romance in the History of New York’s Big Stores,” The New York Evening World. A series of articles on the history of New York’s department stores in certain issues written in July and August.

Filene Book the (1923), Wm. Filene’s Sons Co.

Filene, Abraham Lincoln (1924), A Merchant's Horizon, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, with Burton Kline.

Filene, Edward A. (1919), “Why the employees run our business,” System, Vol. 35 (January), pp. 78-86. He is the son of William who took over the business in 1901.

Filene, Erward A. (1923), “More Sales: More Satisfied Customers–but Smaller Stocks,” System, September, pp. 270, 273, 350.

Filene, Erward A. (1923), “The Three Price Levels that Move, System, October, pp. 431-433, 478-484.

Filene, Erward A. (1923), “What is Back of a Fast Rate of Turnover,” System, November, pp. 583-586, 658-665.

Filene, Edward A. (1924), The Way Out: A Forecast of Coming Changes in America Business and Industry, NY: Doubleday, Page and Co. A book written by one of Filene's sons. Edward, who expresses his philosophy about life, the meaning of his employees and society in general in this book.

Filene, Edward (1926), More Profits from Merchandising, Chicago. A book written by Filene's other son and like his brother, expresses his insights about the role of a merchant in this book.

Filene, Edward A. (1928), "The Present Status and Future Prospects of Chains of Department Stores," American Economic Review, Supplement, Vol. 18 (March), pp. 19-24. This is the abstract of his paper presented at the American Economic Association December 27th 1927 Washington meeting, at the round table discussion on Recent Trends in Distribution, which included other presenters (Copeland and Clark), as well as discussants (Ted Beckman, Tosdal and Carl Schmalz). The paper has also been reproduced in full in Daniel Bloomfield ed. (1931), Trends in Retail Distribution Including a Brief on Chain Stores, The Handbook Series Volume 3, NY: The H. W. Wilson, pp. 262-277. Filene says that in 1927, Macy’s had 4 stores, the May Department Store had 6 stores. Gimbel Brothers had department stores in NYC, Philadelphia and Milwaukee and controlled or owned two Saks stores in NYC and Kaufmann and Baer in Pittsburgh. The Associated Dry Goods Corp (see page 267) owns department stores: James McCreery, NY, Hengerer, Buffalo, Stewart Dry Goods, Louisville, and controls under part ownership Gunther’s, NYC, Lord and Taylor, NYC. He also says that Federated Department Stores was organized in 1931, with such stores as Filene’s, Boston; Abraham and Straus, Brooklyn; Lazarus, Ohio; Bloomingdale’s, NYC. He predicted that department store chains would be huge and he was almost right in his predictions. So the merger madness was not just in the 1900s but also in the late 1920s early 1930s. FDS being formed a long time ago.

Filene, Edward A. (1929), “Are There Too Many Hands in Distribution?,” System, Vol. 47 (March), pp. 478-480, 639, 632-635.


Filene, Edward A., (1930), The Model Stock Plan, NY: McGraw-Hill. Price lining is discussed on pp. 14-35.

Filene, Edward A. (1930), “Department Store-Manufacturer’s Relationships,” Consumer Marketing Series No. 3. NY: American Management Association. Discussion by George Hopkins and others. The paper was presented at the 1930 Consumer Marketing Conference of the American Management Association, held at the William Penn Hotel October 22. Mr. Filene felt no need to revise his 1930 paper and it was reprinted in August 1934 by the AMA. It was reprinted again in a book by the Kraus Reprint Corporation of NY in 1967, in its Marketing Series, Number 1-II 1930-1932.

Filene, Edward A. (1934), The Consumer’s Dollar, NY: The John Day Company.

Filene, Edward A. (1937), Next Steps Forward in Retailing, NY: Harper and Row. With the collaboration of W. K. Gabler and P. S. Brown. Wanamaker is discussed in the book and perhaps other retail gurus as well.

Findlay, Allan, Ronan Paddison, and John Dawson eds. (1990), Retailing in Developing Countries, London and New York: Routledge.

Finger, William (1929), “Chain Store Movement in France,” Commerce Reports, February 4, pp. 259-262

Finn, Gerry (1980), "Department stores: The big get bigger," Financial Times of Canada, June 30, page 8.

“Fire Protection in Department Stores” (1904), Chicago Dry Goods Reporter, Vol. 34 (May 14), page 17.

Firestone, Mary (2007), Dayton’s Department Store, Mt Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing.

Fischer, A. T. (1921), Window and Store Display, Garden City: Doubleday, Page, and Co.

Fischer, Roger (1991), “’Holy John’ Wanamaker: Color, Cartoon Centerfold,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 115 (October No. 4), pp. 451-473. An article on the political career of Wanamaker with some new articles on Wanamaker cited.

Fitzell, Philip (1982), Private Labels Store Brands and Generic Products, Westport, CT: AVI Publishing. Chapter 2 is called "History of Private Labels," and much discussion is devoted to the private brands sold by Marshall Field, Eaton’s of Canada, and Macy's. Many of these department store brands had sole distribution rights, controlled or exclusive distribution, and could not be purchased anywhere else as defined by the agreement with the supplier. The agreement specified the geography where the department store had exclusivity and it could all of the US or some parts of it, very similar to typical contractual arrangements of today.

Fitzell, Philip (1992), Private Label Marketing in the 1990s, NY: Global Book Productions.

Fitzell, Philip (1998) Private Labels in North America Past, Present and Future, NY: Global Books, LLC.


Fitz-Gibbon, Bernice (1967), Macys, Gimbels and Me: How to Earn $90,000 a Year in Retail Advertising, NY: Simon and Schuster. This 380-page book presents some department store experience as well as her insights on the value of research and advertising agencies.

Flagg, Ernest (1894) "The Ecole des Beaux Arts," first paper, Architectural Record, Vol. 3 (March No. 3), pp. 302-313. Second paper, Vol. 3 (April-June No. 4), pp. 419-428. The first article does not tell us when l’Ecole was established. Both parts are a good description of this famous architectural school where many Americans were trained, similar to the Americans coming to Germany to study economics and applied economics (later to be called marketing) under the GHS of Economics. The German scholars who taught were Wagner, Knies, Schmoller, Engels and others. Gay the first dean of Harvard also studied under the Germans. (See the references for Edwin Gay in this bibliography). L'Ecole des BA was in France though. It should be remembered that many famous American architects either studied at l’Ecole des Beaux Arts or sent their sons. Daniel Burnham, the famous Chicago department store architect (among other and more important accomplishments) offered a young Louis Sullivan the chance to study there at his own expense but Louis turned the offer down because he would have had to work for Burnham. Louis Sullivan was too independent. Perhaps if he had accepted the offer he would have become an even greater architect instead of becoming an alcoholic later on and dying penniless, in spite of his many accomplishments (the 1893 Chicago’s World’s fair and the legendary Carson Pirie department store). Daniel Burnham sent one of his sons to study there but it’s not clear what happened to him. For sure, he did not follow in his father’s footsteps of fame and accomplishments.

Flanel, Sam (1965), Department Merchandising and Operating Results of Department and Specialty Stores in 1965, NY: National Retail Merchants Association.

Flavell, E., Penn and GR Salkin (1979), “The Planning of a Department Store,” Omega, Vol. 7 (1), pp. 25-32.

Flavier, (1874), “Les nouveaux magasins du Printemps,” L’Illustration, 28 mars, pp. 202-203.

Fleisher, Walter (1933), “Comfort Cooling for Stores,” The Architectural Forum, Vol. 58 (May), pp. 409-412. Air conditioning in stores.

Flower, Sidney (1902), The Mail Order Business, Chicago: S. Flower.

Forbes (1971), “Will the Store Be Minded?,” August 15, p. 44. An article on Korvette’s.

Forbes (1975), “The Orchestrated Growth of S. S. Kresge,” December, pp. 46-49.

Forbes (1977), “Arlen’s Dream Versus Korvettes’ Reality,” April 15, pp. 85-93.

Ford, G. B. (1907), “The Samaritaine department store in Paris,” The American Architect and Building News, Vol. 92 #1660, pp. 123-125.

Forest, Stephanie A. (1999), "A Penney Saved," Business Week, March 29, pp. 64, 66.

"Formal Opening of a Great Store" (1907), Drygoodsman and General Merchant, October 12, p. 15-21.


Forsell, William and Arthur Poole (1928), "Mechanical Aids to Merchandise Control in Department Stores," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 6 (April No. 3), pp. 330-342. This article is a summary of the authors’ 1927 thesis written for a course on retail store management at Harvard. Fortini, Amanda (2006), “The catwalk: a brief history,” National Post, (February 15), p. A14. Valerie Steele, chief curator and director of the Museum at the Fashion Institute of Technology, (NYC) said the fashion show was central to the development of the department store.

