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The Wonderful World of the Department Store in Historical Perspective: A

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, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 48 (March No. 1), pp. 86-88.

Clausen, Meredith (1988) “The Department Store,” in Joseph Wilkes and Robert Packard eds. Encyclopedia of Architecture: Design, Engineering and Construction, Vol. 2 NY: John Wiley, pp. 204-222. This 5-volume set on architecture and engineering establishes the importance the hard sciences attribute to the department store as an architectural innovation.

Cleary, Richard (1999), Merchant Prince and Master Builder, Seattle: University of Washington Press. The book discusses the relation of Edgar J. Kaufmann, the Pittsburgh department store magnate, with Frank Lloyd Wright, one of the world’s best known architects. The famous Falling water was Kaufmann’s private residence designed by Wright. The book is short on text (pp. 17-35) but is still interesting in that it describes the influence of Wright in the interior design of the department store and how Kaufmann himself was influenced by Wright in his selection of store displays (see pp. 20 and 23). See also Hoffmann (1978) for more information on Wright’s famous office for Kaufmann, which now forms the Victoria and Albert Museum’s Frank Lloyd Wright


room. Also, a number of solid discussion points are presented on the link between art and the department store.

Clerc, G. (1879), “Les nouvelles galleries des Grands Magasins du Louvre,” Le monde illustré, 4 octobre, pp. 225-228.

Cleveland, Harold (1906), “Fifty Five Years in Business: The Life of Marshall Field,” System the Magazine of Business, Vol. 9 (May), pp. 455-464. See also the second part: chapter 2, June, pp. 556-566. And the subsequent parts as follows: Vol. 10 (July), pp. 21-30; August, pp. 129-138; November, pp. 456-464; December pp. 574-582. Vol. 11 (1907 January), pp. 49-56; February pp. 123-132; March, pp. 229-237; April pp. 361-368, and finally May pp. 453-463.

Clewett, Richard (1951), “Mass Marketing of Consumers' Goods,” in H.F. Williamson ed. The Growth of the American Economy, 2nd edition, NY: Prentice-Hall. Chapter 11, pp. 766-784.

Cliquet, Gerard (2000), “Large Format Retailers: a French Tradition Despite Reactions,” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 7, pp. 183-195.

Clow, D.G. (1995), “Pneumatic Tube Communication System in London,” Transaction Newcomen Society for the Study of the History of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 66, pp. 100ff.

Cockran, Sherman (1999), “Commercial Culture in Shanghai 1900-1945,” in Wellington Chan ed. Inventing Nanjing Road, NJ: Cornell University East Asia Program pp. 19-36. The article discusses Shanghai department stores in the 1900s.

Coets, J. (1944), La structure fonctionnelle des grands magasins, Brussels.

Coffin, Judith (1994), “Credit, Consumption, and Images of Women’s Desires: Selling the Sewing Machine in Late Nineteenth-Century France,” French Historical Studies, Vol. 18 (Spring No. 3), pp. 749-783. This long article discusses the impact the sewing machine had on the economic lives of the French women in the late 19th century. She discusses how the French woman was seduced by advertising and the credit being offered by Dufayel to buy this new technological product. The department store played a role but it is not the article's main theme. This article and the one below need to be read together. We learn that Georges Dufayel was also in advertising with his own agency, he did marketing research, data collection and marketing research, and had his own trade publication called L’Affichage national. She states that by 1907, 3 of every 7 working-class families in Paris were doing business with Dufayel. We know that Paris had a population over 2 million then, so we can only assume that Dufayel had a very large number of customers.

Coffin, Judith (1996), "Production, Consumption, and Gender: The Sewing Machine in Nineteenth-Century France," in Laura Frader and Sonya Rose eds. Gender and Class in Modern Europe, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 111-141. She states that between 1860 and 1872, 54,000 sewing machines were sold in Paris alone the bulk to families and individuals, not industrialists. We do not know the proportion sold in department stores. We do know that most were sold on credit given the low wages, thus the rise in importance of the credit service offered by Georges Dufayel. She reports that Dufayel waived the down payment and required no payment for the first month. She also argues that Dufayel’s credit practice was a rental and not a purchase, given that if the buyer could not pay, the machine was taken back and no money was reimbursed to the consumer. Her rental vs. purchase argument needs further research. She discusses Georges Dufayel’s grands magasins and claims that Dufayel was the first grands magasins to sell on credit, while all the others accepted


cash only (i. e. Bon Marché, Magasins du Louvre). The article is also interesting in that a trade publication, called La Publicité Moderne, is discussed (pp. 128-129). This French trade publication, which began in the 1880s until the 1920s (I think), has many articles on the techniques and psychology of advertising. The author also mentions le Musée de la Publicité but its location is not specified.

Cognacq, Gabriel (1933), "Les grands magasins," Foreign Trade, (September), pp. 13-14.

Cognacq, Gabriel (1933), “Causerie sur les grands magasins,” unpublished paper. The paper is cited numerous times in Clausen (1975). The manuscript is available at the Samaritaine archives in Paris. According to Nord (1986, page 514), the paper was published in 1973 in L’Echo des Roches, no. hors series, Summer.

Cogniat, R. (1930), “La Samaritaine,” L’Architecture, Vol. 43, pp. 1-10.

Cohen, Daniel (1982), The Last Hundred Years: Household Technology, NY: M. Evans and Company. Chapter 8 "The Great Mail-Order Merchants," pp. 125-137. The article is more about mail order houses then department stores; the author briefly discusses JC Penney, Sears and others.

Cohen, Daniel (1993), “For Department Stores, It’s Retail Wars,” Smithsonian (March), pp. 122-135. A discussion of the history of Strawbridge and Clothier of Philadelphia from its beginning in 1868 to today.

Cohen, Irving (1967), “The Most Dynamic Challenge Facing Traditional Retailers,” in Malcolm McNair and Mira Berman eds. Marketing Through Retailers, NY: American Management Association, pp. 33-445. An article on department store with a statement on p. 40 that the turnover rate of department stores was under 3.5 in 1964.

Cohen, L. (1951-52), “Costs of Distribution in Department Stores,” Transactions of the Manchester Statistical Society, pp. 1-36.

Cohen, Nancy Elizabeth (1998), Doing A Good Business 100 Years at the Bon-Ton Stores, Lyme, CT: Greenwich Publishing Group. A history of The Bon-Ton on the occasion of its centennial in 1998. Among the numerous family-owned department stores that opened in Pennsylvania at the dawn of the 20th century, it alone has survived as an independent company.

Cohen, Nancy E. (2002), America’s Marketplace The History of Shopping Centers, Lyme, CT: Greenwich Publishing Group. The book is copyrighted by the International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) and is lavishly illustrated. The book’s format is rather unusual but its 160 pages are well worth reading. While most of the discussion dwells on US shopping centers, others from Canada, UK, Asia etc. are also presented. The discussion seems to support my hypothesis that the department store was a powerful force, at least initially in the establishment of shopping centers. Thus, without the support of the department store, the shopping center industry might not be where it is today.

Cohen, Leonard (1953?), "Costs of Distribution in Department Stores," Transactions of the Manchester Statistical Society, Session 1951-52.

Cohen, Lizabeth A. (1996), "From Town Center to Shopping Center: The Reconfiguration of Community Marketplaces in Postwar America," American Historical Review, Vol. 101 (October No. 4), pp. 1050-1081.


Cohen, Yehoshua S. (1972), Diffusion of an Innovation in an Urban System: The Spread of Planned Regional Shopping Centers in the United States, 1949-1968, Chicago: Dept. of Geography, University of Chicago, research paper 140, 136 pages.

Cohn, David L. (1940), The Good Old Days: A History of American Morals and Manners as Seen Through the Sears, Roebuck Catalogues 1905 to the Present, NY: Simon and Schuster. Reprinted by Arno Press in 1976, NY. The discussion is more text than advertisements. It is a history of Sears to the late 1930s.

Cole, G. d. H. (1950), “The Conception of the Middle Classes,” The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 1 (December No. 4), pp. 275-290. Discussion of the middle class from the 19th to modern times. The author attempts to explain the term. There is not one reference.

Colen, David (1976), “The Store that Made California Fashionable,” Town and Country, Vol. 129 (August), pp. 48-57, 98, 100. This article is short on text but has many pictures. It’s about Isaac and Mary Ann Magnin who came from England in the US in the 1870s, and founded the I. Magnin stores in SF. I. Magnin satellite stores were opened in resort hotels such as in Carmel, Palm Springs, Coronado, LA, “wherever the wealthy congregated”.

