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The Wonderful World of the Department Store in Historical Perspective: A

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, The Filenes, Boston, Mass.: International Pocket Library.

Bernard, Joseph (1906), Du mouvement d'organisation de défense du petit commerce français, Paris: A. Michalon.

Bernard, Joseph and Louis Hoffmann (1911), “Le petit commerce et les grands magasins,” La Réforme sociale, Vol. 61 (Janvier-Juin), pp. 293-303. The article was presented at the meeting on March 1st. The article discusses the department store's influence on small shops and asks if the department store will eventually reach a stage that its operating costs will be high enough to benefit small shops (cost ineffective).

Berner, Robert (2003), “Is Kohl’s Coming Unbuttoned?,” Business Week, July 28, p. 44.


Berner, Robert (2003), “Sears: The Silent Partner Who’s Making Himself Heard,’ Business Week, August 11, p. 38.

Berry, Leonard (1968), “The Components of Department Store Image A Study of Three Selected Department Stores in Phoenix, Arizona,” unpublished DBA dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe.

Berry, Leonard (1969), “The Components of Department Store Image: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 45, (Spring No. 1), pp. 3-20.

Beurdeley, P. and G. Drucker (1890), "Les grands magasins et la liberté commerciale," Les Annales économiques Vol. 5 (May), pp. 569-586.

"Big vs. Little Store," (1912), Printers' Ink, Vol. 80 (April 25), pp.

Bihl, Luc and Luc Willette (1984), “Les débuts troublés du commerce moderne,” Historia, No. 448 (March), pp. 43-50. A short history of fraudulent retail practices in France, from the late 19th c. to the early parts of the 20th c.

Bingham, Wheelock (1957), “Careers in Department store Retailing,” in Advanced Retail Management 1, Tobé Lecture Series at Harvard Business School. The president of R.H. Macy reviews the opportunities for college students.

Bingham, Wheelock and David Yunich (1965), “Retail Reorganization” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 43 (July-August), pp. 129-132, 135-139, 141-146. Reprinted in John Ryans, James Donnelly and John Ivancevitch eds. (1970), New Dimensions in Retailing, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, pp. 72-94. Much discussion on the organization of a department store, notably Macy’s. The authors have a nice quote from a McNair speech on the history of the department store in which he credited “Wanamaker as the greatest protagonist of this innovation in America,” p. 73.

Bird, J. H. and M. E. Witherick (1986), “Marks and Spencer: The Geography of an Image,” Geography, Vol. 71, pp. 305-319.

Birmingham, Nan Tillson (1978), Store a memoir of American great department stores, NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. Numerous insights about department stores.

Birmingham, Nan Tillson (1991), Gump's since 1861: a San Francisco legend, SF: Chronicle Books. A history of one of the world's fine specialty department stores, its focus is on oriental and classical western art and crafts.”

Bjelopera, Jerome P. (2005), City of Clerks: Office and Sales Workers in Philadelphia, 18701920, Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Black, Errol (1986), “The Struggle Against Eaton’s Moves to Manitoba,” Canadian Dimension, Vol. 20 (March No. 1), pp. 9-11. Eaton’s declared war on its Brandon workers.

Black, J. J. (1951), “A New Era in Retailing,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 27 (Winter), pp. 189-194, 202. Trends in retailing as viewed by a merchant.


Black, Thomas (1948), “Using the Consumer Panel to Measure Department-Store Buying,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 24 (December No. 4), pp. 151-157, 170.

Blackman, Janet (1967), “The Development of the Retail Grocery Trade in the Nineteenth Century,” Business History, Vol. 9 (2), pp. 110-117.

Blake, Peter (1966), “Shopping Streets Under Roofs of Glass.” Architectural Review, Vol. 124 (Jan/Feb), pp. 68-75. A pictorial view of various arcades (see Geist 1979). According to Artley (1970), the article illustrates the interior of Pomerantsev’s GUM department store in Moscow, together with a variety of mid-19th century European shopping arcades. The reference was misquoted as being published in Architectural Forum.

Blankertz, Donald (1950), “Shopping Habits and Income: A Philadelphia Department Store Study,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 14 (January No. 4), pp. 572-578.

Blankertz, Donald (1951), “The Basement Store Customer,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 15 (January), pp. 236-340. An overview of the income profile of department store customers and some erroneous conceptions held by department store managers. A Philadelphia store’s customer credit records were analyzed.

Blaszczyk, Regina Lee (2000), Imagining Consumers: Design and Innovation from Wedgwood to Corning, Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press. The book is more on the development of the ceramic and glass industries during the period 1860-1930, than on distribution. In fact, the author mentions that Macy’s had the first a crockery department in the 19th c. but does not elaborate on the role played by the dept store or retailers in their role in expanding this industry for the middle class. To her credit, she does elaborate on the role played by specific people in understanding consumer tastes before market surveys became to norm for obtaining such information. The book was reviewed by Katherine Grier (2001), Enterprise and Society, Vol. 2 (June No. 2), pp. 402-404.

Bliss, Michael (1974), A Living Profit Studies in the Social History of Canadian Business, 1883-1911 Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. A compact book that discusses the dilemma of Canadian business: Limit competition in the country by the adoption of the National Policy in 1879 (i.e. tariff), and form associations, trade groups, etc. to fix price in order to tame competition and earn a living profit. The department store is mentioned numerous times in the book, especially on pp. 38-39 when the “Retail Merchants’ Association of Canada (RMAC) sponsored a successful suit against T. Eaton Company for fraudulent advertising. The RMAC lobbied for discriminatory taxes on department stores (say assessing a separate tax on each department in a store), tighter controls on transient traders, and the general institution of RPM. As its final solution to the problem of stabilizing trade and nullifying the effect of the department stores, the Association proposed that it would be “greatly in the interest of all laboring, manufacturing, commercial and purchasing classes of the Dominion to have all lines of goods belonging to each trade defined in groups by mutual consent of the Merchants, and a record of them placed upon the Statute books of the Province, and that power be asked to regulate and control by license or otherwise all such groups or lines of trade in cities having a population of 30,000 or more.” The Association managed to prohibit the use of trading stamps in the early 1900s. The anti-department store movement of the late 1800s was alive not only in the US, France, Germany, UK but also in Canada.

Bliss, Michael (1978), A Canadian Millionaire the Life and Business Times of Sir Joseph Flavelle, Bart. 1858-1939, Toronto: Macmillan of Canada. Many pages devoted to Eaton’s and the retailing in Canada. However, he often does not document his sources or the dates. For e.g. on page 63, he


says Simpson’s had a six-story steel-frame building with a pneumatic tube but no dates given or source.

Bliss, Michael (1987), "A Nation in Business, 1880-1900," in Northern Enterprise Five Centuries of Canadian Business, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. Chapter 11, pp. 285-290, with specific reference to Eaton’s on pp. 288-290.

Bliss, Michael (1994), “The Innovative Wal-Mart is Just 100 Years Too Late,” Canadian Business, Vol. 67 (May), page 80. A very short history of Timothy Eaton, with some other department stores mentioned.

Bliss, Perry (1952), “Price Determination at the Department Store Level,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 17 (July), pp. 37-46.

Bliss, Perry (1953), "Non-Price Competition at the Department Store Level," Journal of Marketing, Vol. 17 (April No. 4), pp. 357-365.

Blitz, Sidney (1950), Blueprint for selling more refrigerators. Prepared exclusively for Department Store Economist, Stamford, CT: Dahl Pub. Co.

Blitz, Sidney (1950), Blueprint for selling more piece goods. Prepared exclusively for Department Store Economist. Stamford, CT: Dahl Pub. Co.

Blitz, Sidney (1950), Blueprint for selling more hosiery. Prepared exclusively for Department Store Economist. Stamford, CT: Dahl Pub. Co.

Blitz, Sidney (1950), Blueprint for stockkeeping, part I; part II, Blueprint for performing stockroom duties. Prepared exclusively for Department Store Economist. Stamford, CT:Dahl Pub. Co.

Blitz, Sidney (1950), Blueprint for selling more glassware. Prepared exclusively for Department Store Economist. Stamford, CT: Dahl Pub. Co.

Blitz, Sidney (1950), Blueprint for selling more hand luggage. Prepared exclusively for Department Store Economist. Stamford, CT: Dahl Pub. Co.

Blomley, Nicholas (1996), "'I'd like to dress her all over': masculinity, power and retail space," in Neil Wrigley and Michelle Lowe eds. Retailing, Consumption and Capital: Towards the New Retail Geography, London: Longman Group. Chapter 13, pp. 238-256. The article discusses at length Émile Zola's Au Bonheur des Dames for his thesis on femininity and masculinity in shopping, especially in a department store.