Fortune (1933), “R. H. Macy & Co., Inc.,” Vol. 7 (April No. 4), pp. 22-33, 120-128.

Fortune (1933), “Water Still Freezes” Vol. 7 (May No. 5), pp. 73-76, 90, 92. The article discusses the plight of icemakers facing stiff competition from iceless icebox/electric refrigerators/mechanical marvel machine. In 1931, Frigidaire spent $2.3 m in advertising. In 1922, only 12k iceless iceboxes were sold vs. 965k in 1931 during the Depression years. About 30 million families then with only 2/3 using either type. The average price was $258 in 1931 down to $190 in 1932 (p. 92). But then the department store “encouraged assembled jobs (one man’s box, another man’s motor) sold private-brand refrigerators down to $69.50.” Crosley had brought the price down to $99.50 previously. So the department store using low price and private brand accelerated the sale of the product even more.

Fortune (1933), "Marshall Field & Co.," Vol. 7 (July No. 7). Need to verify this reference.

Fortune (1936) “Philadelphia,” Vol. 13 (June No. 6), pp. 66-75, 175-176, 179, 181-182, 185-188, 190, 192, 201-202, 205-206, 208.

Fortune (1936), "Marshall Field & Co." Vol. 14 (October No. 4), pp. 78-87, 134, 136, 138, 141.

Fortune (1938), "General Robert E. Wood, President," Vol. 18 (May No. 5), pp. 66-69, 104, 106, 108, 110. An article discussing the CEO of Sears, which at that time was the biggest merchandiser in the US with over $575 million in sales and 490 stores in 45 states. He was once considered to be a presidential candidate in 1940.

Fortune (1943), “That Refrigeration Boom,” Vol. 28 (December No. 6), pp. 161-164, 244, 246, 249, 250, 252, 255, 256. On pages 163-64, Sears is discussed. The article discusses the ‘mechanical refrigeration’ industry, which gave birth to the frozen food industry, and helped the AC industry as well, among others.

Fortune (1945), “Bernard Gimbel: Top Merchant,” Vol. 32 (July No. 1), pp. 124-127, 221, 222, 225, 226, 228.

Fortune (1945), “Marshall Field, The Store,” Vol. 32 (December No. 6), pp. 142-147, 290, 293, 294, 296, 299, 299, 300. Only 15% of its sales were outside Metro Chicago, even though charge accounts were from every state of the union.

Fortune (1948), "Young Sears, Roebuck," Vol. 37 (August No. 2), pp. 84-87, 129-132.

Fortune (1948), “Mr. Fred of the Lazari,” Vol. 37 March No. 3), pp. `108-115, 162, 165-166, 168-170, 173-174, 176, 178. Lazarus department store.

Fortune (1950), “Sears, Roebuck in Rio,” Vol. 41 (February No. 2), pp. 78-80, 151, 152, 155, 156.


Fortune (1950), “Penney’s, King of the Soft Goods,” Vol. 42 (September), pp. 101ff. Reprinted in George Brown ed. (1955) Readings in Marketing, NY: Henry Holt and Company, pp. 51-56.

Fortune (1953) "The Lush New Suburban Market," Vol. 48 (November No. 5), pp. 131-133. See also Business Week (1951, 1955), Saunders (1951), Breckenfeld (1972).

Fortune (1960), “Montgomery Ward: Prosperity is Still Around the Corner,” Vol. 62 (November No. 5), pp. 138-143, 219-220, 222. Reprinted in Martin Carter, Charles Ray and Walter Weintraub eds. (1965), Management Challenges and Response Case Histories from Fortune, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, pp. 101-112.

Fortune (1967), “How They Minted the New Penney” Vol. 76 (July No. 1), pp. 108-113, 156, 160, 165.

Fortune (1970), “The Strategy That Saved Montgomery Ward,” Vol. 81 (May), pp. 168-171, 226, 231, 234, 237, 240, 246.

Fortune (1980), “Burdine’s,” Vol. 101 (March No. 6), pp.

“Fortunes Made in Business: Aristicide Boucicaut, the Bon Marché King,” (1878), London Society, April.

Forty, Adrien (1986), Objects of Desire: Design and Society since 1750, London: Thames and Hudson.

Foster, Lauren (2003), “Department stores must adapt or die,” National Post, December 26, page FP8. Based on an article published in the Financial Times of London.

Fournier, Jean-Pierre (1983), « La mort des grands magasins ?, » L’Actualité, mai, pp. 27-28.

Fowler, Glenn (1955), “Stores Learn Wants of Customers in New (Old) Way: Just Ask Them,” New York Times, October 30, pp. 1F. Consumer intentions survey used by department in order to predict sales of particular styles of clothing: what will be the style of dress to be purchased next season?

Fowler, Pauline (1983), “The Toronto Eaton Centre and Its Precedent, the Galleria in Milan,” Fifth Column, Vol. 3 (Summer No. 3.4), pp. 84-86.

Fox, Jim (1997), "Eaton's, Canadian retail icon falters," Discount Store News, Vol. 36 (April 14), pp. 6, 62.

Frager, Ruth (1992), "Class, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Eaton Strikes of 1912 and 1934," in Franca Iacovetta and Mariana Valverde eds. Gender Conflicts New Essays in Women's History, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 189-228. An article discussing labor issues at Eaton's, Canada's largest department store at the time, and the plight of women working in the department store industry and their effect as consumers.

Francis, Diane (1986), "The Eatons," in her Controlling Interest Who Owns Canada? Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, pp. 79-84.


François-Cahen, S. (1952) "Le grand magasin, baromètre de conjoncture et terrain d’études économiques,” thesis, Paris.

Franklin, Alfred (1894), Les magasins de nouveautés (4 volumes), Paris: Librarie Plon. This volume was published in 1894, while the other volumes were published in 1895 (Vol. 2), 1896 (Vol. 3) and 1898 (Vol. 4). This series of books on “les magasins de nouveautés” are part of a large number of other books published by the author covering many other topics. In some ways, the series resemble Georges D’Avenel’s work except that Franklin’s work is historical in nature covering the life of Parisians and France from the twelfth century to the seventeenth century. They are all part of his collection called La Vie Privée d’Autrefois Arts et Métiers Modes, Moeurs, Usages des Parisiens du X11ièm au XV111ièm siècle. These four volumes are really the history of retailing and wholesaling in Paris (and France) from the middle ages until the 17th c. We can see the evolution of retailers (called merciers initially as a class of merchants, i.e. mercers), what they were allowed to sell according to the laws in effect at the time. A review of the precursors of the French department stores is important if we are to have a better understanding of their place in France’s distribution structure in the late 19th c. and beyond. For example, merciers by edict were not allowed to manufacture anything but they were permitted to add value to the products they were reselling (enjoliver). Obviously, the department store had manufacturing plants but we don’t know when the change took place. We know that US department stores had no such history, with their evolution and development different from those in France, and perhaps elsewhere in Europe. The 4 volumes by Franklin are easy to read but only volumes 1 and 4 have relevance to marketing (in my humble opinion). Volume 3 has a 146-page discussion on colors (yikes!). Franklin seems to be preoccupied in all 4 volumes on what products were available to the bourgeois class and not to the common people. Most if not all the products and small stores that sold them were probably serving that class of customers and the common people were perhaps forbidden to shop there. These stores and merchants often had their shops in the king’s palace. Franklin also uses lots of quotes from poets and other writers of the time to describe people’s lives, a practice uncommon by current marketing writers, but typically done by anthropologists. He also has a fixation of describing the many decrees of the time and how they were set up, controlled, etc. It means that Paris, before the Revolution, was an extremely controlled society. One’s occupation was clearly defined so that nobody but nobody could do somebody’s else job; limits were set as to who could do what, with what, for how long, where, with whom, and with what material. The interventionist role of the state was all-pervasive. Franklin’s story of shoes and the invention of the umbrella (tome 4) are quite fascinating and worthwhile reading. His description of how laundry was done in Paris is also quite interesting (tome 4).

Franklin, William (1957), “Department Store Sales: Bubble or Boom?,” Conference Board Business Record, Vol. 14 (September No. 9), pp. 415-416.

Fraser, Antonia (2001), Marie Antoinette, NY: Random House, First Anchor Books Edition 2002.

