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The Wonderful World of the Department Store in Historical Perspective: A

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s. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Article by D’Souza “Why the Impressionists never painted the department store.”

Dubuisson, Paul (1901), “Les voleuses des grands magasins,” Archives d’anthropologie criminelle, Vol. 16, pp. 1-21, 341-370.

Dubuisson, Paul (1902), Les voleuses de grands magasins, Paris: A. Storck et Compagnie. Dubuisson is a medical doctor who discusses the department store and female shoplifters of the 19th c. See pp. 1-20, 341-370.

Duncan, Delbert (1965), “Responses of Selected Retail Institutions to their Changing Environment,” in Peter Bennett ed. Marketing and Economic Development, Chicago, American Marketing Association, pp. 583-602. Reprinted in Ronald Gist ed. (1967), Management Perspectives in Retailing, NY: John Wiley, pp. 94-98. Reprinted also in John Ryans, James Donnelly and John Ivancevitch eds. (1970), New Dimensions in Retailing, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, pp. 37-54. Duncan has a section in this paper (pp. 592-596) on how the changing market conditions are affecting the department store and the need to respond. Duncan provides an extensive list of the changes and challenges facing the department store in order to become more competitive, especially in light of the rise of the discount store.

Ducan, Hugh D. (1965). Culture and Democracy, NY: The Bedminster Press. The long book of over 600 pages is about the rise Chicago in the US. Chapter 11: “Setting the Stage for a New Urban Drama of Shopping,” on pp. 123-131 is all about shopping in Chicago at the turn of the 19th century. Many references are cited in the text on Marshall Field, Potter Palmer, and Louis Sullivan, the famed Chicago architect, among others.

Duclos, Léon (1902), Des transformations du commerce de détail en France au XIXièm siècle, Paris: L. Boyer. This is the author’s doctoral dissertation from the Université of Paris, faculté de droit. The 160-page document discusses the changing retail landscape from small retailers to department stores and coops. The lack of retail coops in France compared to England gave him the opportunity to discuss them. He repeatedly says that department stores buy direct thus saving margin normally going to the middlemen, which explains why department stores sell at a lower price. If retail coops were established in France the same thing would happen. Of course, he’s forgetting the marketing functions need to be accomplished in the channel and the department store cannot do all the marketing work. His bread example repeated often shows how little he knew about the marketing process. The research topic on department stores and French retailing is similar to other French doctoral dissertations such as Garrigues (1898), Saint-Martin (1900), Daugan (1902), Lainé (1911) and Cassé (1935).

du Closel, Jacques (1989), Les grands magasins français, cent ans après, Paris: Institut du commerce et de la consommation (ICC), Chotard et Associés éditeurs. This book repeats that Boucicaut invented the dept store. However its main focus in on what’s been happening with the dept store and in retailing, in France after the 1970s.


du Closel, Jacques (1993), “D’une révolution commerciale à une autre les grands magasins” Culture technique, No. 27 (July), pp. 51-57. This article is a section reprinted from the author’s book published in 1989. It has a spectacular illustration of the grand hall of the Crespin-Dufayel credit store. However, the article discusses the department store from 1975 and beyond.

Duhamel, Roger (196?), Dupuis Frères, Limitée, Montréal, Une Grande Aventure Commerciale.

Duis, Perry (1976), Chicago Creating New Traditions, Chicago: Chicago Historical Society. The book focuses on buildings in Chicago. It has a chapter on department stores/merchandising (pp. 101-117 with some neat illustrations). The text is also useful and the author has a discussion on the 1893 Colombian Exposition held in Chicago.

du Maroussem, Pierre (1893), "Les grands magasins tels qu'ils sont," Revue d'économie politique, Vol. 7 (November), pp. 922-962. This long article discusses the state of the department store as it existed in the early 1890s where large numbers of small retailers were against them. The article goes into detail about the Bon Marché credit, cash payment, etc. In particular, it analyses the management practices of the Bon Marché.

du Maroussem, Pierre (1896), Le Vêtement à Paris, Paris. The author discusses the price and sales of the sewing machines.

Dumuis, Solange ed. (1965), Le Printemps, cent ans de jeunesse, Paris.

Dunbar, Sarah (1965), “Dick Rich: The Importance of People,” Home Furnishings Daily, January 4, page 20.