Blonde, Bruno et al eds. (2006), Buyers & Sellers: Retail Circuits and Practices in Mediaeval and Early Modern Europe, Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols.

Bloomfield & Bloomfield (1921), Methods of compensation for department store employees; a survey by Industrial relations, Bloomfield's labor digest. Boston.

Bloomfield, Daniel (1959), “Pioneers in Marketing: Edward A. Filene and Lincoln Filene,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 23 (January), pp. 296-300.


Bloomingdale Brothers (2000), Bloomingdale’s Illustrated 1886 Catalog, Paperback Dover Publications.

Bloomingdale, E. W. (1915), "The Inner Workings of a Department Store 1- The Value of Welfare Work," The Outlook, Vol. 111 (June 2), pp. 278-280. The rebuttal by Josephine Goldmark (1915) “11-Another View,” pp. 280-282. Bloomingdale was the counsel for the Retail Dry Goods Association of New York while Goldmark represented The National Consumer League. These are two short but poignant articles debating the technological and managerial advancements made by department stores in the early 1900s in assuring workers’ health and comfort. Note that a consumer league existed then as well as the RDGA of NY. See also Emerson (1915). Emeron’s article was the first one, followed by the others.

“Bloomingdale’s Transformed” (1931), Architecture and Building, Vol. 63 (June No. 6), page 113.

Bluestone, Barry, Patricia Hanna, Sarah Kuhn, and Laura Moore (1981), The Retail Revolution Market Transformation, Investment, and Labor in the Modern Department Store, Boston: Auburn House Publishing Company. A case study of the department store industry. Reviewed by James Madison (1982), Business History Review, Vol. 56 (Summer No. 2), pp. 313-315.

Blumin, Stuart (1985), “The Hypothesis of Middle-Class Formation in Nineteenth Century America: A Critique and Some Proposals,” American Historical Review, Vol. 90 (April), pp. 299-338. An excellent article with lots of neat illustrations on the department store and other retail stores some not seen before. A good review of the emergence of the middle class, the department store’s prime market. He says that the term middle class was first quoted in a dictionary in 1889, according to Burton Bledstein (1976 note 44, p. 311, The Culture of Professionalism: The Middle Class and the Development of Higher Education in America, NY.

Blumin, Stuart (1989), The Emergence of the Middle Class Social Experience in the American City, 1760-1900, NY: Cambridge University Press. The book is a mixture of marketing, sociology and economics. The author discusses white-collar occupations, when such occupations took place in society, the wages earned, the inventory of goods such workers had, the social organizations their belonged to, all in the hope of clarifying his hypothesis of the social and economic factors that fostered the establishment of a USA middle class. Of course, he talks about shopping and the department store including AT Stewart and others are discussed, notably in chapter 3, pp. 66-107. The chapter has neat illustrations that are also in his 1985 article. He also discusses retail buildings and some worthwhile comments are made about retail structures in the 18th c. (i.e., pp. 23-24, and in chapter 3). Joseph Cooke’s Folly, built a commercial building in Philadelphia completed in 1794 (81ft long x 26 ft), seven stories high, including 2 underground levels and the ground floor having full display windows, with shops located there as well on the second floor. It was similar in concept to the elegant shops of London’s West End. But his commercial venture was a failure and he could not even sell the building; eventually it was demolished. Given the vast difference in population in London vs. Philadelphia, the long commercial tradition in London and people’s values, the non-existence of a market to support such a commercial endeavor, (lack of a middle class, limited disposable income), it’s no wonder the commercial venture failed. He discusses the 1850 Dr. Jayne’s eight-story office building, which towered 130 ft above ground, high enough to be called a skyscraper, a term he uses (p. 98). We see from his discussion that large retail stores with palatial decor existed in Boston Philadelphia and NY, among other places. Such stores had many features that Stewart had (rotunda, exquisite décor, mahogany counters, plate glass windows, displays, high ceiling, and attractive storefronts. It was also a time 1830s/40s that Greek Revival storefronts proliferated.


The marble Palace was part of this Greek Revival movement. The Greek movement is also discussed in Reynolds (1984).

Blythe, LeGette (1958), William Henry Belk, rev ed. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. See Covington (1988).

Bodsworth, Fred (1955), “Simpson’s vs. Eatons The Battle of the Big Stores,” Maclean-Hunter, February 1. Reprinted in Canada in the Fifties, Toronto: Viking/Penguin Book, pp. 58-60.

Böhme, Margarete (1912), The Department Store: A Novel of Today, translated by Ethel Coburn Mayne, NY: Appleton and Company. Her name has also been spelled as Bohme or Boehman, perhaps due to her German surname. Her novel is à la Émile Zola but less known.

Boileau, L. C. (1876), “Magasin du Bon Marché à Paris; grand escalier,” Encyclopédie d’architecture, V ser 2. Paris, pp. 120-122, 323, 342, 350, 351, 356. This book seems to have been published on a regular basis.

Boileau, L. C., fils (1880), "Les magasins au Bon Marché," Encyclopédie d'architecture, Paris, p. 184.

Boily, Hèléne (1995), “Art, Artisanat et Exotisme Magasiner des expositions, ” Cap-aux-Diamants, No. 40 (Winter), pp. 31-33.

Boissier, F and G. Lachaux (1894), “Contribution à l’étude de la kleptomanie,” Annales Médico-Psychologiques (January).

Bond, Harry (1929), “Plumbing, Sprinkler and Vacuum Cleaning Systems,” The Architectural Forum, Vol. 50 (June No. 6), pp. 955-956. The department store needed specialized equipment for fire protection and for cleaning.

Bond, R. C. (1965), “Department Store Organization,” in the National Retail Merchants Association, The Buyer’s Manual, 4th edition, NY: The Association, pp. 11-22. The manual was revised in 1937, thus the first edition was published before.

Bon Marché archives, Inventaire des marchandises du Bon Marché de 1878 à 1920, located rue Neuve 111 à 1000, Bruxelles.

Bonnet, Pierre (1920), La commercialisation de la vie française du Premier Empire à nos jours, Paris: Librarie Plon. Only a few pages of the book discuss the department store (e.g. pp. 173-174; 268-271; 377-378), which is rather surprising. We find out though that Paris had a population of nearly 2 million in 1866 (page 155), which explains the success of le Bon Marché and other Parisian department stores. After all, the department store emerged in large populated cities as part of the changing urban landscape (e.g. NY, Paris, London, Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston, Toronto).

Bonta, Juan Pablo (1979), Architecture and Its Interpretation: A Study of Expressive Systems in Architecture, NY: Rizzoli International Publications. The author offers a critical opinion (on pp. 91-129) of the Chicago Carson Pirie department store, and Louis Sullivan as the architect.

Bontemps, Maurice (1894), Du vol dans les grands magasins et du vol à l’étalage, Paris: Étude médico-légale. This is probably a thesis as reported by Abelson (1989, p. 269, note 85).


Boorstin, Daniel (1973), “A. Montgomery Ward’s Mail Order Business,” Chicago History, New Series Vol. 2 (Spring-Summer), pp. 142-152. Ward became the supplier of the Patrons of Husbandry (the Grangers) and competed with Sears in selling goods to rural America.

Boorstin, Daniel (1973), The Americans The Democratic Experience, NY: Random House. Chapter 10, pp. 101-109. A short but succinct discussion on department stores. He discusses AT Stewart and the architectural innovations of such stores saying that Stewart’s second store had 8 stories, was reputed to be the largest retail store in the world, was the largest iron building of its day, one of the largest of any kind. He stated that Otis installed the first ‘safety ‘elevator in the Haughwout department store in 1857. But the Haughwout store was not really a department store according to Reynolds (1984, p. 131), but an elegant emporium selling "cut-glass, silverware, clocks, and chandeliers." The architect was JP Gaynor and was one of Daniel Badger’s masterpieces in cast-iron buildings, located on Broome and Broadway.

Bordaz, Robert ed. (1983) Le Livre des expositions universelles 1851-1989, Paris: Editions des arts décoratifs, Hercher Union centrale des arts décoratifs (ucad).

Borking, Seline (1998), Fascinating History of Shopping Malls. The Hague: MAB. Borsodi, Ralph (1927), The Distribution Age: A Study of the Economy of Modern Distribution. NY. Reprinted by Arno, New York. The book has some information on Wanamaker and perhaps other department store gurus.

Bossen, Marianne (1972), L’utilisation de la main d’oeuvre dans les grands magasins du Canada, Ottawa: Information Canada. This 124-page monograph published by the Canadian government is also available in English, and it takes some legal aspects of the workers’ condition.