Fraser, W. Hamish (1981), The Coming of the Mass Market 1850-1914, Hamdon, CT: Archon Books. A study which analyses the relationship between the emergence of mass production, retailing and marketing in the UK. The book is quite unique and easy to read and very informative. It traces the way people fed themselves, housed, clothed and entertained themselves from 1850 to early the 20th c. But surprisingly, there is very little on the influence of the department store in fostering a mass market/mass consumption society. The author discusses mostly small shops. The department store is discussed but only briefly (pp. 128-133). Finally, the references at the end of the book are cumbersome and they are incomplete, making it hard for anyone interested to access some of them.


Fredriksson, Cecilia (1997), “The Making of a Swedish Department Store Culture,” in Pasi Falk and Colin Campbell eds. The Shopping Experience, London: Sage, pp. 111-135. Examines the emergence of a department store culture and "civilized consumption" in Sweden. The evolution of Swedish department stores & their changing roles as centers for recreation & relaxation, rather than strict consumption, are discussed. Miscellaneous department store activities & characteristics are described, e.g., shoplifting, visiting a department store through the eyes of a child, and the nature of window & decorative displays. The emergence of the department store as a new public sphere and the culture of consumption are given particular attention.

Freedgood, Seymour (1958), “Hudson’s Bay: Return to Greatness,” Fortune, Vol. 58 (August), pp. 72-79, 126, 128, 130.

Freeman, Alex (1967), “White Collar Crime in the Department Store,” Research Studies, Vol. 35 (2), pp. 172-176.

Friebe, Wolfgang (1985), Buildings of the World Exhibitions, trans. from German by Jenny Vowles and Paul Roper, Leipzig: Druckerel Volksstimms Magdeburg. Paris 1855, people counter on p. 33.

Friedel, Robert (1994), “The History of the Zipper,” Invention & Technology, Summer, pp. 8-16.

Friedlander, JS (1957), “Perspectives on Merchandise Management Accounting,” New York Retailer, December, pp. 2-8.

Friedlander, JS (1958), “Further Perspectives on Merchandise Management Accounting,” New York Retailer, February 1958, pp. 12-16, 21.

Friedlander, JS (1958), “The Positive Approach to Merchandise Management Accounting,” New York Retailer, April, p. 16.

Friedman, Brian (1988), "Productivity Trends in Department Stores, 1967-1986," Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 111 (March No. 3), pp. 17-21.

Friedman, J.P. (1929), “The Retail Method of Inventory,” Journal of Accountancy, Vol. 47, pp. 106-118.

Friedman, J.P. (1935), “Cost Problems of Department Stores,” Journal of Accountancy, Vol. 59 (February No. 2), pp. 105-116.

Friedman, Lee Max (1954) “The Problems of Nineteenth Century American Jewish Peddlers of America,” American Jewish Historical Quarterly, Vol. 44 (September No. 1), pp. 1-8.

Friedman Walter (1998), “John H. Patterson and the Sales Strategy of the National Cash Register Company, 1884 to 1922,” Business History Review, Vol. 72 (Winter No. 4), pp. 552-584.

Fritsch, William (1953), Progress and Profits, The Sears, Roebuck Story in Peru, Washington, DC: Action Committee for International Development. Reference from Truitt (1984).


Frothingham, W. (1862), “Stewart, and the Dry Goods Trade of New York,” The Continental Monthly Vol. 2 (November), pp. 528-534. A good account of the Stewart way of doing business. Benson (1986) gives 1863 for this reference.

Frueh, Erne Rene (1939), “Retail Merchandising in Chicago, 1833-1848,” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. 32 (June No. 2), pp. 149-172. An interesting article on Chicago’s retail landscaper prior to the city becoming a major world city and before the arrival of Marshall Field, Potter Palmer, and others. One ad in 1835 stated that the merchant John Holbrook, sold ready made clothing. According to the author, retail specialists existed yet bookstores sold books but also dry goods, hardware, and patent medicines. This is similar to a general store. The author states that many retailers bartered with clients, and used ads in newspapers. Few illustrations were used with no “superlatives.”

Fry, Joseph (1961), “Impact of a Shopping Centre,” The Business Quarterly, Vol. 26 (Summer), pp. 89-96. The impact of the first downtown shopping centre in North America: Wellington Square, London, Ont.

Fryer, William (1869), “Iron Store Fronts,” Architectural Review and American Builders’ Journal, Vol. 1 (April), pp. 621ff.

Fuessle, Milton (1915), “Elbert Hubbard, Master of Advertising and Retailing,” The Advertising World, Vol. 20 (August-September), pp. 135-144.

Fukami, Giichi (1953), "Japanese Department Stores," Journal of Marketing, Vol. 18 (July No. 1), pp. 41-49.

Fuller Wayne (1972) The American Mail Enlarger of the Common Life, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. The author lists important dates on pp. 343-347, but many are missing. Wanamaker is discussed in the book because he was Postmaster and he was a very innovative one too.

Fullerton, Ronald (1990), “Art of Public Relations: US Department Stores, 1876-1913,” Public Relations Review, Vol. 16 (Fall No. 8), pp. 68-79. An historical analysis of the use of PR by department stores.

Fullerton, Ronald (1994), “Marketing Action and the Transformation of Western Consciousness: The Examples of Pulp Literature and the Department Store,” in Ronald Fulleron ed. Explorations in the History of Marketing, Supplement 6, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, pp. 237-254.

Fullerton, Ronald and Girish Punj (2003), “Kleptomania: A Brief Intellectual History,” in Eric Shaw ed. The Romance of Marketing History, Proceedings of 11th CHARM (Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing), Boca Raton, FL: Association for Historical Research in Marketing, pp. 201-209.

Fullerton, Ronald and Girish Punj (2004), “Shoplifting as Moral Insanity: Historical Perspectives on Kleptomania,” Journal of Macromarketing, Vol. 24 (No. 1), pp. 8-16.

Fulop, Christina 1964), Competition for Consumers A Study of the Changing Channels of Distribution, London: George Allen and Unwin. Discussion on the department store on pp. 43-70 and 305-309, and other pages. She briefly traces the history of department store. Her references are hard to decipher.


Furlough, Ellen (1991) The Consumer Cooperative Movement in France: The Politics of Consumption, 1834-1930, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Furlough, Ellen (1993), “Selling the American Way in Interwar France: Prix Uniques and the Salon Des Arts Ménagers,’ Journal of Social History, Vol. 26 (Spring No. 3), pp. 491-519. The reference list on French retailing is quite impressive. This article like so many done by historians shows that retailing, part of marketing, is quite a complex process evolving over time due to changing economic conditions, consumer purchasing power, urban development, technology, established ways of doing business, unions, resistance to large scale retailing, dislike for mass produced goods, etc. In other words, it is uneven, messy, linked with the social fabric of the society.

Furlough, Ellen and Carl Strikwerda eds. (1999), Consumers Against Capitalism? Consumer Cooperation in Europe, North America and Japan, 1840-1990, Lanham, Maryland: Roman and Littlefield.

Furnas, J.C. (1941), “The Super Market Basket,” Forbes, Vol. 48 (December No. 12), pp. 24-25, 38. The article discusses the rise of the supermarket as a new retail institution. It says that A&P carried 600 items while a supermarket might carry 2k and up to 10k. Self-service in the food business is a new trend even though it began in 1912 at the Alfa Beta stores in LA. It then spread to Piggly Wiggly stores in 1916. He discusses Clarence Saunders’ patented Keedoozle store innovation in 1937, an automated mechanized store, based on modern supply chain principles but far too futuristic then and even today. The store was mechanized using a robot store except it did not make change or put the groceries in bags. It had a high failure rate and often, the system failed which irritated shoppers.

Furstenberg, Leona (1939), “Department-Store Hours of Doing Business,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 15 (April), pp. 33-39ff.

Gable, Myron, K. Gillespie, and Martin Topal (1984), “The Current Status of Women in Department Store Retailing: An Update” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 60 (Summer No. 2), pp. 86-104.

Gable, Myron and Martin Topol (1988) “Machiavellianism and the Department Store Executive,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 64 (Spring No. 1), pp. 68-84.

Gable, Myron, Susan Fiorito and Martin Topal (1994), “The Current Status of Women in Department Store Retailing: 1993” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 70 (Spring No. 1), pp. 65-74.

Gable, Myron, Susan Fiorito and Topol (2005), “The Current Status of Women in US Department Stores Retailing," The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, Vol. 15 (April No. 2), pp. 217-225.

Gabler, Werner (1934), “An Abstract of Problems of American Department Store,” Zurich. Manuscript in Baker Library, Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration. Reference taken from Raff (1991).

