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The Wonderful World of the Department Store in Historical Perspective: A

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Mainstream Marketing and Marketing History

It should be noted that from the early to mid-1970s and especially during the 1980s and beyond, the social sciences produced an impressive amount of historical studies pertinent to marketing. The topics range from the history of retailing, advertising, the birth of a culture of consumption, the relationship of people to goods over time, and numerous other fascinating topics dealing with the social history of consumers (Laermans 1993, Leach 1984, 1989).

The push toward historical research is easily seen by the large number of new journals and books published during that period. What is surprising is that this literature is largely unknown in mainstream academic marketing, even though some marketing scholars began to devote more attention to the topic. The bi-annual marketing history conference called CHARM, is an indication of the interest by some, albeit a small group of dedicated marketing scholars. Also the Journal of Macromarketing has accepted a steady stream of such articles since it first appeared in 1981. The birth of a new journal dedicated to historical research in marketing called Journal of Historical Research in Marketing in 2009, is bound to publish articles on the department store and the history of retailing.

The historical wave that swept through all the social sciences had a rather small trickle effect in mainstream marketing with less than one hundred marketing-based scholars interested in furthering the development of this school of thought. The consequence on the marketing discipline has thus far been minimal, more of a ripple than a wave but growing. To paraphrase what the poet Ezra Pound once said “not with a bang but with a whimper.”


Marketing is still being plagued by an excessive focus on micromarketing, on consumer behavior and related topics as if the consumer was the center of the marketing world. Mainstream academic marketing still has a profound fixation on doing research on only those questions that lend themselves to be measured and thus amenable to powerful statistical analyses. In other words, the only research worth doing is that which espouses the scientific principles underlying the logical empiricist paradigm.

The core of marketing historians is small compared to other topics that preoccupy marketing scholars. Marketing is probably now the only area in business where historical research has yet to be accepted as a bona fide legitimate school of thought among its peers. Accounting now has three journals entirely devoted to historical research. Why this state of affairs exists in marketing is beyond our objective here to present a list of information sources on the history and current material on the department store.

What Is a Department Store?

A word of caution with respect to the use of the term "department store." There is a need to explain what exactly is a department store? Today we all seem to know what a department store means, more or less. But that was not the case a hundred or more years ago. The Bureau of the Census and Statistics Canada both now have very clear definitions of what constitutes a department store and these definitions have changed over time.

Notwithstanding such official definitions, we still have a problem today. Are discount stores department stores? When such discount stores made their way into retailing back in the 1950s, official definitions of them were not clear. As a result, the term “discount department stores” slowly entered into the retail trade vocabulary. Now, the department store industry tends to distinguish itself from the discount department stores even though the official (govt.) definitions do not make any clear distinction between the two. The terms “junior”, “discount” or “promotional” department stores are not official definitional terms recognized by Statistics Canada, the official census agency.

In the late 1800s when the department store had no official definition, it is easy to see that journalists, writers, academics and others used the term without a common understanding of what a department store was, especially from one country to another. One can see why the use of the


term over the last century may have had different meaning by different authors over time and space.

For instance, over the years, French writers have used the term grands magasins, often capitalized as Grands Magasins, as if to give them a special status. Les magasins de nouveautés have also been used in the past. These were the precursors of the French department store that came into being in the 1850s. Bouverete-Gauer (1997) provides more details about the evolution of such stores. Les Trois Quartiers, founded in 1829, was known as magasin de nouveautés ou magasin de frivolités et de modes, (i.e. fashion novelties) selling mostly fabrics and “articles de mode”, (i.e. fashionable goods for women), but certainly was not selling furniture, toys, jewelry, and other assortment of goods we tend to associate with a department store. Nor were such stores selling ready to wear clothes or other products.

The expression Grands magasins de nouveautés has also been used. According to Resseguie (1964), the A.T. Stewart's Marble Palace, which opened in New York City in 1846, was the cradle of the department store. But to what extent was Stewart’s store more like a magasin de nouveautés than the world’s first prototype of a department store?

It is interesting to note that a review of the department store literature has acknowledged that Aristide Boucicaut and his Bon Marché established in Paris in 1852 was the very first department store. Modern Europeans scholars still believe that today. Nystrom (1915) never questioned the historical origin of the department store accepting that France was indeed the country which gave the world its first department store, as discussed in his textbook, one of the first American textbooks on retailing. To Nystrom as well as many others, Boucicaut is without a doubt the founding father of the department store.