Duncan, Delbert (1965), "Responses of Selected Retail Institutions to their Changing Environment", in Peter Bennett ed. Marketing and Economic Development, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 583-602. The department store is discussed from pp. 592-596. He has a number of memorable expressions when referring to the traditional department store. For e.g. the stores had protective downtown walls (from McNair) they stores paid the ultimate price-failure, ivory towers.” They helped pioneer the development of the regional shopping center, one of the most important retailing developments of the past two decades (p. 593).

Dunkin, Amy (1985), “How Department Stores Plan to Get the Cash Registers Ringing Again,” Business Week, (November 18), pp. 66-67.

Dunkin, Amy and Jo Ellen Davis (1987), “The Year’s Best Sale at Macy’s: Itself,” Business Week, January 12, pp. 136-137.

Dunn, S. Watson (1961), Advertising Its Role in Modern Marketing, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, chapter2 “The Evolution of Modern Advertising,” pp. 15-37. The author also has a similar chapter in his second 1969 edition, “The Evolution of Modern Advertising and Promotion,” pp. 17-35. The second edition has different illustrations and text as well. The chapter is more detailed than the one prepared by Mandell (1974). He says that Godey’s Lady’s Book did not at first carry advertising. He discussed Wanamaker by saying he built the largest men’s clothing store in the US. “He had signs one hundred feet long along the Pennsylvania Railroad tracks leading into Philadelphia. He used balloons, parades, pennants, coaches, and free suits to publicize his store. He used newspaper advertising consistently. In 1876, he established the Wanamaker department store Wanamaker was delighted with the success of his advertising” (1961, p. 25). He stated that NY had a population of 200k in 1840, 1.5 million in 1870, and 3.5 million by 1905. On pp. 29-30, Dunn


says that the Scripps-McRae League of Newspapers was concerned by about patent medicine claims and a censor was appointed to scrutinize all ad copy with 500k of ads refused in its 1st year. Then the Associated Advertising Clubs of America, later to become the Advertising Federation of America, launched an ad campaign for more truthful and ethical advertising. The association drew up a code for ethical advertising in 1911and adopted the slogan ‘Truth in Advertising.’ Printers’ Ink’s also joined the fight, which led to the Printers’ Ink Statute, a model state law that would penalize false and misleading advertising. In 1910, Cyrus Curtis published the Curtis Advertising code, but again aimed mostly at patent medicine.

Dupouy, Roger (1905), “De la Kleptomanie,” Journal de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique Année 2, pp. 404-426.

“Dupuis Celebrates 70th Anniversary” (1938), The Bulletin of the National Retail Dry Goods Association, Vol. 20 (April), page 67. A letter sent to the President Albert Dupuis by the Prime Minister of Canada W. L. Mackenzie King expressing his regrets of not being able to attend the event.

Dupuis Frères, Limited (1956), Brief submitted by Raymond Dupuis, President, to The Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects. The brief outlines the economic prospects of the eastern part of Montreal. This 23-page brief has some interesting comments such as the retailing sector should be allowed to have longer opening hours, taxes are high, the government should not impose any restrictions on consumer credit availability. The eastern part of the island has more factory jobs (i.e. blue-collar workers), less financial services jobs, is less subject to traffic problems, etc. We are told also a bit about Dupuis Frères’ operations such as its catalogue division, which distributes one million per year.

Dupuis-Leman, Josette (2001), Dupuis Frères: le magasin du peuple, Montréal: Les Editions internationales Stanké. On page 45, Nazaire went to Europe 5 times in a three-year period to see retail stores, notably the newly opened 1865 “le Printemps” in Paris. He opened his first store in 1868 in downtown Montreal, and it had to be enlarged in 1870.

Dupuy, Aimé (1953), “Les grands magasins,” Larousse mensuel, December.

Dupuy, Aimé (1958), “Les grands magasins et leur ‘histoire litteraire’,” L’Information Historique, Vol. 20 (May-June No. 3), pp. 106-112. The article salutes the 100th (in 1952) anniversary of the department store in France by discussing how novelists and other writers talked about such a retail icon in French society.

Dupuy, M. (1965), “Le travail dans un ‘Grand Magasin,’” Économie et humanisme, No. 164 (Novembre-Decembre), pp. 67-74. The article describes the life experiences and personal observations of an employee who worked in one of France’s largest department stores.

Dyer, Gary (1991), “‘The Vanity Fair ’of Nineteenth Century England: Commerce, Women, and the East in the Ladies’ Bazaar,” Nineteenth Century Literature, Vol. 46 (September no. 2z), pp. 196-222. The author attempts to link shopping places with prostitution.