Gaillard, Jeanne (1977), Paris, La Ville 1852-1870, Paris, Éditions Honoré Champion. The 1997 edition is with edition L’Harmattan Inc. and is a reduced volume. The 1977 edition is much more complete than the 1997 edition. It has 687 pages (vs. 525) and pp. 525-558 and 622-631 are on the


department store. The historical book on Paris discusses the department store and its impact on other stores in a section called “Le Paris des Grands Magasins” pp. 393-. 422). It is noteworthy that many such stores went bankrupt at the time others prospered. She discusses many other topics, including the role of the department store in buying goods abroad and having local manufacturers make goods needed for the store. The book was published in 1977 under the same title but not the same publisher, Librairie Honoré Champion. It is based on her 1975 thesis. This new edition was prepared by Florence Bourillon and Jean Luc Pinol. The 1997 edition has 528 pages but the bibliography is rather sparse and hard to follow, which is typical for French books. On pp. IX and X, the editors state that the original bibliography was too extensive and it was therefore reduced for this volume. Surprisingly, the book has no index, an omission that is not only unacceptable, but also unnecessarily increases the effort needed to find any relevant information.

Gallanis, Peter (1999), “Sears’ new ‘Good Life’ campaign to capitalize on EDLP craze,” Discount Store News, Vol. 38 (September 6), p. 33.

Gallanis, Peter (2000), “Sears rolls out pilot program to test in-store innovations,” DSN Retailing Today, Vol. 39 (September 20 No. 18), pp. 1, 113.

Gallanis, Peter (2000), “New CEO outlines Lacy side of Sears,” DSN Retailing Today, Vol. 39 (November 20 No. 22), pp. 1, 44.

Gardner, Deborah (1979), "The Architecture of Commercial Capitalism, John Kellum and the Development of New York, 1840-1875," Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University.

Gardner, Deborah (1984), "A Paradise of Fashion: A. T. Stewart's Department Store, 1862-1875," in Joan M. Jenson and Sue Davidson eds. A Needle, A Bobbin, A Strike: Women Needleworkers in America, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, pp. 60-80. This is an excellent article about the labor conditions of women as well as some good insights on A. T. Stewart and the department store.

Gardner, Edward (1945), “Consumer Goods Classification,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 9 (January), pp. 275-276. Charles Coolidge Parlin in his 1912 Department Store report, Volume B, October used the expressions “convenience goods” and “shopping lines,” as well as “emergency goods.” The creation of these terms was linked to the department store.

Gardner, Mark (1993), “Rich’s of Atlanta–Does a Change of Ownership Affect Corporate Culture?,” Essays in Economic and Business History, Selected papers from the Economic and Business Historical Society, MSU Business Studies, Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Vol. 11, pp. 1976, Rich’s was sold to FDS, and in 1988, FDS was acquired by Campeau.

Gardner, Mark (1995), “R. H. Macy and Its Struggle to Remain Competitive in Retailing,” Essays in Economic and Business History, Selected papers from the Economic and Business Historical Society, MSU Business Studies, Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Vol. 13, pp. 365-372.

Gardner, N. J. Jungsuck Huh and Lan Chung (2002), “Lessons from the Sampoong department store collapse,” Cement &Concrete Composition, Vol. 24, pp. 523-529.

Garland, Madge (1962), Fashion, Middlesex, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd. See chapter 5 “The Rise of the Ready-to-Wear Market.” The book is short on text and long on illustrations.


Nevertheless, we get a brief overview of the haute couture market with very brief historical comments about fashion in general at the beginning of each chapter. While the department store is not discussed, we can see the importance of shops selling such clothing.

Garfinkel, Judith (1995), “Goodbye Sears, Hello Home Depot,” Urban Land, Vol. 54 (October No. 10), pp. 22-23. The former Philadelphia Sears distribution center built in the 1920s is demolished in favor of Home Depot, along with other tenants in a new retail development on the renamed site now called Northeast Tower Center.

Garrigues, Henri (1898), Les Grands Magasins de Nouveautés et le Petit Commerce de Détail, Librairie Nouvelle de Droit et de Jurisprudence, Paris: Arthur Rousseau, Éditeur. The book describes the plight of small Parisian retailers and their use of political forces against department stores, which was threatening their very existence. The author offers a balance view of what small retailers were saying about the perils of the department store on social and economic life and the benefits they actually brought to the consumers and the economy.

Garvin, Alexander (1996), The American City What Works, What Doesn’t, NY: McGraw-Hill, arcades pp. 101-121.

Gauci, Perry (2007), Emporium of the World: The Merchants of London 1660-1800 NY: Hambledon Continuum. The social impact of English overseas merchants during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Discussion of merchant societies of London, York, and Liverpool.

Gault, Edgar H. (1931), Performance of Department Stores, Ann Arbor, MI: Bureau of Business Research, University of Michigan. This annual report, from 1931, 1932, 1933. It then changed focus to Departmental Merchandising Results in Small Department Stores from 1948 to 1964. These reports are available at the OSU library. Also Bureau of Business Research (1928) Operating Expenses of Department Stores and Departmentized Specialty Stores in 1928. Bulletin 78, Boston: Harvard University.

Gault, Edgar. (1952), “Suburban Branches: A New Trend in Retailing,” Michigan Business Review, Vol. 4 (November), pp. 9-13.

Gault, Edgar H. (1962), ‘The Discount Department Store—A Retail Illusion,” Michigan Business Review, Vol. 14 (January), pp. 13-17.

Gaw, Walter (1949), “The Use of Training films in Department Stores,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 13 (April No. 4), pp. 563-564.

Gayle, Margot (1975), “Cast-Iron Architecture, USA,” Historic Preservation, Vol. 27, pp. 14-19. Historic preservation: quarterly of the National Council for Historic Sites and Buildings, Washington, DC.

Gaylor, William (1929), “Heating and Ventilating the Department Store,” The Architectural Forum, Vol. 50 (June No. 6), pp. 949-954.

Gebolys, Debbie (1998), “Downtown Lazarus is readied for 21st century,” Columbus Dispatch, Sunday May 10, pp. G1-G2.


Geiger, John (2010), Case 2: “Carpets, Lace & Champagne: The Hudson’s Bay Company after the Deed of Surrender,” in Joe Martin, Relentless Change: A Casebook for the Study of Canadian Business History, University of Toronto Press, pp. 39-59.

Geist, Johann F. (1979), Passagen-Ein Bautyp des 19. Jahrbunderts, 3rd edition, Munich. Prestel-Verlag. Translated by Jane Newman and John Smith (1983) as Arcades the History of a Building Type, Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The history of (shopping) arcades, as a building type. The book is probably the only one ever to discuss in great detail the evolution of retail organizations from temporary stalls to fixed locations to the department store, based on building type and architecture. Geist argues that the arcade was not a department store nor was it a magasin de nouveautés or another retail establishment type. Eventually, arcades contributed to the establishment of this form of building type. Some arcades evolved into department stores but that was a European phenomenon, not in NA, given that only a few were built here (e.g. Cleveland, Atlanta, and Boston). On page 51, he argues that the organizational origin of the department store was from the magasin de nouveautés and the drapery shop. The first magasin de nouveautés was the Pygmalion in 1793, on rue St. Denis in Paris. The book has a catalogue of all arcades built from pre-18th c to mid 20th c. Geist argues that arcades were a mid 19th c. building type and very few were built before the 19th c. and after. Moreover, most were built in Western Europe and few were built in other countries (e.g. Argentina, Australia, Brazil, New Zealand, US, Turkey, Canada, South Africa, Singapore, and Eastern Europe). Much more information on the evolution of the department store as a building type can be found in this book. German economists, such as Werner Sombart (Der moderne kapitalisismus) and others, may have influenced his understanding of the origin of the department store. It seems the German literature may contain some useful and perhaps unknown information on the evolution of the department store. But to do such historical research, one must know the language! As expected, many of the references are in German. See Blake (1966). Book reviewed by Larry Good (1983), Texas Architect, Vol. 33 (March-April, No. 2), pp. 80-81.

Gellately, Robert (1974), The Politics of Economic Despair: Shopkeepers and German Politics 1890-1914, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. The book discusses the small retailer during the period and retailing’s role in German society. The department store is discussed and the book is a must to understand the complicated relation retailing and the department store have with German politics and the rise of Nazism. The development of the German department store is well explained on pp. 41-45.

Gellately, Robert (1974/75), “German Shopkeepers and the Rise of National Socialism,” The Wiener Library Bulletin, No. 28, pp. 31-40. He says on p. 31 “The Nazis never ceased to point out, for example, that the majority of department stores―which had been deeply resented ever since their appearance in Germany in the 1890s―were owned by Jews:”

Gemahling, Paul (1929), « La concentration commerciale sans grands magasins, » Revue d’économie politique, mars-avril, pp. 181ff.