Bottomley, William Lawrence (1924), "The Architecture of Retail Stores," The Architectural Forum, Vol. 40 (June No. 6), pp. 233-238. A discussion (with illustrations) of many retail stores in New York City, but little on department stores per se.

Bul, A. Alexander, and Nicholas Ordway (1987), "Shopping Center Innovations: The Past 50 Years." Urban Land (June), pp. 22ff.

Boudet, Jacques et al (1952), Le Monde des affaires en France de 1830 à nos jours, Paris: Société d’Édition de dictionnaires et Encyclopédies. The chapter on the department store (chapter 11, “Les Grands Magasins,” pp. 400-409) is quite well done. It discusses all French department stores including la Belle Jardiniere, le Louvre, au Bon Marché, la Samaritaine, et les Galléries Lafayette. Dominique Gillet is presumably the author of this chapter because the name appears at the end of the chapter on page 409. However, the list of contributors to the book at the beginning, spelled the name “Dominique Guillet,” so we do not know what the correct spelling is. Of course, we are assuming the author is the same. Then on pp. 612-616, the author discusses Aristide Boucicaut, the founding father of the French department store. Anecdotal information is provided that state Boucicaut knew about some the successful management techniques used by A.T Stewart in NY. It is amusing that the author misspelled Stewart’s name. Finally, other topics are also presented in the book that are of interest to marketing historians (advertising, insurance, commerce), and the book has a number of interesting illustrations.

Bouillon, Jean Paul (1991), “The Shop Window,” in Jean Clair ed. The 1920s Age of the Metropolis, Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, pp. 163ff.


Boulware, L. R. (1937), “The Effect of the Air Conditioning Industry on Distribution,” in Boston Conference on Distribution, Boston: Retail Trade Board, Boston Chamber of Commerce, pp. 80-82.

Bourbonnais, Cristiane (1999), « Eaton méritait de mourir, » INFOPRESSE, novembre, pp. 1-2.

Bourienne, Véronique (1989), “Boucicaut, Chauchard et les autres. Fondateurs et fondation des premiers grands magasins parisiens,” in Paris et Ile-de-France Mémoires published by la Fédération des sociétés historiques et archéologiques de Paris et de l’Ile-de-France, Tome 40, Nogent-Le-Rotrou, Imprimerie Daupeley-Gouverneur, pp. 257-335. This article has an overview of the entrepreneurs who founded many of the department stores in France (pp. 257-273). Then from page 274, the author provides a detailed biography of each of the founders included Aristide Boucicaut (Au Bon Marché), Hippolyte François Chauchard (Au Louvre), Théodore Cognacq (La Samaritaine), Charles Armand Gallois (Aux Trois Quartiers), Charles Hériot (Au Louvre), Jules Jaluzot (Au Printemps), Charles Meunier (Grande Maison de blanc), Pierre Jean François Parissot (La Belle Jardinière) and Denis Parissot, Romain Anthénor Renouard (Le Coin de rue), Xavier François Ruel (Bazar de l’Hôtel de Ville). This article was reprinted in part in Bourienne (1997 but without the extensive biographies, see below).

Bourienne, Véronique (1997), “Boucicaut, Chauchard et les autres,” in Jacques Marseille ed. La révolution commerciale en France du Bon Marché à l”Hypermarché, Paris: Le Monde-Éditions, pp. 53-70.

Bouveret-Gauer, Martine (1990), Paris de la nouveauté, Paris nouveau, Paris des grands magasins, Paris: LIRESS, ENS-Cachan (École normale supérieure de Chanan, LIRESS: Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche et d’études sociales).

Bouveret-Gauer, Martine, C. Marenco, M.-J. Parizet, and René Péron (1994), Le commerce et la ville, Paris: CNRS Editions. The short book has an interesting reference list, and pp. 37-45 is on the department store.

Bouveret-Gauer, Martine (1997), “De la boutique au Grand Magasin cinquante ans de nouveauté à Paris 1820-1870,” in Jacques Marseille ed. La révolution commerciale en France du Bon Marché à l’Hypermarché, Paris: Le Monde-Éditions, pp. 19-40.

Bowen, Louise de Koven (1911), The Department Store Girl, Chicago: The Juvenile Protection Association. Reference from Abelson (1989, p. 251, note 86).

Bower, Marvin (1954), “Increasing Department Store Profits Through Improved Organization,” National Retail Dry Goods Association (NRDGA).

Bowlby, Rachel (1987), "Modes of Modern Shopping: Mallarmé at the Bon Marché," in Nancy Armstrong and Leonard Tennenhouse eds. The Ideology of Conduct. Essays in Literature the History of Sexuality, London: Methuen, pp. 185-205.

Bowlby, Rachel (1985), Just Looking: Consumer Culture in Dreiser, Gissing, and Zola, NY: Methuen. Theodore Dreiser was a writer in Chicago whose books were popular at the time (e.g. his 1900 Sister Carrie). Dreiser managed to show in his stories (i.e. The Titans, the degradation and corruption brought on by the new materialism). Emile Zola was a similar critic who examined the new materialism in Paris, especially the Bon Marché department store. Each author comes from a different country presumably to be at a comparable stage of economic development. Each writer


represents a distinct view to early consumer society (roughly 1880-1920). The book was reviewed by Diana Knight (1987), Poetics Today, Vol. 8 (1), pp. 196-199. This book is very expensive to buy even used, in the 3 figure range. Yet it is only 188 pages.

Bowlby, Rachel (1997), “Supermarket Futures,” in Pasi Falk and Colin Campbell eds. The Shopping Experience, London: Sage, pp. 92-110. The article discusses the historical development of the supermarket and its link with the rise of department store in the late 19th c. The author speculates on potential future developments and transformations. Characteristics of the supermarket and the department store are compared. The supermarket of the future is described.

Bowlby, Rachel (2000), Carried Away the Invention of Modern Shopping, London: Faber and Faber. NY: Columbia University Press in 2001. Chapters include the supermarket‘s beginnings, the Dayton connection, and a bibliography. The department store is discussed on pages 7-14, 25-29, 34-35, 39-49, 77-78, 247-249, and many other pages.

Boyd, John (1928), “The Art of Commercial Display,” Part 1 The Architectural Record, Vol. 63 (January No. 1), pp. 58-66. Part 11 (February No. 2), pp. 168-174. The first part has more discussion while the second is mostly illustrations.

Boyer, M. Christine (1985), Manhattan Manners: Architecture and Style, 1850-1900, NY: Rizzoli. The author discusses New York’s shopping district in the late 19th c. including the department store, from pp. 86-129. Also, there is much discussion on A. T Stewart’s life and his stores (pp. 32, 42, 59, 60, 63, 67, etc.).

Bradford, Barbara Taylor (2006), A Woman of Substance, NY: St Martin’sGriffin. First edition for St Martin’s but was published in 1979. “A young and impoverished. Emma Harte embarks on a journey first of survival, then of unimaginable achievement. Driven to succeed, the iron-willed Emma parlays a small shop into the world's greatest department store and an international business empire” (fiction).

Bradley, Patricia (1998), “John Wanamaker’s ‘Temple of Patriotism’ Defines Early 20th c. Advertising and Brochures,” American Journalism, Vol. 15 (No. 2), pp. 15-35. An article that discusses the link between culture and consumption as influenced by Wanamaker’s use of advertising. She states that ‘the technique of single-column advertising became the Wanamaker store hallmark’ (p. 27). Bradley reports that the “elite daily newspaper in the 1870s was the Ledger” (p. 25). It had a circulation of 75k, which grew to 80k by the end of the century, but by then, more dailies were available.

Bradshaw, T. F. (1943), “Superior Methods Created the Early Chain Stores,” Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, Vol. 17 (April No. 1) pp. 35-42.

Brady, Maxine (1980), Bloomingdale’s The Biography of a Store, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

“Branch Store Operation” (1951), Retail Control, Vol. 20 December), entire issue.

“Branch Store Panel,” (1950), Retail Control, Vol. 20 (September), pp. 44-50.

“Branch Store Panel Discussion,” (1952), Retail Control, Vol. 21 (March), pp. 40-47.

Brand, Edward (1963), Modern Supermarket Operation, NY. Fairchild Publications.


Brann, W. L. (1929), The Romance of Montgomery Ward and Company, NY: Campbell, Starring. A book on Aaron Montgomery Ward.