Dyer, Stephanie (2000), “Markets in the Meadows: Department Stores and Shopping Centers in the Decentralization of Philadelphia, 1920-1980,” PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.


Dyer, Stephanie (2003), “Markets in the Meadows: Department Stores and Shopping Centers in the Decentralization of Philadelphia, 1920-1980,” Enterprise and Society, Vol. 3 (December No. 2), pp. 606-612.

Eaton, Flora McCrea (1956), Memory’s Wall The Autobiography of Flora McCrea Eaton, Toronto: Clarke, Irwin. A delightful book which describes the life of John Craig Eaton’s wife. Jack was the son of Timothy Eaton who became the first President of Eaton’s after his father died in 1907. She was a board member for 21 years. Much of this book is on her many trips, her friends, her numerous homes here and abroad (Eaton Hall Farm) and not enough of the Eaton’s per se. However it was Jack’s insistence that the Eaton’s store be built in Winnipeg. And it was Flora who insisted that a high class restaurant be added to the Toronto store in 1923 which was also added elsewhere as well. This addition had spillover effects into the military. Flora actually help train cooks to feed soldiers with better cooked meals using her staff.

Eaton, Fredrik, S (1983), "Managing in tough times: how to survive and prosper," Canadian Business Review, Vol. 10 (Spring), pp. 17-20. The author is a member of the Eaton family and past president of the once famous store, which ceased operation in 1999.

Eaton’s of Canada (1919), Golden Jubilee: 1869-1919, A Book to Commemorate the Fiftieth Anniversary of the T. Eaton Company Limited, Toronto: T. Eaton Company.

Eaton’s of Canada (1952), The Story of a Store, Toronto: Archives of Ontario, The Eaton's Collection, F229 series 8-0-220, container #9. A well prepared and illustrated booklet published by Eaton's public relations department outlining the history of Eaton's with the first edition in 1928 and subsequent ones ending in 1952. This 1952 64-page booklet is available from the University of Western Ontario Business Library (HF5465.C24E164). This 62-page booklet is available at the Cleveland Public Library, 658.27 EA86S.

Eckert, Charles (1978), “The Carole Lombard in Macy’s Window,” Quarterly Review of Film Studies, Vol. 3 (Winter No. 1), pp. 1-22.

Edward, Charles and Cecil Dudley (1933), “How Do New York Stores Write Advertising Copy?,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 9 (July), pp. 44-49.

Edwards, A. Trystan (1933), The Architecture of Shops, London.

Edwards, Richard H. Jr. (1951), Tales of an Observer, Boston: Jordan Marsh Company's Centennial, Boston. The first two chapters provide information on Jordan Marsh.

Eggleston, D. C. (1931), Department Store Accounting, NY: Greenberg.

Eichelbaum, Fred (1961), “Macy’s Stepping Up Self-Service,” Women’s Wear Daily, November 15, p. 1.

Eichelbaum, Fred (1966), “No Red Light Is Reflected in FTC Order-R. Lazarus,” Women’s Wear Daily, January 17, pp. 1, 10.

Eldridge, Mary (1958), “The Plate-Glass Shop Front,” The Architectural Review, Vol. 123. (March), pp. 192-195. The article has 13 illustrations. The plate glass was les 5 ft.

Electrical Merchandising, editors (1922), How to Retail Radio, NY: McGraw-Hill Book.


Elias, Stephen N. (1992), Alexander T. Stewart: The Forgotten Merchant Prince, NY: Praeger. A lengthy biography of A. T. Stewart. It is important to note that this book is not well known. Yet it has a full chapter on the Marble Palace, plus the fascinating life story of Stewart and how he became one of the richest men in the USA. The book is not rich in illustrations with only three, already available elsewhere. Resseguie (1962, 1964, and 1965) died before he had a chance to finish his biography on A. T. Stewart. Elias used many of Resseguie's original manuscripts found at the Baker Library, Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration to complete the work.

Elkin, Frederick (1965), “Bicultural and Bilingual Adaptations in French Canada: The Example of Retail Advertising,” Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 2 (August), pp. 132-148. Retail ads from two Montreal department stores were content analyzed in 1960.