George, Paul (1998), “The Florida Store,” South Florida History, Vol. 26 (No. 3), pp. 20-29. Burdine’s was Miami’s first department store in 1898.

Gerdel, John (1980), “Department Stores: A Bright Future,” in Ronald Stampfl and Elizabeth. Hirschman (eds.) Competitive Structure in Retail Markets: The Department Store Perspective, Proceedings, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 63-69.


Gerlach, S. (1988), Das Warenhaus in Deutschland, Seine Entwicklung bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg in historisch-geographischer Sicht, Stuttgart: Frank Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GmbH. This is a study of the development and expansion of a German department store from its beginning until the WWI. It looks at the store itself as well as the store’s functional relationship with its geographical space in an urban setting.

Germahling, Paul (1912), « La concentration commerciale sans grands magasins, » Revue d’économie politique, March-April, pp. 182ff.

Geurts, Michael, Dennis Tolley and Henry Wurts (1993), “Forecasting Department Store Stock Prices Using Revenue Data,” in-John Guerard Jr. and Mustafa Gultekin, eds. Handbook of Security Analyst Forecasting and Asset Allocation, Greenwich, CT and London: JAI Press.

Gibbens, T. C. N. and Joyce Prince (1962), Shoplifting, London: The Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency. They suggest on pp. 72-73, that sexual excitement is a contributing factor to shoplifting.

Gibbons, Herbert Adams, (1926), John Wanamaker, 2 volumes, NY: Harper and Bros. Reprinted by Kennikat Press, Port Washington, NY, 1971.

Gibbons, Gail (1984), Department store, NY: Crowell.

Gibbs-Smith, C. H. (1981), The Great Exhibition of 1851, second edition, London: Her Majesty’s Stationary Office. The first edition was in 1950. This small book (under 100 pages) presents some interesting facts on pp. 23-24. Also it is evident, at least to me that the consumer goods on display were not for the masses, but for the elites of society (aristocrats, barons, princes, or the very wealthy). The illustrations provided ample support for my thesis. Moreover, The Art-journal illustrated catalogue (1852) of The Crystal Palace published for the proprietors Art journal, UK: W. M. Clark, has 328 pages of illustrations of goods displayed at the Crystal Palace (i.e. an illustrated cyclopaedia of the great exhibition of the industry of all nations and its contents). After looking over each and every one of the items shown, not one can be considered as products for the masses. This fact would tend to contradict the statement made by Auerbach (1999, p. 121) that thousands of people showed up after the Exposition closed supposedly to buy the goods. Such a fact needs more confirmation because Gibbs-Smith (1981, p. 27) stated, “on Wednesday, 15th October, the final closing ceremony took place. The removal of the goods started immediately.” i.e. the products were taken away as soon as the Exposition was closed. This same 1852 illustrated catalogue was reproduced in 1970 by Bounty Books of NY.

Gibson, D. (1913), “Retailing Goods by Mail,” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 57 (January 25), p. 16.

Giedion, Siegfried (1928), Bauen in Frankreich, Bauen in Eisen, Bauen in Eisenbeton, Leipzig: Klinkhardt and Biermann. This short book was reproduced and translated by J. Duncan Berry in 1995 as Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferroconcrete, with an introduction by Sokratis Georgiadis, Santa Monica, CA: Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities. This book, according to Artley (1970 page 128), is an important one, given that it provides good illustrations of the Bon Marché store in Paris. However, I was not taken by the book due to its lack of text. The book has a chronology of building materials used in France. That author made an error by saying that the first department store made of iron was the 1876 Bon Marché. In reality, it was the A. T. Stewart store built in 1862. There is a section on the department store (pp. 115-119).


Giffard, Pierre (1882), Paris sous la Troisème République Les grands bazars, Paris: Victor Havard. Pevsner (1976) names this book simply as Les grands magasins, dated the same year (see p. 324).

Gignoux, Claude (1945), Turgot. Arthème, Paris: Fayard.

Gilchrist, S. (1994), “Dinosaur of the retailing age stages a comeback,” Times, February 28th, p. 38.

Gille, Bertrand (1956), “Recherches sur l’origine des grands magasins parisiens, notes d’orientation,” in Paris et Ile-de-France Mémoires published by la Fédération des sociétés historiques et archéologiques de Paris et de l’Ile-de-France, Tome 7, Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck, pp. 251-264. The title of this article does not live up to its content. No mention is made of how numerous grands magasins, such as le Bon Marché, arrived on the Parisian retail scene in the 1850s. It does reinforce the notion that the department store started in the mid- 1820s selling used clothing. The economies of scale in repairing clothes for resale resulted in the sale of more and more brand new ready to wear clothes, especially with the arrival of the sewing machine in the 1850s and beyond.

Gillespie, Karen (1977), “Status of Women in Department and Specialty Stores: A Survey,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 53 (Winter), pp. 17-32.

Gillet, Dominique (1952), “Les Grands Magasins,” in Le Monde des Affaires en France de 1830 à nos jours, Paris: Société d’Edition de dictionnaires et Encyclopédies, chapter 11, pp. 400-409. The chapter is well done. It discusses all French department stores including la Belle Jardinière, le Louvre, le Bon Marché, la Samaritaine, et les Galleries Lafayette. Dominique Gillet is presumably the author of this chapter but the list of contributors to the book spells the name as Dominique Guillet. See Boudet (1952) for more information.

Gillette, Howard (1985), “The Evolution of the Planned Shopping Center in Suburb and City,” Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 51 (Autumn), pp. 449-460.

“Gimbel Brothers, Inc. Appreciation of Fixed Assets; Earnings of Subsidiaries; Retail Store Accounts (1940), The Accounting Review, Vol. 15 (September No. 3 No. 3), pp. 406-412. Part of a series on accounting cases.

Ginsburg, Madelaine (1980), “Rags to Riches: The Second-Hand Clothes Trade, 1700-1978,” Costume, Vol. 14 pp. 121-135.

Girard, M. H. (1845), “Kleptomanie,” Gazette Médicale de Paris, November.

Glazebrook, G. de T, Katharine Brett and Judith McErvel eds. (1969), A Shopper's View of Canada's Past; Pages from Eaton's Catalogues 1886-1930, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. The ‘Introduction’ by Glazerbrook (pp. iii-ix), followed by Brett’s ‘Notes on Fashions in Costume’ (pp. x-xiv), followed by McErvel’s ‘Wages and Prices’ are the only text in the book; the book has 286 pages on various Eaton’s catalogues. On page 8, Butterick’s dress patterns are advertised as well as Eaton’s being the “the agency for two thousand leading American, and five hundred British, German, French and Russian periodicals.” Ready-made clothing was available in 1892 (p. 12), and Eaton’s also advertised its grocery department (p. 53) in 1899.

Gleed, Charles S (1902), “John Wanamaker,” The Cosmopolitan, May.


Glave, H. E. (1943), “The Application of Self-Service to Department and Specialty Stores,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 19 (December), pp. 103-110.

Godinez, F. Laurent (1914), Display Window Lighting and the City Beautiful: Facts, and New Ideas for Progressive Merchants, NY.

Godkin, E. L. (1882), “Stewarts,” The Nation, Number 877, April 20, page 332.

Godkin, E. L. (1882), “Stewart’s,” The Nation, Vol. 34, No. 877, April 20, page 332. It was not clear who exactly wrote this short article on Stewart because no name was indicated on the page. The article discusses the passing of Stewart “it was not Stewart’s that made New York, but New York that made and unmade Stewart’s.” The article goes on by stating, “Stewart’s had been built up by that untiring industry and devotion to details which explain the rise of most modern industrial fortunes. Stewart himself knew ‘dry goods’ as Laplace and Herschel knew planets, or as Rothschild knew the names on the backs of bills of exchange.” … “it was in its day a mighty store, a store the name of which was known in every American household or cabin from Maine to California.” Finally, Stewart catered to women who loved shopping, it was their right. Ex-judge Hilton who took over the business “had no training or apprenticeship in the business.”

Godinez, F. Laurent (1914), Display Window Lighting and the City Beautiful: Facts and New Ideas for Progressive Merchants, NY.

Godley, Andrew and Scott Fletcher (2001), “International Retailing in Britain, 1850-1994,” Services Industries Journal, Vol. 21 (April No. 2), pp. 31-46.

Godley, Andrew (2002), "’What Was New in the 1980s?,’ International Retailing in Britain from 1850-1991," International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research, Vol. 12 (No. 1), pp.