Breckenfeld, Gurney (1972), “‘Downtown’ Has Fled to the Suburbs,” Fortune, Vol. 86 (October 4), pp. 80-87, 156, 158, 162. The flight of the department store to the suburbs and into shopping centers. This article is very informative. The author seems to know history (p. 82) where he compares today’s shopping centers with shopping done in the past (Roman times). The article has lots of information on the behavior of department store and shopping centers. Department store preempted shopping center development by building stores and then selling the land to developers with special deals. These arrangements gave them low square footage fees vs. other retailers (up to 3 or 4 times rental cost) to the point that the FTC lodged a complaint against their privileged position. The author discusses the 2 department store partnership, the shopping center becoming a city/lifestyle center, the fact that many department stores are leaving CBD and retail is gravitating toward the suburbs. By the time the article was written only 2 new department stores in CBD had been built in the US with many being closed. See also Saunders (1951), Business Week (1951, 1955), Fortune (1953), Breckenfeld (1972), Rich (1957), Talbott (1956), Leinberger (2004, 2005).

Bremner, Brian and Michael Oneal (1989), “The Big Store’s Big Trauma,” Business Week, (July 10), pp. 50-51, 54-55.

Brewer, Frank N. (1902), "Child Labor in the Department Store", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 20 (July), pp. 165-177. The article is more about the training and education of young people working in such stores than a discussion on the exploitation of children by the department store industry. Brewer was the General Manager of the Wanamaker store in Philadelphia.

Brewer, John and Roy Porter eds. (1993), Consumption and the World of Goods, London: Routledge. The book demonstrates that the desire to shop and to own goods pre-dates the modern era.

Breckman, Warren (1991), “Disciplining Consumption: The Debate about Luxury in Wilhelmine Germany, 1890-1914,” Journal of Social History, Vol. 24 (Spring No. 3), pp. 485-506. Germany, according to the author, did not follow the department store shopping trend of France and England, a point discussed in greater details by Coles (1998, 1999).

Brewer, John and Roy Porter eds. (1993), Consumption and the World of Goods, London: Routledge. The paperback edition was published in 1994. See their “Introduction,” pp. 1-15. The book is collection of 25 articles from a 3-year project of the “Center from Seventeenth and Eighteen Century Studies” and the Clark Library at UCLA on Culture and Consumption in the Seventeenth and Eighteen Centuries. We can see that the culture of consumption did not originate in the 19th c. but was alive earlier. The book demonstrates that the desire to shop and to own goods pre-dates the modern era. The book is weak on retail history per se and focuses its attention on consumption. Yet retail shops were the ones that were actively involved in stimulating demand. The book has to be read in conjunction with books on retailing history during that period. See Hui and Hui (1989), Davis (1966), Jefferys (1954), among others, and numerous articles too many to cite here. Some of articles can us better understand the role the department store played in fostering even more the culture of consumption due to its large scale and its more aggressive demand stimulation activities.


Briggs, Asa (1956), Friends of the People The Centenary History of Lewis's, London: B. T. Batsford. The history of Lewis’s department store. The history of the department store is briefly outlined but no mention of Stewart. It gives credit to Europe for the development of the department store. Some interesting facts are presented and there’s a very neat picture of The Bon Marché in Liverpool. Briggs discusses the evolution of the department store in reference to the growth of mass retailing (in Chapter 7, pp. 167-193). The arguments are weak incomplete and rather superficial. But they do provide insights from a British perspective. On page 44,000 shoppers visited the store on opening day on Sept 1885.

Briggs, Asa (1960), "The history of retailing," Business Archives Council of Australia, 6 (1), 1-10.

Briggs, Asa (1984), Marks & Spencer 1884-1984: A Centenary History of Marks & Spencer Ltd, The Originators of Penny Bazaars, Octopus Books.

Brodie, Terry (1988), "The Piggyback Merchants," The Gazette Business Outlook, Winter, pp. 47-48. A discussion on Ogilvy’s, a Montreal department store.

Bronner, Simon J. ed. (1989), Consuming Visions Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920, NY: W. W. Norton. A collection of essays many of which are listed in this bibliography, not only because they deal with the history of department stores but are of interest to marketing history. This book is also available in a paperback edition. “Different scholars writing about the emergence of a consumer culture that placed emphasis on accumulation and display of goods in public and private spaces as a symbol of social and economic status and development. The authors employ a material culture approach to examine the acts, customs, and institutions that created and reflected the new culture of consumption. Individual essays examine the rise of the department store and retail display, changes in interior design, museum collections, rural consumption, and the increasing importance of "style," among other topics. The collection, along with the extensive references included with each essay, makes this a valuable resource for the study of material aspects of consumer culture.”

Bronner, Simon J. (1989), "Object Lessons The Work of Ethnological Museum and Collections," in Simon Bronner ed. Consuming Visions Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920, NY: W. W. Norton, pp. 227-254. This essay is mostly about the fascinating life history of Stewart Culin (from page 227), who once was director of archeology and paleontology at the University Museum in Philadelphia. Stewart Culin had contacts with Wanamaker. He was involved in toy history as well as in packaging design, and he wrote numerous articles on department stores and on other marketing topics.

Brooks, John (1969), Business Adventures, NY: Weybright and Talley. Bantam Books edition, NY in 1970. A collection of biographies of some pioneer authors and practitioners, including Clarence Saunders, "The Last Great Corner: A Company Called Piggly Wiggly.”

Brooks, John (1963), "A Corner in Piggly Wiggly,” in The Fate of the Edsel and Other Business Adventures, NY: Harper and Row.

Brooks, James (1948), “The Organization of the Selling Function in a Department Store,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 13 (October No. 2), pp. 189-194. In branch stores, separation of b/s presents good potential for better selling.

Brough, James D. (1982), The Woolworths, NY: McGraw-Hill.


Brown, Bishop and Irwin Wolf (1931), “Retailing the Department Store,” in W. J. Donald, ed. Handbook of Business Administration, NY: McGraw-Hill Book, published for the American Management Association. Chapter 10, pp. 271-301. Wolf was the Secretary, Kaufmann Department Stores. He offers a definition of a department store, p. 271.

Brown, E. J. (1965), “The Merchandising Division,” in the National Retail Merchants Association, The Buyer’s Manual, 4th edition, N: The Association, pp.29-30.

Brown, F. E. and George Fisk (1965), “Department Stores and Discount Houses: Who Dies Next?,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 41 (Fall), pp. 15-27.

Brown, George and Frank Mancina (1940), “A Note on the Relationship between Sales and Advertising of Department Stores,” Journal of Business, Vol. 13 (January), pp. 1-16. See also correction to the article, April p. 205.

Brown, Henry Collins (1927), In the Golden Nineties, Valentine’s Manual Number 12, 1928. NY: Hastings-on-Hudson, Valentine’s Manual , Inc. See chapter 7 “Advertising,” pp. 240-258. On page 67 he mentions Wanamaker as Ford’s first agent and that’s why Ford’s cars began to really sell. Pictures of Turkish style rooms and a rare headless carriage on page 100 are included.

Brown, John Crawford (1920), "Early Days of the Department Stores," in Henry Collins Brown ed. Valentine's Manual of Old New York, No. 5, New Series 1921 NY: Valentine’s Manual, Inc., pp. 97-148. A review of the NY department stores with some emphasis on Stewart.

Brown, Milton (1952), Operating Results of Department and Specialty Store Branches, Bureau of Business Research Bulletin No. 136 Boston: Harvard Business School.

Brown, Milton (1952), “The Trend in Branch Stores,” in 24th Boston Conference on Distribution, Boston: Retail Trade Board, Boston Chamber of Commerce, pp. 77-81. A discussion of why retail stores (chain and department stores) branched out and the consequences of this trend.

Brown, Milton and E. G. May (1961), Operating Results of Multi-Unit Department Stores, Division of Research Bulletin No. 159 Boston: Harvard Business School. Reference from Sternlieb (1962, p. 35).

Brown, Percy (1937), “An Appraisal of the Future of Consumer Cooperatives,” in Consumer and Industrial Marketing Series C.M. 22 NY: American Management Association, pp. 25-34. The author is an associate of Edward A. Filene, and the secretary-treasurer of the Consumer Distribution Corporation. Filene created the Consumer Distribution Corporation to act as department store owned by consumers with set objectives such as a return of not more than 5%, among other such constraints. See also Peck (1900), Bell (1958, 1961) and Cary (1977).

Brown, Thomas Jr. (1893), “The American Passenger Elevator,” Engineering Magazine, Vol. 5 (June), pp. 333-348. This article is not on the department store but given the link between this new technology and the department store, it is included. It has great information of the design of this vertical transportation invention.

Brown, Thompson (1897), “Hon. John Wanamaker: from Messenger-boy to Merchant Prince–A Romance of Business,” Our Day, Vol. 17 (September No. 113), pp. 403-416.