However, in the past forty years or more, some American historians, notably Resseguie (1962, 1964, 1965), have challenged this historical truism, especially due to the historical analysis of A.T. Stewart’s 1846 Marble Palace. The department store evolved over time as part of the changing nature of the retail landscape and it not suddenly appear in the form we are familiar with. There were precursors to the department store. For many reasons, I do not recognize Boucicaut as the first merchant who gave the world the first department store. That recognition goes to A.T. Stewart with his 1846 Marble Palace and his second store which opened in 1862 referred to as the Cast Iron Palace due to its unique use of this new construction material. For


those interested in knowing more about the origin of the department store can refer to Tamilia (2003, 2005) and Tamilia and Reid (2007).

It is worth noting that the village shop concept blossomed under William Whiteley, known as the “Universal Provider” (Richard 1938). He is known as one of England’s founding fathers of the department store. His many small shops, located in London’s Westbourne Grove, is one reason why the department store eventually evolved into the modern shopping center in the mid 1900s. It is no accident that most shopping centers had a department store as one of its major developers as well as its key tenant, until late in the 1970s and 1980s (Breckenfeld 1972). The department store census report published by Statistics Canada (1979) explains that the Canadian industry was slow at first in suburban shopping center development but accelerated its involvement in the 1970s due to department store branches located more in the suburbs and away from the downtown core.

Of course, who was first is really not all that important, as long as the debate leads to more fascinating historical studies on this important social and business topic. After all, the department store really changed marketing management practices that are still with us to this very day. The history of the department store also shows the extent to which marketing is a social process. The macromarketing implications of the department store are abundantly evident throughout its evolution. The department store helped transform the distributive sector (part of service sector) of the economy in the 20th century and beyond not only in Europe and America but was also a globalizing cultural phenomenon (Nord 1986, Benson 1988, Leach 1993).

The more modern French expression is les magasins de grandes surfaces, les grandes surfaces, or simply la grande distribution. However, even now, such grandes surfaces are not to be confused with les hypermarchés or even large-scale supermarkets which are also grandes surfaces retail stores with their very large assortment of goods all under one roof. To be fair to French writers, some American writers have referred to department stores as Palaces of Consumption (Benson 1979) or even Cathedrals of Consumption (Crossick and Jauman 1999). One author has actually called the bazaar as a primitive department store and the village shop as a department store in miniature (Winstanley 1983).

Are the terms cited above all referring to what was a department store in the United States à la A.T. Stewart, Macy’s, Wannamaker, or a Marshal Field? It is debatable if such retail stores were actually the same type of retail institutions in France, Germany, Italy, or England, all selling an


assortment of goods that helped define the retailing establishment as a bona fide department store. After all, the Paris-based “Association internationale des grands magasins” was established only in 1928 (Chessel 1999). Thus, do we really know if a Parisian grand magasin, especially in the late 1800s, was really the same as an American, German or Canadian department store (Perrot 1981)? According to Statistics Canada’s official definition, a department store must sell at least three different commodity lines such as (1) clothing, (2) furniture, appliances, and home furnishings, and (3) others (i.e. cosmetics, jewelry, sporting goods, etc.). No one line can account for more than 50% of the store’s total sales and at least 10% of the store’s sales must come from the third (others) set of lines. It should be noted that the U.S. Department of Commerce definition does not correspond with the Canadian one (see Bergmann 1987).

A final note is that some of the references are annotated with the author’s own personal comments and explanations. These comments are meant to help the interested reader and future researcher understand the content of the references. Given the rather large number of department store references listed, it is impossible for the author to have read all of the material listed. The material is listed in alphabetic order only and not chronologically or under topical headings or subheadings.

Hopefully, these comments and the references themselves will make marketing researchers and others better appreciate the wealth of information available on the department store. This topic is a really a microcosm of the evolution of a capitalist market economy and the making of a modern consumer society. The department store presents so many fascinating stories and it is hoped that this author’s small contribution will wet the appetite of others and make the study of the department store and retail history a topic of research study in the marketing discipline.


Selected List of References on the Department Store: from Its Birth to the Present with Added References on the History of Retailing

Abbott, A. C. (1974), "Canadian Retailing: Trends and Prospects", in V. Kirpalani and Ronald Rotenberg, Cases and Readings in Marketing, Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada Ltd., pp. 185-192.