Goeldner, Charles (1962), “Automation in Marketing,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 26 (January), pp. 53-56. A good review of automation, circa 1960. He discusses the Saunders’ patented Keedoozle store innovation, a completely automatic store opened in 1937 but closed in 1949. He cites Macy’s tried to sell men’s clothing (shorts, T-shirts) in vending machines. Many other department stores tried also vending machines (Rich’s, Montgomery Ward). Automation will have more of an impact at the wholesale than the retail level.

Gold, Peter and Lucy Woodliffe (2000), "Department Stores in Spain: Why El Corte Ingles Succeeded where Galerias Preciados Failed," International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 28 (Number 8), pp. 333-340.

Goldenberg, Susan (1975), "Eaton's popularity has declined, according to a consumer study," Financial Post, (September 27), page 14.

Goldenberg, Susan (1976), “Services Are the Growth Product for the Department Stores,” Financial Post, (April 10), p. 11.

Goldenberg, Suzy (1985), “Eaton’s Strike and Boycott,” Canadian Dimension. Vol. 19 (May-June, No. 2), pp. 23-25. An article discussing the labor strikes in Toronto London and St Catherines in 1984.


Goldman Arie (1975-76), “Stages in the Development of the Supermarket, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 51 (4), pp. 49-62.

Goldsman, EN (1931), “An historical survey of British window dressing,” in H. Ashford Down, ed. The Art of Window Display, London, pp. 29-30.

Goldsmith, H. C. (1964), “The Art of Managing Leased Departments,” Stores, Vol. 46 (October), pp. 54-58.

Goldsmith, H. C. (1965), “The Ameron Study,” Discount Merchandiser, (September), pp. 45-76. An article on leased departments.

Goloff, Joseph (1948), “What Customers Think of Branch-Stores,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 24 (October), pp. 103-108, 130.

Gomez y Caceres, Georges and Marie Ange de Pierredon eds. (1987), Les Décors des Boutiques Parisiennes, Paris: La Délégation à l’Action Artistique de la Ville de Paris. The book is over 200 pages and is the result of an exposition on Parisian boutiques. The book contains numerous illustrations along with articles from various contributors. Most of the articles have an historical overview. There is a solid article on Parisians restaurants (1880-1914), boutiques with iron bars (boutiques à grille), boutiques having ceramics, and also a discussion on Parisian signs. Only one or two pages are on the department store, most discuss the small boutiques.

Good Furniture and Decoration (1931), “Canada ventures into modernism with two smart restaurants,” Vol. 36 (April No. 4), pp. 205-208. A text describing the Montreal Eaton restaurant.

Goodspeed, Thomas (1922), "Marshall Field," University of Chicago Magazine, Vol. 8 (January).

Goodspeed, Thomas Wakefield (1924), “Marshall Field,” in The University of Chicago Biographical Sketches 2nd ed. page 28.

Gopnik, Adam (2003), “Under One Roof The death and life of the New York department store,” The New Yorker, September 22, pp. 92-94, 96, 103.

Gordon, Mitchell (1983), A Special Place-Fabri-Centers Sees Bright Future as Department store Leave the Fold,” Barron’s, Vol. 63 (April 18, No. 16), pp. 59ff. One of the department store’s main sources of revenues, at least initially in the 19th c. is now being abandoned by the department store.

Gorosh, Meil (2001), “Julius Spielberg: A Senior on the Run,” Michigan Jewish History, Vol. 41 pp. 39-42. An article about Julius Spielberg who was a successful Detroit pharmacist, discount department store pioneer, and a real estate developer.

Goss, Jon (1993), “The ‘Magic of the Mall’: An Analysis of Form, Function, and Meaning in the Contemporary Retail Built Environment,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 83 (March No. 1), pp. 18-47.

Gottesfeld, Sam and Harry Berlfein (1958), “Allied Executive Training Assures Premium Talent,” Women’s Wear Daily, June 26, pp. 1, 10. The authors describe how a leading department store spends 1m a year training some 500 to 600 qualified employees on a decentralized basis to become junior executives of the company.


Gould, R. E. (1946), Yankee Storekeeper, NY: Whittlesey House.

Gournay, Isabelle (1983), « Jacques Carlu et le Style Paquebot Outre-Atlantique, » Monuments Historiques, No. 130, décembre/janvier, pp. 71-74. Some discusion on the Eaton’s in this text.

Gournay, Isabelle, et al (1989), « Les grands magasins cent ans de séduction », Continuité, No 42 (hiver), pp. 19-39.

Gournay, Isabelle (1989), « Le restaurant Eaton, », Continuité, No 42 hiver, pp. 20-23.It has 6 pictures of the art deco restaurant opened in January 1931. A rather impressive review of the Eaton restaurant by a highly qualified art historian from France.

Govindarajan, Vija (1978), “Sears, Roebuck and Company: A Historical Background,” rev. ed. Boston: Harvard Business School, Intercollegiate Case Clearing House, No. 4-179-123 February.

Grady, Kevin (1980), “Commercial, Marketing and Retailing Amenities, 1700-1914,” in Derek Fraser ed. A History of Modern Leeds, Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 177-199.

Graham, Charles (1959), “Morgan’s: the Pace Setting Centenarian,” Executive, Vol. 1 (July), pp. 18-24. A brief case history of Morgan’s, Canada’s supposedly oldest department store. Henry Morgan in partnership with David Smith another young Scot opened a small dry goods store in downtown Montreal in 1845, on Notre Dame Street, a full 24 years before Eaton opened his Toronto store. But that’s misleading because Eaton had operated a dry goods store before he opened his Toronto store in Dec 1869. Morgan’s being the oldest department store in Canada is unsupported in this text.

Graham, Laurel (2000), "Lillian Gilbreth and the Mental Revolution at Macy's, 1925-1928," Journal of Management History, Vol. 6 (7), pp. 285-305. Scientific management was used at Macy’s to make it more efficient.

Grandclément, Catherine (2006), “Wheeling Food Products Around the Store…and Away: The Invention of the Shopping Cart 1936-1953,” Food Chains Conference, Provisioning, Technology and Science, Hagley Museum and Library Wilmington, Delaware, November 2-4 (available.

“Grands Magasins du Printemps à Paris” (1885), Encyclopédie d’Architecture, 3rd ser. 4, pp. 1-35. The article is about the use of bronze ornament at this store. The reference is from Siry (1988).

Grant, Hamilton (1946), Department store operating results, 1920-1944; an analysis of long-term trends to aid in the planning and control of retail operations, NY: Controller's Congress, National Retail Dry Goods Association.

Grant, Linda (1996), “Miracle or Mirage on 34th Street?,” Fortune, Vol. 133 (February 5), pp. 84-86, 90. An article on Federated Department Stores.

Grant, Jon (2006), “Kleptomania,” in Eric Hollander and Dan Stein eds. Clinical Manual of Impulsive Control Disorders, Washington, DC: US American Psychiatric Publishing, pp. 175-201.


Gras, Norman S. B. (1932), "The Rise of Big Business", Journal of Economic and Business History, Vol. 4 (May No. 3), pp. 381-408. A discussion of big business prior to the 19th c. On p. 405, he says that large department stores in metro areas tried manufacturing (integration) but abandoned it. He says “we are somewhat less familiar with integration that has centered in merchandising.” Integration was a basis of the chain store success (A&P).

Gras, Norman S.B. and H. Larson (1939), "John Wanamaker, 1838-1922," in N.S.B. Gras and Henrietta Larson, Casebook in American Business History, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, pp. 479-502.

Gray, A. Stuart (1985), Edwardian Architecture: A Biographical Dictionary, London: Duckworth. Some of the pages in this book on the department store are rather unique. See especially “London’s Edwardian Shops and Stores,” pp. 66-73; see also pp. 93-95, 343. The book has some very neat pictures and for the first time, there’s a terrific picture of Selfridge’s (on page 343).

Gray, Alan (1987), "Ogilvy's new lease on retailing," Financial Times of Canada, September 7, pp. 1, 22, 23.

“Great Mercantile Building” (1896), Dry Goods Economist, (October 24), pp. 428-429. The article discusses the expansion of the Fair, a Chicago department store, with le Bon Marché.

Greater Cleveland department store study (1900), Cleveland Press, Market Research Department.

Green, David R. (1982), “Street Trading in London: A Case Study of Casual Labour, 1830-60” in James H. Johnson and Colin G. Pooley eds. The Structure of Nineteenth Century Cities, London: Croom Helm, NY: St. Martin’s Press, pp. 129-151.