Brown, William (1948), “Mass Merchandising in Latin America: Sears, Roebuck & Co.,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 13 (July), pp. 73-77. Sears opened its first department store in Mexico City in February 1947. Sears had already opened a small store in Havana, Cuba in 1942, but it was too small to be consider4ed a department store. See also Truitt (1984) and Wood and Keyser (1953).

Browne, John Crawford (1921), “Early Days of the Department Store,” Valentine’s Manual of Old New York,Vol. 5, pp. 97-148.

Browne, Junius Henry (1869), The Great Metropolis: A Mirror of New York, Hartford. Chapter 32 is on Stewart and his commercial ventures.

Brucken, Carolyn (1992), “Consuming Luxury: Hotels and the Rise of Middle-Class Public Space, 1825-1860,” PhD dissertation, The George Washington University. She discussed the luxury hotels’ contributions to the culture of consumption and discusses the link with A.T. Stewart, among other retail stores of the period.

Bryant, James (1977), Department Store Disease, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.

Bryk, NV ed. (1988), Bloomingdale’s Illustrated 1886 Catalog: Fashions, Dry Goods and Housewares, NY: Constable. 158 pages.

BSRIA Staff, Supermarkets and Department Stores, LB-21-86, State Mutual Book.

Buckley, Edmund (1908), "The Artistic Aspects of America's Greatest Store," Fine Arts Journal, Vol. 19 (April), pp. 195-213. A discussion on Marshall Field.

Buckley, Jim (1953), The Drama of Display, NY:Pellegrini and Cudahy.

Bucklin, Louis (1963), “Problems of Organizational Change in Department Store Chains,” in William Decker ed. Emerging Concepts in Marketing, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 187-198.

Bucklin, Louis (1964), “Merchandising in Department Store Chains,” California Management Review, Vol. 6 (Summer No. 4), pp. 41-46.

Bucklin, Louis (1972), Competition and Evolution in the Distributive Trades, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. See pp.55-60 “Vertically Integrated Markets, The Department Store.” His views of the department store are incomplete, based mainly on much older retail books and not on more current retail history material such as Resseguie (1962, 1964, and 1965). He also did not know about Stewart’s 1846 store. Nevertheless, these few pages show that Bucklin acknowledged the department store’s numerous innovations (as part of the service sector and economy) such as a VMS, advertising, etc. but he also attaches too much importance to the managerial responsibilities delegated at the departmental level as the key to the birth of this new retail institution. It is more a combination of factors.

Bucklin, Louis (1980), “Supermarket Technology and the Traditional Department Store,” in Ronald Stampfl and Elizabeth Hirschman eds. Competitive Structure in Retail Markets: The Department Store Perspective, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 12-21.

Bucklin, Louis (1983), "Patterns of Change in Retail Institutions in the United States with Special Attention to the Traditional Department Store,” International Journal of Physical Distribution and


Materials Management, Vol. 13 (5/6), pp. 153-168. Reprinted in John Gattorna ed. Insights Into Strategic Retail Management, MCB University Press, pp. 29-44. He discusses the life cycle of the department store from 1959-1980 using multivariate analysis.

Buck-Morss, Susan (1986), “The Flaneur, the Sandwichman, and the Whore: The Politics of Loitering,” New German Critique, No. 39 (Fall), pp. 99-140. The article is on the writings of Walter Benjamin (as is the whole issue), than on the department store. There are few paragraphs devoted to the department store but insufficient for the numerous referencing this article has received by other department store researchers, notably those involved in gender studies.

Bucknill, John (1862), “Kleptomania,” Journal of Mental Science, Vol. 8, 42, pp. 262-275. This reference is discussed in Abelson (1989), pp. 267-268.

Bucknill, John (1862), “Kleptomania,” American Journal of Insanity Vol. 19 (October), pp. 148-149. This reference is discussed in Abelson (1989), p. 278.

Bulletin of the National Retail Dry Goods Association (1938), Vol. 20 (April). It has many articles on AC, electricity, etc. In fact the April issue (pp. 74-113), has an historical review of electricity related to selling electrical consumer goods in department stores.

Bulletin of the National Retail Dry Goods Association (1938), “Industry Lines Up for Father’s Day,” Vol. 20 (April), pp. 13-33. Numerous articles with ads. For e.g. Lutes “Merchandisers Endorse Father’s Day,” pp. 17-18, 60. It was the action of the department store industry that gave birth to Father’s Day.

Bulletin of the National Retail Dry Goods Association (1938), Vol. 20 (June), pp. 33-122ff. The June issue is a manual on Receiving Department Operations. It is full of technical information on how the operations of a department store uses technology.

Bulletin of the National Retail Dry Goods Association (1938), “Macy’s Opens Prescription Department,” Vol. 20 (August), page 60.

Bulletin of the National Retail Dry Goods Association (1938), “Wanamaker’s ‘Revolving Credit’ Plan,” Vol. 20 (September), pp. 24-25.

Bureau of Business Management (1960), What’s Wrong with Department Stores? University of Illinois Bulletin, Bureau of Business Management, College of Commerce and Business Administration, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois.

Burke, R. S. (1954), “Department 817, Sears,” Industrial Design, October, pp. 81-88.

Burman, Barbara ed. (1999), The Culture of Sewing Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking, NY: Berg.

Burmam, David (1979), “Downtown Core Areas: Can They Be Saved?,” Retail Control, Vol. 47 (March), pp. 36-64. On page 43 “one of the first malls built in 1954, was Cross County Shopping Center in Yonkers, New York, which contained Gimble Brothers at one end and John Wanamaker at the other.”

Burnett, John, R. Amason, and S. Hunt (1977), “Feminism: Implications for Department Store Strategy and Salesclerk Behavior,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 57 (Winter), pp. 71-85.


Burnett, Richard (2002), “Retail Industry Experts Wonder Whether Department Stores Will Exist in Future,” Knight Ridder Tribune Business News, August 4, page 1.

Burnham, Alan (1956), “Last Look at a Structural Landmark,” Architectural Record, Vol. 120 (September No. 3), pp. 273-279. An article devoted to the A. T Stewart store, just after its demolition in 1956. The store had been the former Wanamaker building and it caught fire on July 14, 1956. The cast iron faced store was a structural landmark and it was the worse fire in thirty years in New York City. This is Stewart’s Cast Iron Palace.

Burnham, Elizabeth, (1938), "The Influence of Size of Business on Department Store Operational Results," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 16 (Winter), pp. 211-225.

Burnham, Elizabeth, (1940), "The Department Store in Its Community," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 18 (Summer No. 4), pp. 455-471.

Burns, David and Dale Rayman (1996), “Retailing in Canada and the United States: Historical Comparisons,” in Gary Akehurst and Nicholas Alexander eds. The Internationalization of Retailing, London: Frank Cass, pp. 164-176. Only a few pages are devoted to the department stores. Eaton’s was established in 1883. Timothy Eaton opened his first store in 1869 and it was in 1883 that his first store was built, the first Canadian department store. But the department store was already in operation in the U.S., France, and elsewhere.

Burns, W. (1959), British Shopping Centres, London: Hill.

Burrows, Edwin and Michael Wallace (1999), Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, NY: Oxford University Press. Many pages discuss the department store, AT Stewart, dry goods market and other aspects of consumption and social life in NYC. The book has a short discussion on the Crystal Palace, London and NY. In particular, pp. 666-673, 945-946, 968-969-970, 1000, 1062, 1066, 1145, 1177. There’s a section on women and prostitution. The book is massive and won a Pulitzer Prize. The reference list is simply amazing. I haven’t had the time to check the hundreds of refs listed.

Burston, William (1947), “The Frozen Food Business is the Department Store ‘s Opportunity,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 23 (February), pp. 23-28. See Alt (1949), Tracey (1949) and Journal of Commerce (1946).

Burton, G. Allan (1963) “How Department Stores Are Counteracting Certain Trends in Retailing,” The Commerceman, Vol. 18, p. 56ff.

Burton, G. Allan (1986), A Store of Memories, Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart. Biography of Robert Simpson, Simpson’s and Simpson-Sears.

Burton, Charles L. (1952), A Sense of Urgency: Memoirs of a Canadian Merchant, Toronto: Clarke, Irwin and Co. History of Robert Simpson and his Simpson's Ltd. Toronto.

Bush, A. L. (1925), Department Leasing in Retail Stores, Washington, DC: US Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.

Business Week (1933), “The Cheapy Thrives,” February 8, pp. 11-12. The article discusses the beginning of the supermarket and asks if it is a new form of retail operation? Low price outlets


thrived in other trades as well due to the hard times. In December 1932, Big Bear (Mike Cullen) had a 50k sq. ft store.