Coles, Tim (1996), “The evolution of urban retail systems in Germany, 1848-1914: An Historical Geographical Perspective,” doctoral thesis, University of Exeter, UK.

Coles, Tim (1998), "Department Stores as Innovations in Retail Marketing: Some Observations on Marketing Practice and Perception in Wilhelmine, Germany," Journal of Macromarketing, Vol. 19 (June), pp. 34-38. Some very unique and interesting ideas about the nature and evolution of the department store are presented. The article, however, is far too focused on Germany. It reflects a European-focused noted by other researchers in this filed (i.e. Miller 1981, Perkins and Freedman 1999). Over 60% of the references are in German, making rather impossible for a non German-speaking researcher to study them. The author decided not to discuss similar department store issues that that were happening elsewhere; after all the department store retail innovation was not happening just in Germany but in other countries as well. For e.g. his discussion of the Magazin (i.e. large scale monster shops stores), Kaufhaus (i.e. large scale specialty stores), the arcade and even his long and sometimes uneven discussion of the Mittelstand (it’s discussed here and there in the paper) were not unique to the German retail landscape but were also very real in the USA, France, UK, and other countries. I don’t want to be petty here but many other points presented are not accurate in my humble opinion. This is especially the case when Coles repeats all too often that the department store was not innovative but merely applied already known business principles. That point is simply not true. His time frame too often gets mixed up when discussing certain points. He discusses that steel frame was used to build a 1871 German store; yet such a material was quite new, used at the 1876 Philadelphia Fair as a new building material; but it was not used at the 1889 Paris one due to its high cost and availability. More likely it was cast iron that was used. He talks about German department stores using mass advertising with no supportive argument. Wanamaker, Field, and many others did it in the USA after the 1870s, and I would need to be convinced that German stores used it before US ones. If not, then we will have to conclude that it was use much later by German stores. The same argument can be said about white sales and loss leaders. According to Coles, it was used by German department stores, but when? Department stores and other stores were using sales throughout the 19th c. This point may show that German retailers were behind vs. other European retailers. Taylorism did not emerge in Europe until the early part of the 20th c. Yet Coles argues that German department stores were using Taylorism principles in the 19th c. I would also argue that organizational issues of a


department store were a major management problem, a problem that was never really solved, even after many studies done by USA authors from the 1920s until the late 1960s. In fact, he seems to say that chain store management was easy or no problem for German department stores in the 19th c. Really? The USA department store industry grabbled with this very question for almost 50 years and was one of the causes of the industry's demise. He says that department stores sold cheap mass produced goods thus had an image problem. What about imports from French, USA, and other countries or even fashion goods? He says that cash sales were the hallmark of a department store. Yet Marshall Field, Macy’s and even Bon Marché and others (Crépin vouchers) welcomed credit purchases. He makes the error that German department stores were the first to have chain stores. That is not so; we can think of Stewart, Wanamaker, in department stores and in other retail areas such as food/grocery (Potin in France).

Coles, Tim (1999), “Department Stores as Retail Innovation in Germany: A Historical-Geographical Perspective on the Period 1870-1914,” in Geoffrey Crossick and Serge Jaumain eds. Cathedrals of Consumption The European Department Store, 1850-1939, Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 72-96.

Coles, Tim (1999), "Competition, Contested Retail Space and the Rise of the Department Store in Imperial Germany," The International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research, Vol. 9 (No. 3 July), pp. 275-289.

Coley, Catherine (1999), “Les Magasins Réunis: From the Provinces to Paris, From Art Nouveau to Art Deco,” in Geoffrey Crossick and Serge Jaumain eds. Cathedrals of Consumption The European Department Store, 1850-1939, Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 225-251.

Collins, Diane (1993), “Primitive or Not? Fixed-Shop Retailing Before the Industrial Revolution,” Journal of Regional and Local Studies, Vol. 13 (Summer No. 1), pp. 23-38. This article discusses retailing in the 18th c England. She used towns of Wolverhampton and Shewsbury to show that shops then were not that primitive, as historian had suggested. It’s based in part on her 1991 PhD dissertation.

Colwell, Peter and Maxwell Ramsland Jr. (2002), “Coping with Technological Change: The Case of Retail,” Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Vol. 26 (1). “Functional obsolescence in real estate occurs because of technological change. A theoretical model suggests that the early years of building life are characterized by functional obsolescence that is undiminished by reinvestment. A national, proprietary data set consisting of department store sales is utilized to test these propositions.”

Comeau, Michelle (1995), « Les grands magasins de la rue Sainte-Catherine à Montréal: des lieux de modernisation, d’homogénéisation et de différenciation des modes de consommation », Material History Review—Revue d’histoire de la culture matérielle, Vol. 41 (Spring), pp. 58-68. The author analyzes the influence exerted by three of these temples of the retail trade: Eaton, Morgan and Dupuis Frères stores. These three grew significantly, and more or less simultaneously, beginning in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The author studies the 1920s to 1960s, when the presence of these three stores was markedly asserted. She makes many errors about the department store, its origin, use of various technologies, etc. But she provided useful information whith her content analyis of newspapers in both languages in 1927, 1938, 1944 and 1959. She focuses more on Dupuis frères than on the other 2 stores: why?

Comeau, Michelle (1995), “L’enfant courtisé Santa Claus entre le commerce et la magie,” Cap-aux-Diamants, No. 40 (Winter), pp. 22-25.


Comer, H. D. (1928), Merchandise Returns in Department Stores, Vol. 1 Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press.

Comish, N. H. (1946), “Trends in Western Department Store Merchandising,” in Nathaniel Engle ed. Marketing in the West, NY: Ronald Press, pp. 197-202.

Committee on Marketing (1961), Principles of Marketing, NY: Pitman Publishing Corporation. A book done by a collaborative group of 72 marketing professors, and chapter 13 (pp. 214-231, discusses the department store.

Condit, Carl W. (1960), American Building Art of the Nineteenth Century, NY: Oxford University Press. The book discusses engineering in building and construction material needed for bridges, dams, train terminals, and skyscrapers. The department store is also discussed as a contributor to architectural and other innovations (see pp. 30-43, 60-69, 226, 285). The author discusses the Crystal Palace of the New York World’s Exhibition of 1853, to show how American ingenuity could compete with Europeans as a result of Crystal Place built for the 1851 London World Fair. The book was reviewed by Turpin Bannister in the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians Vol. 19 (December No. 4), pp. 180-182.

Condit, Carl (1964), The Chicago School of Architecture: A History of Commercial and Public Building in the Chicago Area, 1875-1925, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The book discusses various department stores in the Chicago area, among other commercial buildings, with numerous illustrations. The Fair Store, the Marshall Field Wholesale Store, the Carson Pirie Scott Store, Sears, among others, are discussed (pp. 60-63, 89-92). It is a useful book on the history of commercial and public buildings in Chicago during the period.

Connelly, Mark (1980), The Response to Prostitution in the Progressive Era, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. The book mentions the link between prostitution and the department store.

Conroy, Thomas (1935), “Retailers in Move to Improve Stores: Air-Conditioning Gaining,” New York Times, March 10.

Construction moderne (1905), « Grands magasins à Paris, » 17 juin, pp. 448-451.

Construction moderne (1912), “Magasins de la Samaritaine à Paris, nouvelle façade sur la rue de Rivoli”, No. 17, pp. 316ff.

Converse, Paul (1927), Selling Policies, NY: Prentice-Hall. Wanamaker is discussed in the book.

Converse, Paul (1939), “Labor Saving Devices in Marketing,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 4 (October No. 2), pp. 150-156. He discusses many devices that help reduce cost, especially in logistics as used by department stores and others.

Converse, Paul and Harvey Huegy (1942) The Elements of Marketing, second revised edition, NY: Prentice-Hall. Chapter 17 (pp. 335-347) is on the department store. On page 335, the authors say, “In a broad sense, any store with a departmental organization is a department store. Under this definition, many specialty stores and wholesale houses would be department stores. Popular usage, however, limits the term to a retail store handling shopping goods and catering to women. Some merchants seem to feel that the word “department” cheapens the store or denotes that it is a


store for the masses. Thus stores that catered to the upper income groups insisted that they operated “specialty” and not department stores. Some feel that, if a store does not handle furniture, it is not a department store. The discussion in this chapter, however, will include all large (integrated) retail stores handling shopping goods.”

Converse, Paul (1959), Fifty Years of Marketing in Retrospect, Studies in Marketing No. 5, Austin, TX: Bureau of Business Research, The University of Texas. He has almost nothing on the department store. On page 38, he says that in 1928, a typical food store handled 867 items; in 1950, it was 3,750, and in 1957 it was 5,144 items.