Ellis, Robert ed. (1851), Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations, London: Spicer Brothers. Vol. 1. This volume (there are 2 more) of the London Crystal Palace World's fair has a long list of exhibitors classified by types of products. It also has at the end a separate section listing a large number of advertisers. In fact, on page 64 of this section, there is a rather unique ad of the Aux Villes de France, magasins de nouveautés, which list dresses for sale, linen goods, ribbons, shawls, carpets, furniture, gloves, laces etc. Can we conclude that these stores (the word magasin is plural in the ad) were in fact a genuine department store, given their wide range of merchandise sold? We need to do more historical research on Aux Villes de France. These stores have not been mentioned in other historical material consulted thus far. Is the Ville de Paris store of 1843, the same as Villes de France stores?

Ellsworth, F. W. (1920), “Merchandising Ideas of ‘Department Store of Finance,’” Printers’ Ink, Vol. 113 (December 23), pp. 77-78ff.

Ellsworth, Theodore Dart (1952), “Are Branch Stores Overexpanding?,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 28 (Winter No. 4), pp. 159-166. The article discusses a survey done by students at NYU of 94 stores with branches starting from 1921, 1929, 1934, 1939, 1946, and 1951. It revealed that the parent store purchased 80% of the merchandise. The same percentage applied for vendor deliveries to the parent store and not the branches. The goods were usually marked at the parent store or in a central warehouse before delivery to the branches. Although parent stores still generally decided what is to be purchased, there is tendency to make this a joint decision (Wingate 1953, p. 91).

Ellsworth, Theodore (1961), “’First in American Retailing,” Department Store Economist, (January), pp. 192-199. A valuable source of information concerning the introduction of new technology and new management practices by department stores and other retail institutions. For e.g., the article states that the E. V. Haughwout & Co. in NYC, was the first to have an elevator built by Elisha Graves Otis on March 23 1857 (item 162); the first vacuum cleaner system was at Macy’s in 1902 (item 473); the first automatic letter opener installed by Sears in 1905 (item 474); the first employee lunch room by Macy’s in 1878 (item 115); the first escalator by Gimbel’s Philadelphia in 1901, installed by Otis (item 171). Of course, some of the firsts are incorrect. For e.g. he says that air conditioning was first used in Filele’s Basement in the early 1900s (item 170). This cannot be correct given that AC was commercially available only in the mid 1920s. According to Ellsworth, Macy’s store was the first to offer free delivery in 1858 (item 166). But the store only opened in 1857. However, free delivery for a small store, as was the case for Macy’s in 1858, does not take into consideration the infrastructure a store needs to offer such a service on a grand scale for most if not all customers. Marshall Field in 1871 had such a structure


with 30 horses, stables, etc. (see Tamilia and Reid 2002). Finally, the list only applies to US retail institutions, and cannot be considered ‘first’ in the world, at least for some firsts.

Ellsworth, Theodore D. (1981), “The Department Store: A Troubled Giant,” Retail Control, Vol. 50 (September), pp. 2-28.

Ellsworth, Theodore D. (1982), “The Department Store: A Question of Survival,” Retail Control, Vol. 50 (April -May), pp. 34-39.

Elsner, David (1977), “Sears, for some years in disarray, regains its former momentum,” The Wall Street Journal. Reprinted in B. Walker and J. Haynes eds. (1978), Marketing Channels and Institutions, second edition, Grid, pp. 182-184.

Elstein, Rochelle Berger (1986), “Enigma of Modern Architecture: An Introduction to the Critics,” in Wim de Wit ed. Louis Sullivan: The Function of Ornament, NY: W. W. Norton and Co. The author offers a critical opinion (on pp. 199-211) of the Chicago Carson Pirie Scott department store, and Louis Sullivan as the architect.

Elvins, Sarah (2004), Sales & Celebrations: Retailing and Regional Identity in Western New York State, 1920-1940, Athens: Ohio University Press.

Elwell, Richard (1949), “Will Mechanization Pay Off for You?, Stores, Vol. 31 (December), pp. 25, 28. See “Mechanized Pay-Bill Operation” (1956).

Ely, J. A. (1927), “Tomorrow’s Retailing—Will the Chain Store Do It All?,” Magazine of Business, Vol. 52 (November), pp. 552-554, 584, 586, 588. This Arch Shaw magazine replaced System, which began in 1900, and became Business Week in 1929.

Enselme, Marguerite (1936), Les magasins à prix uniques : leur fonction dans le commerce de détail, Bordeaux.