Green, Nancy (1997), Ready-To-Wear and Ready-To-Work A Century of Industry and Immigrants in Paris and New York, Durham, NC: Duke University Press. A book discussing the garment industry in both countries, from the 19th to modern times with an emphasis on the role played by immigrants in the production of ready-to-wear clothes. The department store is discussed here and there throughout the 425-page volume. For the first time, at least from my perspective, we learn that stores such as le Bon Marché, la Belle Jardinière, and les Galeries Lafayette, had manufacturing facilities for the clothes sold in their stores. Many of the workers were self-employed women laborers (i.e. sweatshops), unlike US department store, which had large manufacturing plants. The author says that La Belle Jardinière had a huge factory in Lille in 1866 that made shirts and overalls, and a smaller one was set up in Paris in 1889 (p. 78). But we don’t know what ‘huge’ means, relative to other manufacturing plants. Lafayette had a subsidiary called Société parisienne de confection (p. 255). She makes a very serious mistake when she says on page 80 that US department stores “had workrooms only until the 1870s ‘depression persuaded them to leave the risks of manufacturing to others.’” She simply quoted someone (Montgomery 1987, p. 117), but never checked to see if Montgomery was correct. No wonder nothing is said about US department stores’ use of manufacturing plants. The book has numerous new references and an impressive 86 pages of footnotes. Macy’s, Marshall Field, A.T. Stewart, and many more department stores that had manufacturing facilities are not mentioned, not even once. Finally, she seems to accept Miller’s (1981) conclusion that the birth of the department store was none other than le Bon Marché (p. 314), what else is new!. She credits the department store for helping to stimulate the demand for ready-made apparel (p. 80). As if the department store was instrumental in promoting this new ‘technology.’ She adds that Paris stores also shaped supply as well, but not so in the US, due to their lack of focus on manufacturing (which is wrong).


Green, William P. (1921), "Marshall Field Store Reflects Business Building Policies," Associated Advertising, Vol. 12 (December), pp. 5-32.

Greenfield, Albert M. (1953), “I run a Department Store Without Clerks,” Nation’s Business, Vol. 41 (October No. 10), pp. 34-36, 73-76. The article says on p. 34 that Hearn’s is the oldest department store in NY founded in 1827. The store may have been established then but not as a department store. Self-selection is discussed as a way to cut labor costs as well as being a new strategy for department store. When was self-selection/self service first introduced? It was William Saunders’ way with his supermarket innovation.

Greenhalgh, Paul (1988), Ephemeral Vistas The Expositions Universelles Great Exhibitions and World Fairs, 1851-1939, Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. Some discussion on how the department store helped exhibitors better display their products. The book discusses art nouveau, art deco, the Chicago school of architecture, and his first chapter is an excellent review of the history of fairs for manufacturers.

Greenley, Gordon and David Shipley (1992), “A Comparative Study of Operational Marketing Practices among British Department Stores,” European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 26 (5), pp. 22-33.

Grey Matter, Department Store edition, published Bi-monthly by Grey Advertising Agency, NY. The Grey Matter newsletter began publishing in 1939. However, it is not known when the department store edition started or when it ceased publication. The few 1952/54 sample copies available of the newsletter discuss current issues and challenges facing the industry in the USA.

Grier, Katherine (1988), Culture and Comfort: People, Parlors, and Upholstery, 1850-1930, Amherst: Mass: University of Massachusetts Press. The book is about furniture, room decorations and styles from the mid 1800s to the early 1900s. The book’s relevance to department stores is that styles and furniture (French, Turkish) were are sold in department stores and through direct mal (Sears and Montgomery Ward). Moreover, department store sold such goods after they were displayed at World’s exposition notably the 1876 Philadelphia one and the 1893 Columbian one in Chicago. Some of the most pertinent pages are: 23, 32-43. The book was reviewed by a number of authors: L. Jacobsen (1999), Journal of Social History, Vol. 32 (Summer No. 4), pp. 978-980. M. Fishwiek (199), Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 33 (Fall No. 2), pp. 164-165. S. Wajda (1989), American Quarterly, Vol. 41 (September No. 3), pp. 568-576. A, Hood (1989), Journal of American History, Vol. 76 (June No. 1), pp. 211-215. W. Rybczski (1989), New York Review of Books, Vol. 36 (17, November 9), pp. 35-37.

Grippo, Robert and Christopher Hoskins (2004), Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade, Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. A 160 page book on the history of the parade.

Grippo, Robert (2009), Macy’s: The Store The Star the Story, Square One Publishers. paperback

“Groceries on the Ninth Floor. But They Do the Business” (1920), Dry Goods Economist, No. 3986 (November 27), pp. 65-67. The article discusses why groceries are located on the 9th floor of the Meir and Frank store located in Portland, Oregon. All goods except green vegetables and fresh meats are available. Telephone orders are taken enough to keep 4 girls busy. Known brands are easy to sell via the phone too. The established delivery route makes it possible for the store to deliver to all sections of the city, whereas a grocery store could not. Low rent makes it possible to have low margins, in line with the grocery business.


Groke, Paul (1972), “How Japanese Department Stores Are Meeting the Challenge of a Rapidly Changing Environment,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 48 (Fall No. 3), pp. 72-80.

Gross, Walter (1963), “Adaptation by Major Conventional Department Stores to Low-Margin Competition,” unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, School of Business Administration.

Gross, Walter (1964), “Strategies Used by Major Department Stores to Compete with Low-Margin Retailers,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 40 (Summer No. 2), pp. 11-18.

Grossman, Louis H. (1970), “Merchandising Strategies of a Department Store Facing Change,” MSU Business Topics, Vol. 18 (Winter), pp. 31-42.

Grossman, Louis H. (1970), Department Store Merchandising in Changing Environments, East Lansing, MI: Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Michigan State University. This short book has a good list of references, and a good definition on the department store on page 69.

“Growth of Department Store Chains” (1924), Dry Goods Economist, Vol. 78 (October 4), pp. 11-12.

“Growth of Department Store Mergers Slows” (1928), Journal of Retailing, March.

“Growth of the Big Store” (1898), Chicago Dry Goods Reporter, Vol. 28 (August 6), pp. 25ff.

Gruca, Thomas and Charles Schewe (1992), “Department Stores and Detroit: Is It Déjà Vu All Over Again?,” Journal of Marketing Channels, Vol. 1 (No. 4), pp. 17-30.

Gruen, Victor and Larry P. Smith (1952), "Shopping Centers: The New Building Type," Progressive Architecture, Vol. 33 (June), pp. 66-94.

Gruen, Victor and Larry Smith (1960), Shopping Towns, USA: The Planning of Shopping Centers, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Gruen, Victor (1964), “A Downtown Store with Indoor Parking,” Architectural Record, Vol. 135 (June), pp. 171-172. A discussion of the Dayton Company to locate a department store in downtown St. Paul, Minnesota.

Gruzen, B. Sumner (1937), “Shopping Centers,” Architectural Record, Vol. 81 (January), pp. 18-22. The text plus the illustrations depict more of a supermarket than a shopping center. There’s even a rare picture of a shopping cart, circa 1930s.

Guadet, J. (1900), “L’Exposition Universelle,” Revue de l’Art, pp. 241-254.

Guembe, M. Auguste (1915), “Les Grands Magasins des États Unis,” Dry Goods Economist,” (April 3), p. 191.

Guen, J. le (1911), “Le Printemps,” l’Architecture, pp. 12-16.

Guernsey, John (1951), “Suburban Branches,” Department Store Economist, June-September.


Guibert, A. (1931), Les Tendances modernes de la concurrence et le commerce de détail, Paris.

Gurney, Peter (2001), “An appropriated space: the Crystal Palace and the working class,” in Louise Purbrick ed. The Great Exhibition of 1851, Manchester University Press, chapter 4, pp. 114-145. The article is a fascinating one to read. He states that William Whiteley (the universal provider) was very inspired by the 1851 Exhibition. The author claims that the working class did not flock to the 1851 Crystal Palace, unlike what many others have claimed. However, he said that the new Crystal Palace which left Hyde Park and was relocated in 1852 to Syndenham Hill, and rebuilt and reopened in 1854 was more for the working class and the exhibitors sold products with prices indicated, unlike the 1851 Exhibition. It seem that far too many (cultural and social) historians are unfamiliar with the new Crystal Palace, eventually called the “People’s Palace” and attribute its modus operandi to the 1851 one. Over 2m visited the 1854 Palace per year over the next 30 yrs (i.e. 60 m), a number that far surpasses the original 6m attained during 1851. He even says on page 123 “it became, in part, a department store.” Alcohol was first banned but later was allowed (in 1855) and Sunday closing was also banned but later allowed (in 1860).

Gustaitis, Joseph (1995), “A Thanksgiving Tradition,” American History, Vol. 30 (No. 5), pp. 32-37, 74, 76. The Macy’s annual Thanksgiving parade began in 1924.