Conwell, Russell (1924), The Romantic Rise of A Great American, NY: Harper and Brothers. The biography of John Wannamaker, 1838-1922, the founder of the great Philadelphia department store. Conwell was an evangelist and friend of Wanamaker. On pp. 216-217, he discusses mother’s day.

Conzen, Michael and Kathleen Conzen (1979), “Geographical Structure in Nineteenth Century Urban Retailing: Milwaukee, 1836-1900,” Journal of Historical Geography, Vol. 5 pp. 45-66.

Cooper, Patricia (2002), “The Limits of Persuasion: Race Reformers and the Department Store Campaign in Philadelphia 1940-1948,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 126 (1), pp. 97-126.

“Co-operative Advertising Campaign on Electric Refrigerators,” Printers’ Ink, Vol. 134 (February 11), pp. 10, 12.

Copeland, Peter (1967), “The Revolution in Interior Store Design,” in Ronald Gist ed. Management Perspectives in Retailing, NY: John Wiley, pp.152-156. The author discusses an in store revolution, whereby merchandise is now presented in groupings, such that merchandise are grouped according to the way shoppers buy them, i.e. ‘shops’ within the store (store design is coordinated). Is that a department store innovation?

Coppens, Marguerite (1983), “‘Au Magasin de Paris.’ Une boutique de modes à Anvers dans la première moitié du XVIII siècle,” Revue belge d’archéologie et d’histoire de l’art, Vol. 52, pp. 81-107.

Coquery, Michel (1977), Mutations et structures du commerce de détail en France, Paris : Clergy.

Corbin, Claire (1942), “Survey of Department Store Training Methods,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 18 (February), pp. 16-21.

Corey, Shana (2002), Milly and The Macy’s Parade, NY: Scholastic Press. A delightful pictorial children’s book with text about the first Macy’ Parade as seen by the eyes of an immigrant child in America.

Corina, Maurice (1978), Fine Silks and Oak Counters, Debenhams 1778-1978, London: Hutchison Benham.

Cortada, James (1993), Before the Computer IBM, NCR, Burroughs, and Remington Rand and the Industry They Created, 1865-1956, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. This book has a chapter on the history of NCR, the typewriter, and other office equipments but none on the


pneumatic tube. Much of his discussion on NCR and John Patterson is from Marcosson (1945) and his footnote 30 on the Heintz Cash Register Company is rather amusing (p. 303). Marshall Field is discussed (pp. 50, 53), and World’s Fairs (pp. 49, 213).

Cory, Shana (2006), Milly and the Macy’s Parade, NY: Scholastic. Notes on the history of the Parade are included in this fictional novel (I think?).

Courteau, Guy and François Lanoue (1947), “Nazaire Dupuis,” in Une nouvelle Acadie Saint Jacques de L’Achigan 1772-1947, Montreal : Imprimerie Populaire. A short biography of the founding father of Dupuis Frères, pp. 321-325.

Cover, John, M. Artelia Bowne, Gertrude Norris, and Vincent Cohenour (1931), “Advertising and Department Store Sales,” Part 1 The Journal of Business of the University of Chicago, Vol. 4 (July No. 3), pp. 227-244. I could not find part 2. It was published under a different title.

Covert, James (2003), “J.C. Penney recovery may need surgery,” National Post, October 2, p. IN3. An article discussing the current problems facing Penney’s management with their poor performing Eckerd drugstore chain of 2,700 stores. It seems Penney has revamped its distribution supply chain, its visual merchandising, and it will try to do the same with its drugstores.

Covington, Howard E. Jr., (1988), Belk: A Century of Retail Leadership, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. One hundred years after Henry Belk opened his first store in Monroe, North Carolina, this vast retail enterprise remains a privately held, family and management-owned firm with nearly 350 stores in 16 states. The author covers the life of the business from its first day to the celebrations of its one hundredth anniversary. See Blythe (1958).

Couture, Charles (1904), Des différentes combinaisons de ventes à crédit, Paris. Dufayel’s credit methods are discussed.

Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1976), “The 'Industrial Revolution' in the Home: Household Technology and Social Change in the Twentieth Century,” Technology and Culture, Vol. 17. Reprinted in Thomas Schelereth ed. Material Culture in America, Nashville, TN: The American Association for State and Local History, pp. 222-236.

Cox, Nancy (2000), The Complete Tradesman: A Study of Retailing, 1550-1820, Aldershot, England: Ashgate. The book was reviewed by Beverly Lemire (2001), Business History, Vol. 43 (October No. 4), pp. 119-120. The book discusses the changing retailing scene up to the beginning era of the department store. The small shops were innovative with their design, their allure of window displays, and their interior furnishings, which all contributed to the modernization of retailing. The book is an important contribution toward our understanding of the department store era, given that the department store displaced many such small shops. Such stores were the precursor of the department store, even though they continued to co-exist, even during the golden age of the department store. They still thrive today, as if the ‘wheel of retailing” was at work, with boutique shops as popular as ever. It remains to be seen to what extent the innovations of such stores were imitated by the department store later on the 19th c.

Cox, Nancy and Karin Dannehl (2007), Perceptions of Retailing in Early Modern England, Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publication. Retail trade in England, and how people perceived retailing, both as onlookers, artists, commentators, and participants.


Crane, Diana (1999), “Diffusion Models and Fashion: A Reassessment,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 566 (November), pp. 13-24. The role of department store buyers and others are discussed.

Cranston, Mary Rankin (1906), “The Girl Behind the Counter,” The World Today, Vol. 10 (March No. 3), pp. 270-274. The article was not found due to the unavailability of this magazine.

Crapsey, Edward (1870), “A Monument of Trade,” The Galaxy Vol. 9 (January No. 1), pp. 94-101. The article discusses the A.T. Stewart department store. According to Abelson (1989, p. 241), “Crapsey’s impression of Stewart is to some extent at odds with the enthusiasm of other observers. Crapsey however is usually cited as the authority. He says that on rare days 50k shopped there and the 6 elevators were steam-powered.

Crask, Melvin and Fred Reynolds (1978), “An Indepth Profile of the Department Store Shopper,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 54 (Summer), pp. 23-32.

Crask, Melvin (1980), “Department store vs. Discount Stores: An Academic’s Point of View,” in Ronald Stampfl and Elizabeth Hirschman eds. Competitive Structure in Retail Markets: The Department Store Perspective, Proceedings, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 33-42.

Crawford, Hanford (1909), “Ethics of a Big Store,” Independent, Vol. 67 (August 12), pp. 358-360. He was the general manager of Scruggs, Vandervoot and Barney, a St Louis department store. He gave this address at the National Methodist Federation for Social Service. He tells of the contributions made by the department store.

Crawford, Margaret (1992), “The World in a Shopping Mall,” in Michael Sorkin ed. Variations on a Theme Park, The New American City and the End of Public Space, NY: Noonday Press, pp. 3-30.

Crawford, Robert (1925), "Why Eaton's Is One of World's Great Establishment," Forbes (April 1), pp. 815-817, 836.

Crété, Liliane (1988), “La Compagnie de la Baie d’Hudson,” Historia, No. 495 (March), pp. 80-89.

Crissey, Forrest (1915), Since Forty Years Ago: An Account of the Origin and Growth of Chicago and Its First Department Store, Chicago: The Fair. The book was privately published. This reference is taken from Twyman (1954), Siry (1988), and Harris (1987). The Fair according to Harris, “penetrates American consciousness as the site of our most famous fictional excursion into shopping, Carrie Meeber’s initiation into the world of high consumption in Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie, first published in 1900,” p. 154).

Creighton, Millie (1991), “Maintaining Cultural Boundaries in Retailing: How Japanese Department Stores Domesticated ‘Things Foreign,’” Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 25 (October No. 4), pp. 675-709.

Creighton, Millie (1995), “Creating Connected Identities among Japanese Company Employees: Learning to Be Members of Department Store Communities,” Culture, Vol. 15 (No. 2), pp. 47-64.


Croll, PC (1908), “John Wanamaker: Merchant and Philanthropist,” The Pennsylvania-German, January.

Crooks, Edwin (1962), “Improving Department Store Selling,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 38 (Summer), pp. 34-40.

Crosbie, M.J. (1994), “Critique: the Vatican of Consumption? A Close Look at the Mall of America,” Progressive Architecture, Vol. 75 (April No. 3), pp. 70-73.