Business Week (1938), “Store Modernization Gets Big Play,” Vol. 454 (May 14), pp. 38, 40.

Business Week (1951), “There Are Lots of People Downtown,” October 6, pp. 138-142.

Business Week (1952), “Planned Post-War Shopping Centres Come Big,” October 11, pp. 124-126, 128.

Business Week (1952), “The Supermarket: Revolution in Retailing,” June 28, pp. 38ff. Reprinted in John Westing ed. (1953) Readings in Marketing, NY: Prentice-Hall, pp. 72-84. Also reprinted in Malcolm McNair and Harry Hansen eds. (1956), Readings in Marketing, second edition NY: McGraw-Hill, pp. 329-340.

Business Week (1953), “Basic Dilemma of Department Stores,” November 14, p. 50.

Business Week (1954), “For Sears: A New Era and a New Problem,” May 1, pp. 41-42, 44. An article on the new chairman of Sears, Theodore Houser and his many challenges.

Business Week (1954), “He Hitched Mail Order With Retail Stores,” May 1, pp. 61-62, 64. An article on the outgoing chairman of Sears, Gen. Robert E. Woods.

Business Week (1954), “Department Store Blues,” June 5, page 54.

Business Week (1954), “Store Building Spree,” June 12, page 73.

Business Week (1954), “Department Store Blues,” June 5, page 54

Business Week (1954), “State Street vs. Suburbs,” June 26, pp. 44, 46, 48, 50. Chicago Braces to Hold Its Downtown Trade.

Business Week (1955), “Downtown Needs a Lesson From the Suburbs, No. 1364 (October 22), pp. 64-65, 68. An interview with Victor Gruen, who was the key architect of the famed Northland shopping center in Columbus, Ohio. See also Saunders (1951), Business Week (1951), Fortune (1953), Breckenfeld (1972), Department Store Economist (1968).

Business Week (1955), “What is this: A Department Store?” No. 1371 (December 10), pp. 57, 58, 63. A discussion of Filene’s new Warehouse Bargain Store in Needham, Mass.

Business Week (1965), “Holdout in a World of Chains,” October 23, pp. 113-116.

Business Week (1965), “Halting Department Store Mergers,” June 4, p. 36.

Business Week (1965), “Trends-Setting Store Imports,” July 31, p. 62.

Business Week (1965), “Macy’s Puts Its Stamp on Every Store It Owns,” October 2, pp. 64-70. Dayton’s emphasis on foreign goods i.e. Mexican.

Business Week (1972), “Why Sears Stays the No. 1 Retailer,” January 20, pp. 64-68.


Business Week (1966), “Hudson’s Bay Mushes along the Urban Trail,” September 3, pp. 64-68. The Bay is being forced to change its image toward price and fashion.

Business Week (1972), “How giant Sears grows and grows,” December 16, pp. 52-57.

Business Week (1973), “Allied Stores’ Struggle with Profit Margins,” November 17, pp. 55-58.

Business Week (1973), “Korvette’s Fifth Ave Store Discount House Puts on Airs,” February 10, pp. 72-74.

Business Week (1973), “Korvettes Tries for a Little Chic,” May 12, pp. 124-126.

Business Week (1975), “Sears’ Identity Crisis,” December 8, pp. 52-53, 55, 58.

Business Week (1976), “Department Stores Redefine Their Role,” December 13, pp. 47-48. Reprinted in B. Walker and J. Haynes eds. (1978), Marketing Channels and Institutions, second edition, Columbus, OH: Grid, pp. 188-190.

Business Week (1977), “Why Profits Shrink at a Grand Old Name,” April 11, pp. 66-69, 72, 78.

Business Week (1979), “Sears’ Strategic About-Face,” January 8, pp. 80-83.

Business Week (1979), “A Countdown Starts for Gimbels,” April 2, pp. 78-79.

Business Week (1981), "The New Sears,” November 16, pp. 140-143, 146.

Butcher, Benjamin C. (1965), "The Development of Large-Scale Retail Price-Cutting Institutions in the United States Since 1870", unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana. The dissertation revealed that price-cutting developed among mass retail organizations not only in the department store business but among many other large-scale retail organizations (mail-order houses, chain stores, supermarkets, and discount stores). Chapter 3 is a solid review of the department store in the United States after 1870.

Butler, Elizabeth (1909), “Work of Women in the Mercantile Houses of Pittsburgh,” Annals of the American Academy of Social and Political Science, Vol. 33 (March), pp. 102-113. An article that discusses the plight and working conditions of salesgirls in Pittsburgh department stores.

Butler, Elizabeth Beardsley (1912), Saleswomen in Mercantile Stores: Baltimore, 1909, NY: Charities publication committee; NY: Russell Sage Foundation. Abelson (1989, p. 236 or p. 249) gives the same title but published by NY: Survey Associates, 1913. On pp 107-110, she discusses cash registers in stores (from Benson 1986, p. 69). “Appendix B: Salesmanship instruction in Boston, what the schools can do to train girls for work in department stores, by Mrs. Lucinda W. Prince, p. 187-199. Appendix C: Salesmanship classes in the store of Hale brothers, San Francisco, California, p. 200-205.”

Bye, George T. (1917), “This is the End of Business,” Nation’s Business, June pp. A solid account of how Gordon Selfridge, the Yankee merchant from Chicago, did not pull back when WW1 started. In fact, more staff was hired due to sales increased and even free deliveries were continued. He talks about footgirls, hiring girls for cleaning, .some female staff was hired away by banks and govt bureaus increased advertising, replaced all lift operators by female, a real tribute to women. And bread sold at lowest price in all of London.


Caddelle, W. J. (1951), “Quality vs. Quantity in Department Store Display,” Printers’ Ink, Vol. 234 (February No. 6), pp. 27, 29.

Calladine, Tony (2001), “‘A Paragon of Lucidity and Taste’ The Peter Jones Department Store,” Transaction of the Ancient Monuments Society, Vol. 45 pp. 7-28.

Callery, Sean (1991), Harrods, Knightsbridge: The Story of Society’s Farvourite Store, London: Ebury Press.

Calloway, Stephen ed (1992), Le style Liberty: un siècle d’histoire d’un grand magasin londonien, trans by Denis-Armand Canal, Paris: A. Colin.

Calmettes, Pierre (1902), "The 'Big Store' of Paris," Architectural Record, Vol. 12 (September), pp. 627-629. A description of Georges Dufayel’s credit store in Paris.

Cameron, David Kerr (1998), The English Fair, Stroud.

Cameron, Mary Owen (1964), The Booster and the Snitch: Department Store Shoplifting, New York: The Free Press of Glencoe.

Camhi, Leslie (1993), “Stealing Femininity: Department Store Kleptomania as Sexual Disorder,” Differences, Vol. 5 (Spring No. 1), pp. 27-50.

Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (1971), “Retailing in a Changing World,” Commercial Letter, Issue No. 2. Reprinted in M. Dale Beckman and Richard Evans eds. (1972), Marketing A Canadian Perspective, Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall, pp. 189-213.

Candille, Marcel (1953), "De la réalité au roman du Bon Marché de M. et Mme. Boucicaut et au Bonheur des Dames de Zola," Revue de l'Assistance Publique à Paris, (January-February). The article says that the information about the department store (i.e. Au Bon Marché) in Zola’s book does not predate 1882. He says that the editor (Lacroix) knew about the plan as early as in 1869. This information comes from Vanier (1960, p. 264).

Canoyer, Helen G. (1951), "Cooperatives in Historical Perspectives", in Hugh G. Wales ed., Changing Perspectives in Marketing, Urbana: The University of Illinois Press, pp. 243-265.

Cantor, Jay E. (1975), “A Monument of Trade A. T. Stewart and the Rise of the Millionaire's Mansion in New York," Winterthur Portfolio, Vol. 10, pp. 165-197.

Cantor, Jay (1974), “Art and Industry: Reflections on the Role of the American Museum in Encouraging Innovation,” in Ian M. G. Quimby and Polly Anne Earl eds. Technological Innovation and the Decorative Arts, Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, pp. 331-354. This article provides interesting comments on the relationship between museums and department stores.

Caracalla, Jean-Paul (1977), Le roman du Printemps: historique d’un grand magasin, Paris: Denoël. This is the history of the great Parisian department store established in 1865. ISBN 2207246906. (167 pages).


Carlin, Eva (1899), “The Department Store in the West—‘America’s Grandest’ in California,” The Arena, Vol. 22 (September), pp. 330-336.