Abel, Deryck (2007), The House of Sage A Century of Achievement 1860-1960. London: Fredereck Sage Company. The first hundred years of the company.

Abelson, Elaine S. (1985), “‘When Ladies Go A–Thieving’ Shoplifting, Social Change, and the City, 1870-1914,” doctoral dissertation, New York University.

Abelson, Elaine S. (1989), When Ladies Go A–Thieving Middle Class Shoplifters in the Victorian Department Store, NY: Oxford University Press. Reviewed by Arlene-Kaplan Daniels (1991) Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 20 (March No. 2), pp. 271-272. Also reviewed by Sally Simpson (1991), American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 96 (March No. 5), pp. 1282-1284. Also by Mary Gibson (1994), Women and Criminal Justice, Vol. 5 (No. 2), pp. 132-135. Also reviewed by Jack Katz (1990), New York Times Book Review, Vol. 95 8 (18 Feb.), 13. Numerous other articles listed below discuss kleptomania (see Miller 1981 or O’Brien 1983). The book is a lot more than on shoplifting. It’s a comprehensive history of the department store as well. She has done an amazing job and her work shows how tedious and meticulous one needs to be when researching and writing in this area. The set of notes is one of the most comprehensive I ever seen, from pp. 209 to 282. But similar to some social historians, she has a very nasty habit of quoting an incomplete reference in a footnote located at the end of the book for each chapter. She feels that it has been documented in previous chapters and it is therefore relatively easy to locate it. But that is not always the case. Most chapters have over 100 footnotes listed at the end of the book and trying to locate the full reference is often like trying to find a needle in a haystack. As a result, it makes good reading but is very frustrating, as a source of historical reference documents. There is no reference list or bibliography per se, and the index does not list the authors. I am still looking for some references she quoted...

Abelson, Elaine (1989), “The Invention of Kleptomania,” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, Vol. 15 (Autumn No. 1), pp. 123-143. An excellent review of the so-call shopping disease of women of the mid to late 19th c. This article is not well known in the literature.

Absire, Amélie, Nelly Hoppenot, and Pascale Gould-Decauville (1999), Lingerie: les modes de référencement dans les grands magasins :présentation générale du marché, Clichy, France: Fédération de la maille.

Adams, Samuel Hopkins (1897), “The Department Store,” Scribner’s Magazine, Vol. 21 (January), pp. 1-27. This article provides an excellent description of department stores in the 1890s with over 20 illustrations. It is interesting to note that this article was the first one of a series on "The Conduct of Great Businesses" to counter the emphasis devoted to manufacturing.

Adburgham, Alison (1964), Shops and Shopping, 1880-1914: Where and in What Matter the Well-Dressed Englishwoman Bought Her Clothes, London: Allen and Unwin. The second edition published in 1981 by London: Barrie and Jenkins. Definition of a department store can be found on page 137, according to Geist (1983, p. 52). Adburgham (as reported by Geist on p. 52), stated that shops in Manchester and Newcastle in the 1830s and 1840s must be termed department


stores because they were run according to the principles of a fixed price, a lack of pressure on the shopper, and the law of greatest exchange-low prices and large selection (i.e. 4 criteria).

Adburgham, Alison (1969), Yesterday Shopping: The Army and Navy Stores Catalogue, 1907, Devon: David and Charles Reprints. For some these stores were the precursors of the department store at least in England/Europe (see Hood and Yamey 1957).

Adburgham, Alison (1972), Victorian Shopping Harrod's Catalogue, 1895, London, Newton Abbot: David & Charles. The book has a sample of Harrods’ huge catalogue, published in 1895. The book is a very good social history of shopping in Britain with some useful information about its development elsewhere in Europe. Also published by New York, St. Martin's Press 1972.

Adburgham, Alison (1977), “Give the customers what they want,” Architectural Review, Vol. 161 (May), pp. 295-301. Some discussion on the department store.