Crossick, Geoffey (1984), “Shopkeepers and the State in Britain, 1870-1914,” in Geoffrey Crossick and Heinz-Gerhard Haupt eds. Shopkeepers and Master Artisans in Nineteenth-Century Europe, London: Methuen, pp. 239-269.

Crossick, Geoffrey and Serge Jaumain eds. (1999), Cathedrals of Consumption: The European Department Store, 1850-1939, Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing. A series of new articles discussing the history of retailing and consumption related to the rise of the department store in France, Germany, Hungary and England. The book was reviewed by Hubert Johnson (2000), Canadian Journal of History, Vol. 35 (December No. 3), pp. 562-563. It was also reviewed by David Monod (2000), Urban History, Vol. 29 (No. 1), p. 68.

Crossick, Geoffrey and Serge Jaumain. (1999), “The World of the Department Store: Distribution, Culture and Social Change,” in Geoffrey Crossick and Serge Jaumain eds. Cathedral of Consumption: The European Department Store, 1850-1939, Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing, pp. 1-45.

Csaba, Fabian Faurholt and S’ren Askegaard (1999), “Malls and the Orchestration of the Shopping Experience in a Historical perspective,” in Eric Arnould and Linda Scott eds. Advances in Consumer Research, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, Vol. 26 pp. 34-40. See also Feinberg (1960), Feinberg and Meoli (1991).

Cucheval-Clarigny and Favien (1890), Étude sur le Bon Marché, les Grandes Usines de Turgan, préface de Jules Simon, Paris: Librairie des Dictionnaires.

Culin, Stewart (1926), "Color in Window Displays," Men's Wear, (June No. 6), p. 72.

Culin, Stewart (1926), "The Department Store and its Relation to the Social Life of the Present day," Women's Wear, Men's Wear, (November No. 3), pp.

Culture Technique (1993), “Culture Marchande,” No. 27. Article of the cultural role of the department store.

Cummings, Edward (1897), “Co-Operative Stores in the United States,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 11 (April No. 3), pp. 266-279. The author discusses the coop store movement in the US. The first stores appeared in New England between 1847 and 1859 and by 1896, New England membership totaled about 19,000. British coop societies had membership of close to 1.5 million members in 1895. The 1895 organization of the Cooperative Union of America’s first president was Robert E. Ely. A magazine, American Cooperative News, was founded in 1896. The Bulletin of the Department of Labor has historical data on the coop store movement in the US.

Cummings, J. C. (1953), Keys to Selling Department Stores, rev ed. NY: Fairchild Publications.


Cummings, J. C. (1961), “How Should Salesmen Sell Department Stores and Suburban Branches?,” Sales Management, Vol. 86 (June 16), pp. 48-50.

Currie, Carol and Geri Sheedy (1987), "Organizing Eaton's," in Robert Argue, Charlene Gannagé and D. W. Livingston eds. Working People and Hard Times Canadian Perspectives, Toronto: Garamond Press, pp. 247-259.

Curry, Mary E. (1980), "Creating an American Institution: The Merchandising Genius of J. C. Penney," unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, American University.

Curry, Mary E. (1993), Creating an American Institution: The Merchandising Genius of J.C. Penny, NY: Garland.

Curtil, E. (1933), Des maisons français d’alimentation à succursales multiples, Dijon.

Cushman, Joy (2006), The Customer is Always Right: Change and Continuity in British and American Department store , 1945-1960,: in Benson, John and Laura Ugolini eds., Cultures of Selling Perspectives on Consumption and Society since 1700, Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 185-213.

Cyert, R., M. J. March, and C. Moore (1962), “A Model of Retail Ordering and Pricing by a Department Store,” in Ronald Frank, Alfred Kuehn, and William Massy eds. Quantitative Techniques in Marketing Analysis, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 502-522.

Dale, Ernest (1958), “The Changing Channels of Distribution: Lower Costs, New Freedom for Consumers,” Printers' Ink, July 11, pp. 21-27. Reprinted in C. Dirksen, A. Kroeger, and L. Lockley eds. (1963), Readings in Marketing, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 151-159. Discussion of the retail distribution including the department store.

Dale, Tim (1981), Harrod’s: the Store and the Legend, London: Pan Books. Also published in 1986.

Dale, Tim (1995), Harrods: A Palace in Knightbridge, London.

Dalrymple, Douglas (1964), Measuring Merchandising Performance in Department Stores, NY: Retail Research Institute, National Retail Merchants Association, 85 pages.

Dalrymple, Douglas (1965), “Quantitative Methods of Measuring Merchandising Performance in Selected Department Stores,” in George Smith ed. Reflections in Progress in Marketing, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 119-131. Reprinted in Ronald Gist ed. (1967), Management Perspectives in Retailing, NY: John Wiley, pp. 354-360. An article studying the utilization of quantitative merchandising control factors in department stores.

Dalrymple, Douglas (1966), Merchandising Decisions Models for Department Stores, East Lansing, MI: Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Division of Research. Graduate School of Business, East Lansing: Michigan State University.

Daly, John (1991), “The end of an era, Simpsons falls victim to hard times” Maclean's, Vol. 104 (June 17), p. 44.


Dameron, Kenneth (1927), “Cooperative Retail Buying of Apparel Goods,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 6 (July), pp. 4433-456. Reprinted in Daniel Bloomfield ed. (1931) Trends in Retail Distribution, NY: H. W. Wilson, pp. 169-193. The author mentions Associated Merchandising Corporation on page 177, indicating that it was in existence in 1927. He also adds that Retail Research Association (through The Associated Merchandising Corporation) in 1921 was probably the first to put into effect a method for the group buying of women’s wear (p. 179).

Dameron, Kenneth. (1935), "The Retail Department Store and the NRA," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 13 (April No. 3), pp. 261-270.

Dan, Horace and E. C. Morgan Wilmont (1907), English Shop Fronts Old and New a series of examples by leading architects, London: B. T. Batsford. A rather uneven and boring book with the plates not well coordinated with the textual material. The text itself is light on substance.

Daniels, Alfred (1960), “The Challenge to Department Stores,” 32nd Annual Boston Conference on Distribution, Boston, pp. 77-80. The author was President of Burdine’s of Miami, Fl. He discusses some of the issues confronting the department store.

Daniels, William Cooke (1900), The Department Store System, Denver: privately printed, Carson-Harper Co. A 31-page account of the relations of the department store to the public. Cited in the 1900 issue of the American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 6 (July No. 1), page 138.

Darby, W. D. (1928), “Story of the Chain Store,” Dry Goods Economist, Vol. 82 (April 21), pp. 13-14.

Darby, W. D. (1928), Story of the Chain Store A Study of Chain Store Policies and Methods, Particularly as They Affect the Independent Merchant in the Dry Goods Field, NY: Dry Goods Economist.

Dardia, Rachel and Louise Skow (1969), “Price Variations for Soft Goods in Discounts and Department Store,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33 (April No. 2), pp. 45-50.

Dargan, Margaret (1928), “The New Patron of Art-The Department Store,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 4 (July), pp. 3-8.

Dasquet, Marc (1955), Le Bon Marché, Paris: Editions de Minuit.

Daugan, J. (1902), Histoire et législation des patentes des grands magasins, France: Université de Rennes. This is the author’s 1902 “thèse de droit” (law thesis) from the Université de Rennes. This 213 page thesis is listed in the Ministère de L'éducation Catalogue de thèses (1964), Vol. 4, Kraus Reprint Ltd., 18th fascicule année scolaire 1901-1902, No 497.

Daumard, Adeline (1970), Les Bourgeois de Paris au XIXe siècle, Paris : Flammarion. The book is the author’s thesis submitted in 1963 to the Centre de Recherches Historiques (École Pratiques des Hautes Études, VIe section) under the title of «La Bourgeoisie parisienne de 1815 à 1848». Two points worth mentioning in the book. First, the author discusses women’s rights on pp. 185-189. We can that a woman had very limited rights as to what she owned or could sell, etc. We can infer that she may not have had much freedom to spend as she wished without the husband’s approval. Second, in the chapter “Boutiquiers et Négotiants,” pp. 227-255, the author briefly discusses the department store (grand magasin) and some of the marketing practices used back then. On page 232, we see that Paris was specializing in the production of luxury goods related to


textiles, etc. We can infer that such goods were also sold in Parisian stores, which limited the availability of less expensive goods to consumers. Mass produced goods (i.e. lower-priced) was not as available in Paris as in US stores. A final point is that the book has no references and no index, which is rather strange for a thesis.

D’Aunay, Alfred (1880), Le Louvre. Le Grand Hôtel et les Grands Magasins, Paris: Imprimerie Tolmer. This reference is cited as such in Marrey (1979). He says on page 89 that the editor most likely was Chauchard, given the high quality of the book. This reference is again cited in Tétart-Vittu (1992).