Carlu, Jacques (1931), “The T. Eaton & Co. Department Store in Toronto and Montreal,” The Architectural Record, Vol. 69 (June No. 6), pp. 446-455. A good article showing the new Toronto store as well as the restaurant addition to the Montreal store, with excellent illustrations.

Caron, Marcel H. (1978), Le secteur grands magasins, magasins à rayons et bazars, séries 2, Étude 2. 7, Le Commerce et la Distribution au Québec, Comité d’étude sur le fonctionnement et l’environnement du commerce au Québec (CEFECQ), Bibliothèque nationale du Québec: Ministère de l’Industrie et du Commerce. A series of 13 studies divided into 3 sections, sponsored by the Quebec Government on various sectors of distribution, from hardware, food, to book distribution and shopping centers, among others. Each report has a different author.

Carroll, TJ (1957), “The Future Role of Department and Specialty Stores,” New York Retailer, Vol. 10 (June), pp. 13ff.

Carruth, Eleanore (1969), “Federated Department Store: Growing Pains at Forty,” Fortune Vol. 79 (June No. 7), pp. 142-147, 200, 202.

Carsky, Mary (199), “Why and How Retailing Education Developed,” in Peggy Cunningham and David Bussière eds. Marketing History: The Total Package, Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing, East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, page 349.

Carsky, Mary and John Donnellan (1994), “G. Fox: Grand Emporium of the 29th Century,” in Jeffrey Schmidt, Stanley Hollander, T. Nevett and Jagdish Sheth eds. Contemporary Marketing History Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Historical Research in Marketing and Marketing Thought, East Lansing, MI: Michigan state University pp. 215-230.

Carson, David (1954), The Organization of Commercial Functions in European Department Stores, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. A few pages have been reprinted in Stanley Hollander ed. (1959), Explorations in Retailing, MSU Business Studies 1959, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, pp. 437-442.

Carter, Michael and Susan Carter (1985), “Internal Labor Markets in Retailing: The Early Years,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 38 (July No. 4), pp. 586-598. An article that discusses the labor conditions of women working in New York department stores with emphasis on Lord and Taylor. In 1911, Macy’s had 5,207 people, while in 1913, Lord and Taylor employed 1,781 persons.

Cary, Francine (1977), “The World a Department Store: Bradford Peck and the Utopian Endeavor,” American Quarterly. Vol. 29 (Autumn), pp. 370-384. Peck was a successful department store merchant. He turned into a utopian socialist. He wanted to structure society based on the way a department store was organized. This is a very interesting article. His son took over and made it successful again. See Peck (1900) and Bell (1956).

Case Studies in Business (1924), "Separation of the Buying and Selling Functions in a Department Store," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 2 (April No. 3), pp. 362-367.


Case Studies in Business (1925), "A System of Control for Chain Stores," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 3 (April No. 3), pp. 361-376.

Case Studies in Business (1927), "Department-Store Expansion," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 6 (October No. 1), pp. 81-89. It discusses vertical integration in department stores.

Case Studies in Business (1929), "Department Store Group Buying," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 7 (April), pp. 375-382.

Cassady, Ralph (1957), “The New York Department Store Price War of 1951: A Micro-Economic Analysis,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 22 (July), pp. 3-11. Reprinted in Ronald Gist ed. (1967), Management Perspectives in Retailing, NY: John Wiley, pp. 267-275.The article discusses a very colorful price war between a number of NYC department stores in 1951, (e. g. Macy’s, Gimbel, Abraham and Straus). It did not last long (a week) but many items were fair traded, which brought in legal issues. The article mentions a retail innovation used by Macy’s in that “Macy’s maintains the largest staff of comparison shoppers in the world to police the correctness of our prices. They make an average of 35,000 shoppings a week,” (p. 268).

Cassé, Noël (1935), Etude sur les grands magasins à prix uniques, Toulouse: Imprimerie F. Boisseau. This is Cassé's doctoral thesis from the Faculté de droit de Toulouse. It's a book on the chain store problem in Europe. The bibliography is quite slim and there's a bit on the department store both in the US and Europe and some discussion on the US chain stores.

Centennial Book of the John Wanamaker New York Store, formerly A.T. Stewart, 1823-1924 (1924), NY.

Cerbelaud, G. (1900), “Les moyens de transport à l’ìntérieur de l’Exposition, ” L'Illustration, Journal Universel, 14 avril. Reprinted in Roger Saubot and Francis Bouygues eds. (1987), Les Grands Dossiers de l’Illustration Les Expositions Universelles Histoire d’un siècle 1843-1944, Paris: Le Livre de Paris, pp. 148-149.

Cernesson, Joseph (1908), « Les sociétés coopératives de consommation, » Revue des Deux Mondes, 15 octobre, pp. 899-907.

Chain Store Guide (1998), Directory of Department Stores, Tampa FL: Business Guides.

Champsaur Brachet, Florence (2009), “Aux Galeries Lafayette and the Couture Industry, 1893-1952,” Business History Conference (HBC) Vol. 7. Paper’s abstract by the author: From a fashion history standpoint, the relationship between Aux Galeries Lafayette and the fashion industry is an ambivalent one. Founded in 1893, at the time of the "dictatorship" of Haute Couture over fashion, the Parisian department store rapidly developed the commercial and industrial means to take advantage of the "désir de mode" created by the fashion houses and communicated to the public by the rise of specialized magazines. While their international competitors were allowed to buy models or patterns from French fashion designers and sell them on to their customers, Parisian department stores were barred from this commercial system. With their very close proximity to the consumer, the Parisian department stores, relying on sales of feminine ready-to-wear garments and at the same time appropriating the symbols of Haute Couture, were in a position to take advantage of the obsolescence deliberately imposed by the most prominent fashion houses. As evidence of its involvement in the business of fashion, the firm also invested in fashion houses. In 1922, Théophile Bader, founder of Aux Galeries Lafayette, became a partner in the newly formed Vionnet & Cie, one of the most important Couture houses in Paris in the 1920s and


1930s. Study of this collaboration, which came to a sudden end in 1940 when Madeleine Vionnet's fashion house went into liquidation, is revelatory of the relationship between high fashion and French department stores.

Chandler, Alfred Jr. (1956), “Management Decentralization: An Historical Analysis,” Business History Review, Vol. 30 (No. 2), pp. 111-174. The author discusses decentralization issues for the department store and the chains store, an industry he calls “the market-oriented firms” or distributing firms, on pages 158-162. He discusses JC Penney, Sears, Montgomery Ward, and FW Woolworth.

Chandler, Alfred (1977), "The Mass Retailer," (in chapter 7 Mass Distribution) in The Visible Hand, The Managerial Revolution in American Business, Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, pp. 224-239. The chapter discusses the history of US retailing (pp. 209-239, and 551-556 for chapter notes).

Chandler, Alfred (1962), Strategy and Structure Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise, Cambridge: MIT Press. His chapter 5, pp. 225-282, discusses the history of Sears Roebuck. On page 227, he mentions Otto Doering, the operations manager but the dates given of the construction of the mail order factory are not the same as Drucker’s (1954). On that page, he says orders were 100k/day. New machinery was built to process these orders.

Chandler, Susan (1994), “Sears’ Turnaround is for Real-Now,” Business Week, (August 15), pp. 102-103.

Chandler, Susan (1995), “Where Sears Wants America to Shop Now,” Business Week, (June 12), page 39.

Chandler, Susan (1996), “Under the Gun at Dayton Hudson,” Business Week, (May 20), pp. 66, 70.

Chaney, A. G. (1912), Reducing the Cost of Selling for Department Stores, Clothing and General Merchandise Stores, Johnson Printing and Advertising Co.

Chaney, David (1996), « Le grand magasin comme forme culturelle, » Réseaux, Vol.14 (No. 80), pp. 81-96.

Chang, I. F. S. J. Chu and S. T. Liu (1983), “Bar code scanning information entry technology and application,” Displays, Vol. 4 (July No. 3), pp. 150-146. The article states that the department store along with the supermarket were the first to use bar code scanning.

Chang, Li Dong and Brenda Sternquist (1993), “Taiwanese Department Store Industry,” International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, Vol. 21 (No. 1), pp. 26-34.

Chapman, Stanley (1993), “The Innovating Entrepreneurs in the British Ready-Made Clothing Industry,” Textile History, Vol. 24 (Spring No. 1), pp. 5-25. On p.7, he tells about the 1851 Great Exhibition displaying men’s and women’ clothes such as vests, drawers and pantaloons. Then on p. 8, he tells about AT Stewart’s plant in Nottingham making underwear. Specifically “Alexander Turney Stewart, the biggest ‘dry goods’ enterprise in the world in the 1860s and 1870s, has poorly documented business history and it is not clear whether the clothes in his ready-made catalogue of 1867 were made in New York or Manchester, but he certainly had an underwear factory in Nottingham” (p. 8).