Emerson, Anne (1915), "Behind the Scenes in a Department Store," The Outlook Vol. 109 (February 24), pp. 450-455. The article describes what one department store in NYC was doing for assuring its workers’ welfare comfort, health and safety. See also Bloomingdale (1915) and Goldmark (1915).

Emmet, Boris (1930), “Department Stores,” The American Mercury,” Vol. 20 (May), pp. 17-24. This rather innocuous article contains numerous insights as the why department stores at that time were not profitable and why the need of a management shake-up, rather that simply being a one man show as he calls it. The author spends a considerable amount of time discussing the operational expenses of such stores and the consequences on profitability.

Emmet, Boris (1930), Department Stores: Recent Policies, Costs, and Profits, Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. Excellent insights on the managerial troubles facing the department store industry. The appendix on the structure and function of the NRGDA is unique. A 1959 second edition exists.

Emmet, Boris and John Jeuck (1950), Catalogues and Counters: A History of Sears, Roebuck and Company, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Julius Rosenwald, Richard Sears, Robert E. Wood, 1879-1969.


English Shop Fronts from Contemporary Source Books 1792-1840 (1970), Levittown, NY: Transatlantic Arts. This book is a collection of shop fronts from other sources. Some of the pictures are outstanding. The book is a collection of illustrations with no author. Some of illustrations are spectacular given the dates. They show how retail merchants in the 18th c. used their street level store displays to bring customers into the stores. Some of the store fronts had very large plate glass windows, which forces us to think as to when such plate glass was developed, by whom and where they were first used. This appears to be the same book by Dean (1970), except it’s the US edition and the Preface by Dean (1970) does not appear.

Entenberg, Robert D. (1957), The Changing Competitive Position of Department Stores in the United States by Merchandise Lines, Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg Press. Reviewed by Robert Hancock (1958) Journal of Marketing, Vol. 23 (July No. 1), pp. 109-111.

Entenberg, Robert D. (1957), “The Changing Competitive Position of Department Stores in the United States,” in Robert Buzzel ed. Adaptive Behavior in Marketing, Columbus, OH: Modern Art Publishing Co. for the American Marketing Association, pp. 216-219. Reprinted in part in Stanley Hollander ed. (1959), Explorations in Retailing, MSU Business Studies 1959, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, pp. 23-25.

Entenberg, Robert D. (1961), The Changing Competitive Position of Department Stores in the United States by Merchandise Lines, revised edition, University of Pittsburgh Press. Dedicated to Theodore N. Beckman, Professor of Business Organization, The Ohio State University Teacher, Counselor, Friend. First edition published in 1957. Reviewed by Grady Tucker (1962), Journal of Marketing, Vol. 26 (January No. 1), pp. 117-118.

Entenberg, Robert (1962), "Leased Departments Can be a Sound Investment," Department Store Economist, (April), pp. 34-36.

Entenberg, Robert (1962), “The Department Stores’ Share of the Market,” Stores, Vol. 44 (March), pp. 38-40.

Entenberg, Robert (1966), Effective Retail and Market Distribution, A Managerial Economic Approach, Cleveland: World Publishing Company. The book takes more of a macro approach to retail than a managerial one. It has some discussion on the department store such as neat diagrams on pages 50, 52, 128, 132-134, 139, 141, and 292, plus his Appendix A (pp. 519-525) on the definition of a department store and other retail establishments. He has a neat but short discussion on vertical integration (VMS, pp. 229-230) plus a set of useful references.

Ershkowitz, Herbert (1998), John Wanamaker: Philadelphia Merchant, Philadelphia: Signpost Biographies.

Escande, L. (1929), “Les grands travaux de la Samaritaine,” La Technique des Travaux, No. 5 (May-June); and No. 6 (December), pp. 1-17. This article is discussed in Clausen (1976). The December reference may have been published in 1933 rather than 1929.

Eskilson, Stephen (2000), "Sears Beautiful," Chicago History, Vol. 29 (No. 2), pp. 26-43. Esperdy, Gabrielle (2008), Modernizing Main Street: Architecture and Consumer Culture in the New Deal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Etienne, A. (1965), “Les feux de Grands Magasins de Nouveautés,” Revue Technique de Feu, Janvier, pp. 2-10.

Fairbairn, Brett (1989), Building a Dream The Co-Operative Retailing System in Western Canada, 1928-1988, Saskatoon, SK: Western Producer Prairie Books.

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