Daughters, Charles (1937), Wells of Discontent A Study of the Economic, Social and Political Aspects of the Chain Store, NY: Newson and Company. The book was published by the author and distributed by Newson. It is a 300-page book on the evils of the chain store, as perceived by the author. The author, a politician, seems to believe that a retailer needs to be attached to his local community and that the chain store has no soul. He accuses the chain store of massive propaganda in order to be more accepted by the public. He is against vertical integration by a retailer, against the formation of buying groups, treated a trade group representing its members as a form of propaganda machine, and he believed that the chain store is less efficient than other forms of retail. He truly believed that the chain store was acting in a manner to monopolize/corner the market, thus be able to raise prices at will later on. However laudable his intentions were, it is rather starling that in the 1930s, a Washington politician would have such views about capitalism, free enterprise, and large-scale distribution. He praised Hitler for his anti chain store views (i.e. department store) with German legislation to curb them. Surprisingly, the book has an introduction by Wright Patman, who was a member of Congressional Committee of Investigation of Trade Practices of Big-Scale Buying and Selling.

D'Avenel, Georges (1894), "Les Grands Magasins," La Revue des Deux Mondes, 4e période, 124 (July 15), pp. 329-369. See below.

D'Avenel, Georges (1894), “The Beginnings of French Emporiums,” Review of Reviews, Vol. 10 (September), page 317. This one page English summary of D'Avenel's (1894) article published in la Revue des Deux Mondes. It seems les grands magasins was translated as "emporiums," an expression used by other British authors such as Saint (1982).

D'Avenel, Georges (1896), Le Mécanisme de la Vie Moderne, Paris: Librarie Armand Colin, five volumes and some volumes have six editions (i.e. volume 1). The year of 1896 needs explanation. D’Avenel wrote a series from July 15, 1894 to August 1, 1905 (28 articles) published in La Revue des Deux Mondes. These were subsequently published in his five-volume collection called Le mécanisme de la vie moderne. I am assuming that the first volume was published in 1896. One volume was published in 1902. The five-volume set has a total of 23 chapters with each volume having a number of chapters. Volume 1: chapters 1 to 5; volume 2: chapters 6 to 10; volume 3: chapters 11 to 14; volume 4, chapters 15 to 18; volume 5: chapters 19 to 23. Volume 2, with headings such as paper, lighting, silk, navigation, insurance, (i.e. series 2), has five editions and the latest edition was published in 1917. Each volume of the five-volume set (or série) has a different year in which it was originally published and each also has a different year when it was revised. Thus, it is quite difficult to know what was added or deleted in each of the revised editions for the five-volume set, unless one has access to the five volumes and their various editions. The expression used for volume in French is série, not to be confused with édition, with has the same meaning in English. Georges D’Avenel was a great moralist of the 19th c. who had strong reactions against modern life (department stores, mass produced goods, etc.) and their negative effect on people. He was also a vicomte, the title is often included with his name, le


Vicomte G. D’Avenel, which may be confusing when searching for his works. As a member of the bourgeois class, he expressed much concern about the world that was changing very quickly. He also traveled to the United States (New York for sure). One may say he was the equivalent of a French Mark Twain because his books reflect some personal observations during his travels and his way of looking at the way things used to be in France. He also wrote numerous other books notably Histoire économique de la propriété, des salaires, des denrées et de tous les prix en général, depuis l’an 1200 jusqu’à l’an 1800, in five volumes. The following references are chapters deemed to be the most important ones for studying the department store and related topics.

D'Avenel, Georges (1895), " Les magasins de l’alimentation," chapter 3 in his Le Mécanisme de la Vie Moderne, Première Série (Vol. 1), Paris: Librarie Armand Colin. The 6th edition published in 1916 has chapter 3 in 5 sub sections, pp. 155-217. The chapter was also published in La Revue des Deux Mondes, 4e période, 129 (July 15), pp. 806-836. Interestingly, sub section 2 of the 6th edition is called “Les épiceries Potin,” pp. 166-186 and sub section 3 “Les usines de Potin,” pp. 187-200, a renowned French entrepreneur who had an impact on the food distribution system in France.

D'Avenel, Georges (1896), “Les Magasins de Nouveautés,” chapter 1 in his Le Mécanisme de la Vie Moderne, Première Série Paris: Librarie Armand Colin. The sixth edition published in 1916 has chapter 1 in 8 sub sections, pp. 1-90 (1. Le grand commerce sous l’ancien régime, 2. Le Bon Marché, 3. Le Louvre, 4. Belle Jardinière, 5. Règles d’achat et de vente, 6. La comptabilité, 7. Les vols, 8. Employés et frais généraux). The author discusses three of the most important Parisian department stores, as well as a discussion on shoplifting and other topics. Volume 4 second edition published in 1911 has two chapters: chapter 16 on advertising pp. 121-178, and chapter 18: “le Prêt Populaire,” pp. 351-404. On pp. 375-384, the author discusses “Les Bons Crépin-Dufayel,” the credit vouchers offered by this firm, probably the first one to offer consumer credit on such a large scale in France (see Calmettes 1902, Coffin 1994, 1996, du Closel 1993, and Williams 1982).

D’Avenel, Georges (1901), « Les mécanisme de la vie moderne, la publicité, » Revue des Deux Mondes, pp. 628-659.

Daves, Jessica (1967), Ready-Made Miracle the American Story of Fashion for the Millions, NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. The book has a chapter on the history of the sewing machine and a discussion on the pattern industry as well. It also has a good discussion on the history of women’s magazines, which helped promote fashion trends.

David, A. G. (1912), “The New San Francisco,” Architectural Record, Vol. 31 (January), pp. 1-26. The article discusses the department store in San Francisco as well as other retail shops.

David, Anthony (2003) The Patron A Life of Salman Schocken, 1877-1959, NY: Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt and Company. The fascinating life of one of the most important dept store gurus in Germany prior to WW2. David provides an in depth analysis not found anywhere else as to why Jewish-owned German dept stores were targeted by the Nazis. Schocken was stunned as to what happened to his business even when Hiller and his chief economic minister were not in favor of such attacks, at least initially because they provides jobs and income for thousands of families. The ref list is mostly German and archival material with little, if any refs on the dept store per se. Yet the index contains many pages on the dept store.


David, Donald K (1923), “Retail Merchandising in Relation to General Business Conditions,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 2 (October No. 1), pp. 37-42. A plea for retail business to adjust to market conditions. The last page is intriguing for it says that Macy’s established a statistical department to guide for buying. Filene’s has given it some thought too. Moreover, Retail Research Association will soon organize a statistical department to serve its members with needed information.

David, Michel (1950), « L’évolution des formes d’exploitation, » in Jacques Lacour-Gayot ed. Histoire du Commerce, 6 volumes, Paris : Spid. Volume 1, book 3, pp. 243-359.

Davidson, William R (1951) Use, Productivity and Allocation of Space in Department Stores, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, College of Commerce and Business, The Ohio State University, advisor, Theodore N. Beckman.

Davidson, William (1961),"Department Store Organization-History and Trends," Department Store Economist, (January), pp. 64-74. A good review of the organizational issues of department stores, by commodity or functional specialization.

Davidson, William (1961), “The End of the Discount House as a Distinctive Type of Retail Institution,” Department Store Economist, pp. 24-28.

Davidson, William and P. Brown (1960), Retailing Management, NY: Ronald Press, chapter 7.

Davidson, William, Alton Doody, and James Lowry (1970), "Leased Departments as a Major Force in the Growth of Discount Store retailing," Journal of Marketing, Vol. 34 (January), pp. 39-46.

Davidson, William, Linda Hyde and Daniel Sweeney (1985), Resilience of Conventional Department Stores: A Marketing Assessment, Retail Intelligence System Retail Focus Series (March), Columbus, Ohio: Management Horizons, Inc. (69 pages).

Davies, J. D. and P. Jones (1993), “International Activity of Japanese Department Stores,” Service Industries Journal, Vol. 13 (1), pp. 126-132.

Davis, Donald (1923-24), “Retail Merchandising in Relation to General Business Conditions,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 2 p. 37.