Guthrie, Karen and Rosalie J. Reghi (2006), Perry’s Department Store a Product Development Simulation, NY: Fairchild Books.

Guttmann, A.H. (1957), “Retail Research,” in National Retail Merchants Association, The Buyer’s Guide, rev ed. NY, pp. 313-325. This section, written by the director of research of Bloomingdale’s, summarizes the need and uses of research in retailing.

Gyani, Gabor (1999), “Department Stores and Middle-Class Consumerism in Budapest, 1986-1939”, in Geoffrey Crossick and Serge Jaumain eds. Cathedrals of Consumption The European Department Store, 1850-1939, Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 208-224.

Hague, Harry (1948), The Use of Training Films in Department Stores, Boston: Division of Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University. Reviewed by Walter Gaw (1949), Journal of Marketing, Vol. 13 (April No. 4), pp. 563-564.

Hahn, Lewd (1938), “Father’s Day Will Bring Business!,” The Bulletin of the National Retail Dry Goods Association, Vol. 20 (April), pp. 13, 14-16. More than these pages are devoted to Father’s Day. In the May issue, many more pages (pp. 17-32) outline the importance of department stores and other retailers to plan such a day in their communities and at the store level. The first national official Father’s Day was on June 19 1938, sponsored by the NRDGA, even though many previous dates (1910 by the YMCA) had celebrated the day but more on a local or state level. With the full support of NRDG, Father’s Day became institutionalized. It was not an altruistic decision but one to generate sales.

Hahn, Lew ed. (1936), Twenty-Five Years of Retailing, 1911-1936, NY: National Retail Dry Goods Association.

Hahn, Lew (1952), Stores, Merchants and Customers, NY: Fairchild Publications.

Hahn, Lew and Percival White eds. (1924), Merchants’ Manual, NY: McGraw-Hill. For the National Merchant Dry Goods Association.


Haight, Susan (1996), “Machines in Suburban Gardens: The 1936 T. Eaton Company Architectural Competition For House Designs,” Material History Review-Revue d’histoire de la culture matérielle Vol. 44 (Fall), pp. 23-44.

Haims, Samuel (1931), “Merchandising the Basement Store,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 6 (January), pp. 105-108.

Halepete, Jaya (2011), Retailing in Emerging Markets, NY: Fairchild Books.

Hall, H. Austen (1920), “The Planning of Some Department Stores,” Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects, Vol. 27 No. 11 (10 April), pp. 237-254.

Hall, Linda (1975), “Neiman-Marcus: The Beginning,” Western States Jewish Historical Quarterly, Vol.7 (2), pp. 138-150.

Hamilton, WLC (1925), “A Merchandise and Purchase Control in a Small Department Store,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 1 (October), pp. 13-14.

Hamlin, Ina Marie and Arthur Harry Winakur (1933), Department Store Food Service, Urban, IL: University of Illinois.

Hamlin, Talbot (1944), Greek Revival architecture in America, Being an account of Important Trends in American Architecture and American Life prior to the War between the States, NY: Oxford University Press. The Dover edition was published in 1964.

Hanchett, Thomas (1996), “U.S. Tax Policy and the Shopping-Center Boom of the 1950s and 1960s,” American Historical Review, Vol. 101 (October No. 4), pp. 1082-1110. A first rate article on the history of the shopping center and the role played by tax policty in building them notably in the late 1950s. Some Canadian material is also presented.

Handy, William (1899), “The Department Store in the West—The Struggle in Chicago,” The Arena, Vol. 22 (September), pp. 320-330.

Harding, Vanessa (1990), “The Population of London: 1550-1700: A Review of Published Evidence,” London Journal, Vol. 15 (2), pp. 111-128.

Hardwick, M. Jeffrey (2004), Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of the American Dream, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Hare, Bill (2004?), Celebration of Fools: An Inside Look at the Rise and Fall of JC Penney, NY: AMACOM Books. A Brief History of Mismanagement at JC Penney.

1979: Don Siebert, the last of JC Penney’s exceptional leaders, confronts an unsettling trend toward stultifying conformity. On a tour of stores, he notes an endless succession of identical Christmas village displays and a proliferation of managers seemingly unable to balance their inventory to meet customer needs or let their employees think for themselves. Before retiring in 1982, Siebert introduces a workable plan to reorganize the huge, national company into a broad array of smaller, fully empowered operating groups led by individuals.

1983: Bill Howell takes the helm as CEO. Ignoring his predecessor’s plan, he swiftly pushes through a vertical integration of six merchandising divisions operating in competitive silos. Knocking out the company’s time-honored principle of internal "Cooperation," this restructuring maneuver divided and conquered ’the buyers’ -the great Penney merchandising department-in


favor of store managers in "the field." Thus the guts of the business (buying and selling) were seriously compromised by myopic politics.

1986: Against the wisdom of his predecessors, Howell tears the company from its roots, leaving Penney’s utilitarian tower in New York City for a huge, lavish complex in Plano, Texas. At his new "Home Office" in the suburbs of Dallas, the CEO known as "Bill" suddenly insists on being called "W.R." Only ten percent of the NYC staff makes the transnational trek. 1990: Howell begins to groom senior managers based on breadth of experience, while systematically weeding out seasoned, valuable specialists-particularly expert buyers. By 1995, store-oriented shallowness finally reigns at the top, the executive suite largely populated by empty suits acting on the CEO’s whims. 1992: At the urging of Gale Duff-Bloom, senior vice president of merchandising and the company’s highest-ranking woman, a flashy, young designer named Anthony Mark Hankins is hired to make JC Penney a name in fashion. First, the "suits" in the executive suite criticize Hankins for dressing in flamboyant outfits in the office. Then, they sit in stony silence through his preview fashion show. When Hankins asserts his personality to spark glowing reviews for the launch of his line in Atlanta, he gets reprimanded for breaking the rules governing promotion and PR. Hankins leaves JC Penney.

1996: The last JC Penney CEO of the 20th century, Jim Oesterreicher announces "Operation Synergy"-a campaign to acquire the Eckerd Corporation and its 2,800 drug stores. Hapless from the start, the deal would prove financially disastrous. As reporters later uncovered, it was also full of "dirty little secrets," including that a tenth of the stores were marked for closing, no compatibility in data processing, serious inventory and "shrinkage" problems, and an increasing public disillusionment with the chain.

Harker, Douglas Edward (1976), The Woodwards: The Story of a Distinguished British Columbia Family, 1850-1975, Vancouver and Chicago: Mitchell Press. A history of the Woodward department store in Vancouver. See also Watt (1978) and Downing (1993).

Harmon, Frederick and Garry Jacobs (1985), The vital difference: unleashing the powers of sustained corporate success, NY: AMCOM. Chapter 10 “Harmony Without” has neat information on Sears Roebuck and some information on Otto Doering, the plant manager’s Great Works in Chicago who designed the receiving and expediting mail order system.

Harner, Marion (1936), “The Grocery Department in the Department Store,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 12 (April), pp. 6-12.

Harper, F. John (1982), "'A new battle on evolution': The Anti-Chain Store Trade-at-Home Agitation of 1929-1930," Journal of American Studies, Vol. 16 (December), pp. 407-426. This article and many others on this same topic do not discuss department stores per se but many department stores soon became department store chains (e.g. Sears, Montgomery Ward, JC Penney, Eaton's of Canada, and many others). The anti-chain movement targeted the food chains. Nevertheless, it is important to know something about the anti-chain movement in the US and Canada and the legislation imposed on them when studying the history of department stores.

Harper’s Guide to Paris and the Exposition of 1900, NY and London: Harper and Brothers Publishers. On pp. 6-7, a short discussion on shopping in Paris. On page 93, a short set of population stats of Paris are given, from the 13th c. In 1861, after all suburbs were annexed, the population was 1.6678m; in 1866, 1.8m; in 1872, 1.8518; in 1891, 2.447. At least 3 magasins de nouveautés had a pavilion: Bon Marché, Le Printemps Le Louvre, (p. 144 and p. 167), and on page 167, these same stores are called dry goods shops. It is noteworthy that the term department store is NOT used. The special Elevated Sliding Platform (as called) is discussed on pp. 189-90.


It is the 2-speed famed trottoir roulant. There were also auto races of various types (automobilism). A Women’s pavillon was also present.

Harriman, Margaret Case (1958), And The Price Is Right, Cleveland, OH: The World Publishing Company. A book on R. H. Macy and Company Inc. illustrated by Roy Doty. Wanamaker is discussed in the book, as well as other department store gurus.

Harris, Leon (1972) Behind the scenes in a department store

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