Chapple, Eliot and Gordon Donald Jr. (1947-48), “An Evaluation of Department Store Salespeople by Interaction Chronograph,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 12 (October), pp. 173-185.

Charernbhak, Wichit (1981) Chicago School Architects and Their Critics, Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press. The book is based on the author’s 1978 Ph.D. dissertation. The author provides a short but succinct history of Chicago as well as a discussion of the infamous Chicago fire of 1871 that destroyed 18,000 buildings. Insightful information is provided about how tall buildings are erected, and a short discussion on elevators is provided. Throughout the book, the author discusses two department stores (Marshall Field and the Carson Pirie Scott store) and their architects (Richardson and Sullivan) who designed them, as well as their significance to the world of architecture.

Charey, David (1983), "The Department Store as a Cultural Form," Theory, Culture and Society, Vol. 1 (No. 3), pp. 22-31.

Chartres, J.A. (1993), Markets and Fairs in England and Wales, 1590-1860. Leeds.

Chatelain, Abdel (1958), Géographie commerciale et sociologique du commerce de détail en France : un exemple caractéristique, l’épicerie (alimentation générale), Revue de Géographie de Lyon, pp. 293-310. The author shows that the 1946 census in France was probably the 1st to enumerate retail establishments as opposed to companies which were the way it was done before. The data underestimated the extent of the retail trade and were later adjusted in the 1955 census.

Chatelain, Abel (1971), « Lutte entre colporteurs et boutiquiers en France pendant la première moitié du XIXe siècle, » Revue d’histoire économique et sociale, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 359-384. A good review of how small scale peddlers were treated by shopkeepers in France. The 1798 law gave them the right to exercise their trade but the politics of distribution meant that they were discriminated against, harassed, lied to, chased out of town by local shop owners because they were taking business away from them; they spread false information about the quality of their goods, etc. and too often were anti-semitic.

Chatriot, Alain et Marie-Emmanuelle Chessel (2006), « L’histoire de la distribution: un chantier inachevé, » Histoire, économie et société, janvier, No. 1, pp. 67-82. A rather detailed article, mostly on the history of retailing, including the department store, the supermarket, the hypermarket, and mostly from a European perspective. The journal focuses on «histoire économique et sociale du XVIe au XXe siècle. »

Cheasley, Clifford Henry (1930), The Chain Store Movement in Canada, Orilla published by the Packet-Times Press Limited, for the Department of Economics and Political Science, McGill University, Montreal Canada. A rather important 87-page book for it describes the Canadian distribution/retail market rather well for the time (the 1920s). It also shows how marketing was being studied then. On page 72, the author says “Chain development in the department store field is moving rapidly. The T. Eaton Company is the largest in this field and has established a chain of 13 large stores in the larger centers from Halifax to Vancouver. In addition to its larger stores, the company operates a group of 21 smaller units in smaller centers from Montreal to Port Arthur and known as the Teco stores.” The author discusses other aspects of chain store distribution including food, clothing, drugs, and of course, the department store.

Chenevier, P. (1922), “La sécurité du public dans les grands magasins, l’Architecte, Vol. 35, pp. 27-28.


Chemetov, Paul and Bernard Marrey (1984), Architectures à Paris 1848-1914, second edition, Paris: Dunod. The buildings are presented and discussed on a chronological order. The book is full of illustrations but most of them are small, often with many presented on one page. There is a section on the department store (pp. 51-54). The first edition was published in 1980. Moreover, that first edition was also originally published as a monograph called familièrement inconnues... Architectures, Paris 1848-1914, as a result of an Exposition called “Architectures, Paris 1848-1914” held in October 1976 at the Bon Marché. The 1984 edition is the best one to consult.

Chessel, Marie-Emmanuelle (1999), “Training Sales Personnel in France between the Wars,” in Geoffrey Crossick and Serge Jaumain eds. Cathedrals of Consumption The European Department Store, 1850-1939, Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 279-298. An article that discusses the sales training given to department store personnel as well as other members of the retail trade.

“Chitchat Upon New York and Philadelphia Fashions for July” (1859), Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine, Vol. 59 (July), p. 96. Genin’s Bazaar is discussed. The short article describes “the idea of the Bazaar, a shop, or succession of shops as at Genin’s, where a variety of goods usually distributed the length and breath of Broadway are arranged under one roof, one government, and can be included in one bill. The Bazaar has now twenty-two distinct departments.” The counters have been organized into departments, with one saloon extended into four.

“Chitchat Upon New York and Philadelphia Fashions for November” (1859), Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine, Vol. 59 (November), p. 477-478. It is obvious that Genin’s catered to the very rich and the elite of society, given the prices of some fashionable goods. Genin’s was a magasin de nouveauté, French-style.

Chong, Lynda (1996), “Department stores in troubled waters: a Singapore encounter,” International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, Vol. 24 (1), pp. 34-39.

Chu, Vivian (2002), “Bringing class to the mass,” Financial Post, Thursday February 7, p. FP13. An article discussing Target, the US department store discounter, aiming for a niche market.

Chute, AH (1957), Selected and Annotated Bibliography of Retailing, rev ed. Austin, TX: University of Texas Bureau of Business Research.

Clair, Jean ed. (1991), Les Années 20 L’Age des Métropoles, Montréal: Musée des Beaux-Arts de Montréal. A collection of articles on shop fronts, window displays, the influence of advertising and on skyscrapers from the 1900 to 1920s, among other topics discussed in this book of close to 500 pages all written in French.

Clapham, J. H. (1921), The Economic Development of France and Germany, Cambridge, UK. Some discussion on the department store on pages 117-120, 303, and 366-371.

Clark, NM (1955), “How to Retire Well-Heeled,” Saturday Evening Post, December 17, pp. 41, 58, 61. An article that discusses the Sears Roebuck pension plan based on profit sharing.

Clark, Thomas D. (1944), Pills, Petticoats and Plows The Southern Country Store, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

Clarke, William A. (1901), "A. T. Stewart, Merchant Prince, A Story of His Business Career" The Counter, June, pp. 9; 12, 24; August, pp. 21, 27, 29; September, page 38; October, pp. 22-23; November, pp. 20-22.


Clausen, Meredith Leslie (1975), “Frantz Jourdain and the Samaritaine of 1905,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. Chapter 1 of the thesis is “The Department Store-a history of the institution and the building type,” pp. 11-38. The chapter discusses the Bon Marché as a new building type and the discussion can also be found on pp. 183-192. The thesis has a very large number of references on department stores not seen anywhere else. This is probably due to the fact that they are in French. The 82 plates are also quite unique, especially for a dissertation. Unfortunately, the illustrations were not clear when photocopied.

Clausen, Meredith Leslie (1976), “La Samaritaine,” Revue de l’Art, No. 32, pp. 57-77.

Clausen, Meredith (1984), “Northgate Regional Shopping Center–Paradigm from the Provinces,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 43 (May No. 2), pp. 144-161.

Clausen, Meredith L. (1984), “Department Stores and Zola’s Cathédrale du Commerce,” Source: Notes in the History of Art, (NY) Vol. 3 (Spring No. 3), pp. 18-23. It should be noted that the “Cathedral of Commerce” is a term normally used to refer to the 1913 Woolworth building in New York and not a department store, not even au Bon Marché.

Clausen, Meredith (1985), “The Department Store-Development of the Type,” Journal of Architectural Education, Vol. 39 (Fall), pp. 20-29. The article is very informative especially due to its 25 illustrations. Clausen discusses European as well as US department stores. Her emphasis is on the artistic uniqueness of the stores.

Clausen, Meredith (1985) “Frank Lloyd Wright Vertical Space and the Chicago School’s Quest for Light,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 44 (March), pp. 66-74.

Clausen, Meredith (1987), Frantz Jourdain and the Samaritaine: Art Nouveau Theory and Criticisms, Leiden, the Netherlands: E. J. Brill. The book has a full chapter on the department store (chapter 7, pp. 191-215), as well as a chapter on the Samaritaine (chapter 8, pp. 289). Given that Clausen is an art historian, the book is well illustrated with close to 100 pictures. In fact, all of Clausen’s publications have numerous illustrations (see the 1985 article cited above). More information on art nouveau can be found in Fernand Mazade (1902) "An 'Art Nouveau' Edifice in Paris," Architectural Record, Vol. 12 (May-December), pp. 32-66. There are a number of articles on the art nouveau in volume 12. The book was reviewed by Alfred Willis (1989)

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