Davis, Donald (1955), Basic Text in Advertising, Pleasantville, NY: Printers’ Ink Books. Chapter 2 “How Modern Advertising Developed,” pp. 10-41. The chapter is on the history of advertising. The figure on page 11 of a Pompeian billboard is quite unique. The figure is from the Association of National Advertisers (1952), Essential of Outdoor Advertising. The chapter resembles too much the chapter written by Dunn (1961, 1969, 1978). Yet Dunn did not credit Davis. Is it plagiarism? Davis also says Printers’ Ink was founded in 1888. He presents a case on p. 16 when in 1743, Peter Zenger’s New York Journal is the first example of an ad breaking the column rules, i.e. more than one column in width. This ad was the exception and did not become common until at least 100 years later. He mentions the voluntary censorship of advertising by Samuel Bowles in 1870 banning all medical ads from his Springfield, Mass Republican. He attributes A. T. Stewart and Wanamaker as the pioneers who gave way to the truth in advertising movement. “The influence of these two merchants on the future of American retailing was very great” (p. 23). The only problem is that it cannot be in 1880, as Davis claims, because Stewart was barely still in business then. So it had to be before. He says that the Atlantic Monthly was in 1860 one of the first to accept national ads.


Munsey’s Magazine a ten cent had a circulation of 700k in 1900. Many others, such as Ladies Home Journal, had a circulation of over 100k. TV appeared after WW2 and by 1954 66% of homes could be reached.

Davis, Dorothy (1966), A History of Shopping, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. The book was published in Canada in the same year as Fairs, Shops, and Supermarkets A History of English Shopping, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. The title can thus cause some confusion. The history of retailing over the last six centuries (last millennium), including the department store. Moreover, the supermarket is not discussed at all in the book, given that this retail institution began in the early 1930s (even earlier) and its part of the title in the Canadian edition. Food distribution is discussed on pp. 252-254, and 262-263.

Davis, Hartley (1907), "The Department Store at Close Range," Everybody's Magazine, Vol. 17 (September No. 3), pp. 312-323. The article has nice illustrations and the author discusses the department store as he saw it. He has neat points about the New York Wanamaker store, which has a concert hall where some of the greatest masters perform, all free to the public.

Davis, L. F. (1961), “The Wool co Stores-Plans for Their Future,” Department Store Economist, November, pp. 24-25.

Davis, Margaret Leslie (1996), Bullocks Wilshire, LA, CA: Balcony Press.

Davis, Shane Adler (1989), “Fine Cloths on the ‘Altar’: The Commodification of Late-Nineteenth-Century France,” Art Journal, Vol. 48 (Spring), pp. 85-89.

Dawley, Heidi (1996), “Big Sale at Harrods?,” Business Week, June 24, pp. 58. The article discusses the store (18 restaurants, 25 acres, Food Hall), as well as a potential IPO by its owner Mohamed Al Fayed.

Dawson, J. (1982), Commercial Distribution in Europe, London.

Dawson, J. (1982), Shopping Centers: A Bibliography ll, Council of Planning Librarians.

Day, Alexandra (1992), Carl Goes Shopping, NY: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1992, c1989. “While his mistress shops, Carl, a large dog, and the baby in his care explore the department store quite thoroughly and have a wonderful time. Fiction.

Day, William (1921), “Is the Distributing Power of the Department Store Still Increasing?,” Printer’s Ink Vol. 114 (March 3), pp. 81-82, 84, 88.

D'Azambuja, G. (1901), "Les grands magasins doivent-ils tuer les petits?" La Science Sociale, Vol. 32 (October), pp. 277-294.

Dean, David (1970), English Shop Fronts From Contemporary Sources Books 1792-1840, London: Alec Tiranti Ltd. The book has a seven-page introduction by David Dean and the rest of the book is a collection of plates. The plates come from various books published by I. and J. Taylor (1792) Designs for Shop Fronts, J. Young (1828) A series of Designs for Shop Fronts, J. Faulkner (1831) Designs for Shop Fronts, T. King (nd), Shop Fronts and Exterior Doors, and Nathaniel Whittock (1840), On the Construction and Decoration of the Shop Fronts of London. The most interesting ones are those of N. Whittick with his collection 18 plates, while the others are pencil sketches. Whittock’s shop fronts “are brought to life with goods in the windows and


shoppers to gaze at them.” According to Dean, the term shop window appeared in the OED from 1447. Dean says that permanent shops “were normally dwelling places where the trader lived ‘over’ or ‘behind’ the shop. Dean says fixed prices were introduced at the end of the 17th c. The arrival of glass allowed for display. Then came shop signs protruding outward on the street were gaudy–looking, dripped in the rain, and chimed in the wind. These were eventually banned in 1762. The London Building Act of 1774 introduced restrictions on shop front designs. Flat signs then became the norm. Shops were opened until 10 pm in the late 18th c. Plate glass technology could now produce sheets of any dimension, and gave Young’s shop designs, a shop trend that reflected shops of our own age. Nevertheless, designers still preferred the 2’ 3 inch ones and the large plate glass were the exception rather than the rule as discussed by Eldridge (1958). The use of glass was restricted due to import duties. It was only in 1845 that the duty on glass was repealed. Even then, the largest size of plate glass was 8 ft x 14ft, the norm being 7/8 ft x ¾ ft. We can now appreciate the extent to which A. T. Stewart’s huge plate glass was innovative. The book seems to have had a US edition under the same name with no Preface by Dean. (English Shop Fronts from Contemporary Source Books 1792-1840 (1970), Levittown, NY: Transatlantic Arts). This book is a collection of shop fronts from other sources. Some of the pictures are outstanding. The book is a collection of illustrations with no author. Some of illustrations are spectacular given the dates. They show how retail merchants in the 18th c. used their street level store displays to bring customers into the stores. Some of the store fronts had very large plate glass windows, which forces us to think as to when such plate glass was developed, by whom and where they were first used.

Dean, Jennifer Brooks (1972), Careers in a Department Store, rev ed. Minneapolis, Lerner Publications.

Dean, Joel (1942), “Department Store Cost Functions,” in O. Lange, F. McIntyre and TO Yntena eds. Studies in Mathematical Economics and Econometrics in Memory of Henry Schultz, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 222-254. Reprinted as “Cost Functions in Department Stores,” in K. A Tucker and B. S. Yamey eds. (1973), Economics of Retailing Selected Readings, UK: Penguin Books, pp. 161-183. Deane, Phyllis (1979), The First Industrial Revolution, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press.

Deceulaer, Herald (2000), “Entrepreneurs in the Guilds: Ready to Wear Clothing and Subcontracting in Late Sixteenth-and and Early Seventeenth-Century Antwerp,” Textile History, Vol. 31 (November No. 2), pp. 133-149.

De Coster, P. (1983), “la Première Vague des pionniers de la grande distribution,” Team October, pp. 7-9 and November-December, pp. 8-11. Reference taken from Servé (1988).

de Gamond, Isabelle Gatti (1907), “Les demoiselles de magasin,” in her Question sociale, Morale et Philosophie, Paris: V. Girard, pp. 214ff.

DeJean, Joan (2005), Essence of Style: How the French Invented High Fashion, Fine Food, Chic café, Style, Sophistication, and Glamour, NY: Free Press. The author discusses the mirror industry in the 17th c. and how it was taken over by France from Venice. She also alludes to the fact that Paris was the 1st city to have street lights after dark, that's why it’s called "City of Lights," but when? She also says that display of goods in stores was created by the French where stores had luxurious interiors but when? Is she referring to 'magasins de nouveauté'?

de Kock, Paul (1844), “Magasins de nouveautés,” in La Grande Ville, Nouveau Tableau de Paris, comique, critique et philosophique tome 1, Paris: Maresq, pp. 241-265?


Demolins, Edmond (1890), La question des grands magasins, Paris: Firmin Didot. According to du Maroussem (1893), this is a brochure.

Demolins, Edmond (1890), "La question des grands magasins," La Science sociale, Vol. 9, pp. 289-319. This reference was very hard to obtain given that only one library in all of NA had this volume. Moreover, the page number of this article when cited is never correct. It’s a political essay on the role of the department stores in Parisian life and their effect on small shopkeepers.

Dennis, John Jr. (1906), “Marshall Field” A Great Mercantile Genius,” Everybody's Magazine, Vol. 14 (March), pp. 291-302.

"Department Store Abroad," (1896), Department Store Journal, I (September 15), pp. 47-48.

"Department Store, The" (1897), Department Store Journal, II (August), pp. 368-369.

“Department Store Consolidation and Association” (1926), Journal of Retailing, Vol. 2 (April), pp. 14-15.

Department Store Economist (1928), “Sears Roebuck-A National Factor,” Vol. 80 (August 11), pp. 323-324.

Department Store Economist (1960), “The Basement–Important to Both Downtown and Branch,” December, pp. 16ff.

Department Store Economist (1965), “Branch Stores-Is the Tail Wagging the Dog?”, August, pp. 19-21.

Department Store Economist (1966), “How stores benefit from Programmed Merchandising,” January, pp. 30-33.

Department Store Economist (1968), “Revitalizing the city’s core,” Reprinted in Marketing Insights, Vol. 2 (17), February 19, 1968, pp. 15-17.

Department Store Guide (1956), Directory of Department Stores, NY: Department Store Guide Inc. Reference from the American Marketing Association. The directory may have been updated for a number of years.

“Department Store Loom Large in Attack on National Advertising” (1917), Printers’ Ink, Vol. 98 (January 11), pp. 62, 65, 66. An article discussing national vs. local advertising in relation to the sale of national brands at fixed price vs. the sale of private brands by department stores, a highly contentious issue then. It is also a question of resale price maintenance by manufacturers and the margins obtained.

“Department Store Mergers” (1928), Journal of Retailing, March 17. Reprinted in Daniel Bloomfield ed. (1931), Trends in Retail Distribution Including a Brief on Chain Stores, The Handbook Series Volume 3, NY: The H. W. Wilson, pp. 441-445. The article says that the Retail Research Association is one of the largest and oldest group buying organizations in the country (p. 443). Also Macy’s had just one store in 1923 but 3 by 1927. On page 257, Piggly Wiggly had 2,800 stores in 1929, Sears had 30 stores in 1928, JC Penny had 1,000 stores in 1926 (see p. 229). A&P had 15,000 to 20,000 stores (p. 223).


Department Store Sales (1979), Fairchild Fact File NY: Fairchild Publications, Market Research Division. Fairchild published a number of books on retailing and the department store and was the publisher of WWD (Women’s Wear Daily), among a number of other trade publications.

Department Store Sales (1986), Fairchild Fact File NY: Fairchild Publications, Market Research Division.

Department Store Retailing in an Era of Change (nd), Domestic and International Business Administration, Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce. The book may have been published in the 1970s.

“Department Stores and Installment Selling (1926), Barron’s Weekly, May 3, 6:11.

“Department Stores step up Web service efforts” (2001), Marketing Week, October 11, page 15. John Lewis, a British department store, opens up a web site.

Desjardins, Noëlla (1968), “Dupuis et Frères Un Centenaire Canadien-Français,” Le Magazine de la Presse, 24 février, pp. 19-23. Cet article est disponible à la Bibliothèque Nationale du Québec.

de sève, Andrée-Anne (1994), “Hourra! Le catalogue Eaton est arrivé,” Cap-aux-Diamants, No. 40 (Winter), pp. 18-21.

Deslandes, A. P. (1972), Historique du Grand Bazar d’Anvers (1885-1968), Anvers: Imprimeries générales anversoises. The history of a department store founded prior to 1885, and by then had 15 depts. It converted itself into a food chain, was known as Grands Bazars Réunis Anvers-Gand, then the name was changed to Galeries du Bon Marché in 1933, and again to Grand Bazar d’Anvers/Grote bazar van Antwerpen.

Desmond, Henry W. (1904), “The Schlesinger and Mayer Building, an Attempt to Give Functional Expression to the Architecture of a Department Store,” Architectural Record, Vol. 15 (July), pp. 53-67. On pages 61-67, there’s a subtitle to the article “Another View–What Mr. Louis Sullivan Stands for.” Another author gives LP Smith as the author.

des Rotours, J. Angot (1891), “Les Grands Magasins du Louvre,” La Réforme sociale, Vol. 22 (juillet-décembre), pp. 95-99. A short article on the Louvre department store and when it opened at the 1855 Paris Exposition.

« Deux réalisations de Jacques Carlu au Canada » (1931), Art et Décoration, pp. 109-116. A discussion of the new Eaton restaurant, which opened in January 1931 in Montreal.

Dewinne, Auguste (1897), Les grands magasins, Bruxelles: Imprimerie Veuve D. Brismé.

Dickinson, Roger (1965), “A Normative Model of Creative Department Store Behavior,” in George Smith ed. Reflections on Progress in Marketing, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 132-138.

Dickinson, Roger (1966-1967), “Game Theory and the Department Store Buyer," Journal of Retailing, Vol. 42 (Winter), pp. 14-24.


Dickinson, Roger (1966), “Markup in Department Store Management,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 31 (January), pp. 32-34. Reprinted in Rom Markin Jr. ed. (1971), Retailing Concepts, Institutions, and Management, NY: The Macmillan Company, pp. 266-268.

Dickinson, Roger (1966), “Marginalism in Retailing: The Lessons of a Failure,” Journal of Business, Vol. 39 (July), pp. 353-358. Reprinted in Rom Markin Jr. ed. (1971), Retailing Concepts, Institutions, and Management, NY: The Macmillan Company, pp. 273-278.

Dickinson, Roger (1967), “Models of Department Store Buyer Behavior,” doctoral thesis, Columbia University, available via University Microfilms 1969, HF 5006 U55 no. 724.

Dickinson, Roger, Frederick Harris, and Sumit Sircar (1992), “Merchandise compatibility: an exploratory study of its measurement and effect on department store performance,” International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, Vol. 2 (4), pp. 351-379.

Didier, Roger (1928), Du vol des grands magasins, Paris. This is the author's 126 page thesis from the law faculty of Dijon Université as listed in the Ministère de L'éducation Catalogue de thèses (1964), Kraus Reprint Ltd., Vol. 28 No. 5, 45th fascicule année scolaire 1928.

“Did Japan Start ‘One Price’Policy?” (1922), Dry Goods Economist, September 23, p. 13.

Dillon, James (1986), “A. T. Stewart Dry Goods Store/Sun Building,” New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission designation report, 7 October. Reference taken from Landau and Condit (1996, p. 403).

“Direct Selling by Department Stores” (1931), Journal of Retailing, Vol. 7 (July), pp. 40-44. The article discusses the extent of direct selling by department store, its advantages with a short discussion on telephone selling. The article is part of the Buying and Merchandising Division of the Journal, with no author cited.

Ditchett, Samuel H. (1922), Marshall Field and Company–The Life Story of a Great Concern, The Dry Goods Economist NY: Charles Schibner's Sons. This is a book on Marshall Field, the Chicago department store. In the preface, Ditchett states that he and W. L. Pollard, a former editor of the Dry Goods Economist, spent many days at the Marshall Field store as well as visited the plants located in North Carolina and Virginia. It seems the Dry Goods Economist had already published the various chapters of the book.

Ditchett, Samuel H. (1923), Eaton's of Canada A Unique Institution of Extraordinary Magnitude, NY: Dry Goods Economist. A 60-page book on Eaton’s. It’s a 8” in width by 14” in length, a rather unique way of publishing a book, with numerous illustrations.

Dixon, Donald (1984), “The Intellectual Heritage of Retailing,” in A. Spranzi and J. Jacoby eds. The Economics of Distribution, Milano, Italy: Franco Angeli Editore, 751-779.

Dixon, Donald (1994), “A Day’s Shopping in Thirteenth Century Paris,” in Jagdish Sheth and Ronald Fullerton eds. Explorations in the History of Marketing, Supplement 6, Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 13-23.

Dixon, Donald (1995), “Retailing in Classical Athens: Gleanings from Contemporary Literature and Art,” Journal of Macromarketing 15 (Spring) 74-85.


Dixon, Jennifer (1998), “Remembering Hudson’s,” Michigan History Magazine, Vol. 82 (No. 5), pp. 21-24. The store was constructed in 1911 and it was expanded until 1946. It was destroyed in 1998. It was a large urban store but situated in part of downtown Detroit that changed radically over time.

Dodge, Robert (1960), "How Discount-House Selling Has Influenced Department Stores", Journal of Retailing, Vol. 36 (Summer), pp. 97-101, 126.

Doessereck, William (1929), “Kitchen Equipment for Department Stores,” The Architectural Forum, Vol. 50 (June No. 6), pp. 945-947. Department stores were manned by thousands of people and every day thousands of customers frequented such establishments. Specialized kitchen equipment was needed to feed them.

Domey, Jean Noël (1943), « L’organisation générale des magasins à succursales multiples de produits alimentaires, » unpublished master’s thesis, École des Hautes Études Commerciales, Université de Montréal. Food store chains in Quebec.

Domosh, Mona (1996), "The feminized retail landscape: gender ideology and consumer culture in nineteenth–century New York City," in Neil Wrigley and Michelle Lowe eds. Retailing, Consumption and Capital: Towards the New Retail Geography, London: Longman Group. Chapter 14, pp. 257-270. The article discusses at length A. T Stewart and his Marble Palace, complete with illustrations. One illustration is rather spectacular. It shows the interior of Stewart’s store on Broadway at 10th Street, with 6 stories. This was the 1862 Cast Iron Palace, not the Marble Palace built near 263 Broadway, between Chambers and Reade Streets.

Domosh, Mona (1996), Invented Cities The Creation of Landscape in Nineteenth-Century New York and Boston, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Domash is a geographical historian. She explains the 19th c. economic and social developments of NYC and Boston, and shows why NYC grew faster, and became more diversified to the point that it became the heart of economic activity of the US. NYC’s culture was business while Boston was more culture and preservation of the existing elites. NYC was in constant state of rejuvenation due to the constant flow of new immigrants while Boston was more subdued, the old guard kept growth in check. NYC forced the elites to reside elsewhere (i.e. forced them to move) to escape the commercial activity of the growing and noisy city, while in Boston, the elite put on the brakes and slowed growth by their reluctance to abandon their residential areas to make way for more commercial development. Chapter 2 is on the retail district of New York in the 19th c. and has much information on A. T. Stewart. I suspect there’s some overlap with her article above, if only due to the illustrations presented in both texts.

Donovan, Frances R. (1929), The Saleslady, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Reprinted in 1974. A book on retail sales clerk, notably in NYC department stores. This book is a participant observation study by a sociologist who worked in a number of department stores for a brief period of time (4 weeks). She reports her findings in an honest and sometimes very entertaining way. She discusses the use of cash registers in department stores on pp. 60-70, and the ‘premium’ paid to the worker who corrected them. Her difficulty in using cash registers is a must to read. One quote is worth repeating “If anyone working under me had made as many mistakes as I did, I should have discouraged her on the spot. It happens that I hold a college degree but girls with one-fourth of my intelligence and one-tenth of my education, who had graduated from the eighth grade and whose language showed little, if any, acquaintance with grammar, made one mistake to my ten (p. 64).” She also shares with the reader her appreciation


of the work done by the sales clerks who worked in such stores. She developed genuine feelings for many of her co-workers. The book also has a number of articles from the NYT on retailing.

Doody, Alton (1963), "Historical Patterns of Marketing Innovations", in W. Decker ed. Emerging Concepts in Marketing, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 245-253. The author discusses why historical analysis presents an opportunity of gaining insight into the marketing innovation process innovation. He then uses the department store and the discount store as examples.

Door, Rheta Childe (1910), What 8,000,000 Women Want, NY. The book mentions the link between prostitution and the department store (see p. 196).

Dorr, R. C. (1907), “Christmas from Behind the Counter,” Independent, Vol. 63 (December 5), pp. 1340-1347.

Dotson, Michael and W. E. Patton (1992), “Consumer Perceptions of Department Store Service: a Lesson for Retailers,” Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 6 (Spring No. 2), pp. 15-28.

Doubman, J. Russell and John Whitaker (1927), The Organization and the Operation of Department Stores, NY: Wiley. Chapter 1 “History and Development of Department Stores, pp. 1-21. The book also has 5 chapters (out 14 or over 100 pages in a 300 page book) on the physical control of merchandise (i.e. operations of a department store). The logistics involved in receiving and delivering merchandise to customers is one of the unique features of the book. It also has neat historical facts not seen elsewhere about delivery systems used by le Bon Marché and Harrod’s. The book has many examples of Wanamaker’s ads, plus a solid description of his 1911 store on pp. 155-156. Chapter 14 is on the future of the department store. Overall, this book covers just about every minute aspect of department store operations The reference sources provided are incomplete and few.

Doucet, Michael J. A.H. Jacobs and Ken Jones (1988), “Megachains in the Canadian Retail Environment,” International Journal of Retailing, Vol. 3, pp. 5-23.

Doucet, Michael J. (2001) The Department Store Shuffle: Rationalization and Changes to the Greater Toronto Area, Research Report 2001-05, Toronto, Ont. Centre for the Study of Commercial Activity, Ryerson Polytechnic University. Since the later years of the nineteenth century, department stores have stood at the pinnacle of the hierarchy of shopping opportunities available to European and North American consumers. Little is known about their locational evolution. It is one important purpose of this report to examine that phenomenon for the Greater Toronto Area. CSCA has published numerous research reports on retailing, including shopping malls, international retailing, e-retail, with some studies on retail development of the GTA. Some reports are available only to members such as RBC, Hallmark Cards, Chapters, Bank of Nova Scotia, Canadian Tire, Gap, HBC, Manulife, among others.

Doucet, Michael (2003), “The department store shuffle: a study of rationalization and locational change in a large metropolitan market,” Progress in Planning, Vol. 60, pp. 93-110.

Doullay, C. P. (1867), “L'ascenseur,” reprinted in Roger Saubot and Francis Bouygues eds. (1987), Les Grands Dossiers de l’Illustration Les Expositions Universelles Histoire d’un siècle 1843-1944, Paris: Le Livre de Paris, page 64.


Dowling, Robyn (1991), “Shopping and the construction of femininity in Woodward’s department store, Vancouver, 1945-1960,” unpublished master’s thesis, University of British Columbia.

Dowling, Robyn (1993), “Femininity, Place and Commodities: A Retail Case Study,” Antipode, Vol. 25 (No. 4), pp. 295-319. A case history of Woodward’s department store located in Vancouver, BC.

“Downtown vs. Branch Operation” (1958), New York Retailer, April p.9. During 1957 Philadelphia’s five large downtown department stores lost about $9.6 million in sales as compared to 1956 but gained $17.5 m. in their branches.

“Downtown Revitalization” (1962), Stores, Vol. 44 (March), pp. 21-23.

Dreiser, Theodore (1898), "Life Stories of Successful Men: Marshall Field," Success, December


Drew-Bear, Robert (1966), “The Emergence and Growth of Discount Stores—A Reappraisal,” in Raymond Haas ed. Science, Technology, and Marketing Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 225-233. The author discusses the discount store as well as the department store. He asks the question if discount selling is different from department store selling?

Drew-Bear, Robert (1970), Mass Merchandising: Revolution and Evolution, NY: Fairchild Publications. This book is a combination of retailing news of importance to those looking for the names of department stores and discounts places that have since disappeared. The author has primary research by his interviews with some of the pioneer discounters who revolutionized mass retailing after WW2. The book also has other information of interest to retailing historians. The author emphasizes the soft goods discounters as well as others and their impact on mass retailing. Much information on department stores turned discount stores is presented. The author has a complete chapter on leased departments (chapter 8, pp. 272-343). From pages 117 to 148, the author discusses Eugene Ferkauf, the founder of E. J. Korvette. Ferkauf was one of the mass merchandising pioneers after WW2 who revolutionized retailing and perhaps was the one responsible for creating or at least expanding the discount store industry. Harvard University in fact honored Ferkauf for his pioneering and innovative work. Apart from the book by Barmash (1981), this is perhaps the most extensive discussion on Ferkauf and Korvette.

Driver, Anna (2002), “Sears to pay US$1.9B for Land’s End,” National Post, May 14, page FP 4.

Drucker, Peter (1954), “The Sears Story,” in The Practice of Management, NY: Harper and Row, Chapter 4, pp. 27-33. An updated chapter is reproduced as “Managing a Business: The Sears Story,” in Drucker’s (1974) Management Tasks Responsibilities Practices, NY: Harper and Row, pp. 50-57. Drucker (1974) also discusses Marks and Spencer (Chapter 8, pp. 95-102). He discusses Sears going from a selling organization to a buying, as one stage in its development. Then Sears went into a manufacturing base later on. He did not know that Stewart had done that over 70 years before. Drucker gives credit to Sears for ‘satisfaction guaranteed or your money back,” which is false. According to Drucker, “there is a persistent legend at Sears that Henry Ford, before he built his own first plant, visited and carefully studied the then brand-new Sears mail order plant” (p. 30). Ford built his own mass production line 5 years later. The mail order plant was “the first modern mass production plant, complete with breakdown of all work into simple repetitive operations, assembly line, conveyor belt, standardized, interchangeable parts-and, above all, with planned plant-wide scheduling” (pp. 29-30). Finding information on


OC Doering, the plant/operations manager who supervised the installation of the mail-order processing system proved to be futile. It seems all the recognition went to Julius Rosenwald.

Dry Goods Economist (1892), “British dry-goods stores…”, November 3, pp. 30-31.

D'Souza, Aruna and Tom McDonough eds. (2006), The invisible flaneuse? gender, public space and visual culture in nineteenth-century Pari

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