Adburgham, Alison (1979), Shopping in Style London from the Restoration to Edwardian Elegance, Over Wallop, Hampshire, GB: BAS Printers Limited. The book discusses retailing as it existed in London, mostly in the 17 and 18th c. She presents material from Samuel Pepys and Daniel Defoe. Chapter 13 is on the department store “Growth of the Department Stores,” pp. 138-154. But the department store is discussed here and there throughout the book. The book contains 174 illustrations and discusses the evolution of retail shops in London, mostly from the late 17th c and 18th c. to the early 20th c. with pages on Selfridges, William Whiteley, and other shops of the period. On page 82, she says that the shop Harding, Howell & Co. was Europe’s first department store from around 1796 (see Hughes 1958). The shop had a number of rooms (i.e. departments). The author seems to believe that a shop is a department store when it has many rooms within the same retail shop. The book has many facts of importance to the history of the department store. She mentions white sales, the first crude escalator installed at Harrod’s in 1898, the pneumatic tube, and other information. Some discussion on fixed location such as arcades (Burlington) and market halls (Royal Exchange and Westminster), as the next level of retail evolution after fairs, which were temporary structures. The book has less detailed information on some of the identical material she presented in her 1964 book.

A Friendly Guide Book to the Wanamaker Store (1913), Philadelphia, privately published. Reference from Bradley (1998), p. 33.

Aiken, Charlotte Rankin (1918), The Millinery Department, NY: The Ronald Press Company.

Airey, A. and J. Airey (1979), The Bainbridges of Newcastle, London.

Aitken, Margaret (1951), "An Outsider Looks at the Inside of Eaton's," Toronto Star, a series of 14 short articles from May 7 to June 21, Toronto: Archives of Ontario, The Eaton's Collection, F229 series 100, box 1.

A Key to the Wanamaker Store, The Goods, the Methods, and the Points of Interest (1902), Philadelphia, privately published from the Historical Society of Philadelphia. Reference from Bradley (1998).

Alderson, Wroe (1955), “Here’s How Stores Will Face It,” Nation’s Business, Vol. 43 November No. 11), pp. 85-90.


Alexander, David (1970), Retailing in England During the Industrial Revolution, London: Athlone Press. The book discusses retailing from the period 1800 to 1850.

Alexander, Nicholas (1997), “Review of the Émile Zola The Ladies’ Paradise,” Journal of Macromarketing, Vol. 17 (Fall), pp. 129-135.

“Alexander T. Stewart” (1867), Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Vol. 34 (March No. 202), pp. 522-525. In this article, the unknown author mentions Stewart’s going to Paris for the 1867 Paris International Exposition.

A Little Hand-Book of Philadelphia and the Wanamaker Store (1889), Philadelphia, privately, published from the Historical Society of Philadelphia. Reference from Bradley (1998).

Allen, Jeanne (1990), “Palaces of Consumption as Women’s Club: En-Countering Women’s Labor History and Feminist Film Criticism,” Camera Obscura, No. 22 (January), pp. 150-158.

Alles, Alfred (1973), Exhibitions: Universal Marketing Tools, NY: Wiley and Sons.

Allwood, John (1977), The Great Exhibitions, London: Studio Vista/Cassell and Collier Macmillan Publishers. Much discussion on lifts, escalators, cooling, AC, and elevators covered in many pages, some of which is unique.

Alt, Richard (1946) “Department Store Price Policies,” unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.

Alt, Richard (1949), “The Internal Organization of the Firm and Price Formation: An Illustrative Case,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 63 (February), pp. 92-110. On page 95, the author cites a letter received from an economist of Macy’s that says “Macy’s carries over “400,000 separate and distinct items, not counting colors and sizes.” This information comes from a letter he received from Q. Forrest Walker, a Macy’s economist. We have to assume it was dated in the late 1940s. The larger the store the more likely it will use one-price policy, full cost pricing, price lining and leader pricing.

Alt, Richard (1949), “Competition Among Types of Retailers in Selling the Same Commodity,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 14 (October No. 3), pp. 441-447. The article states that Macy sold 400k separate and distinct items, not counting colors and sizes. See also Alt (1949, p. 95). It also states that Macy’s was selling Crosley automobiles and Gamble-Skomo also sold autos as of 1948. Department stores were selling prefabricated houses and frozen foods.

Altman, Bruce L. (1939), The History and Policies of the Department Stores of Cleveland, OH. Cleveland Public Library HF5465.USH351939X.

Alspaugh, Ralph (1933), Consumers’ Reactions to Special Sales in Columbus Department Stores, Columbus, OH: Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University.

Ambrière, Francis (1932), La vie secrète des Grands Magasins, Paris: Les Oeuvres Françaises. The rev. edition appeared in 1938 (the 15th one). The book discusses the mechanism and the economics of department stores.

Amelinckx, Frans (1995), “The Creation of Consumer Society in Zola’s Ladies Paradise,” in the Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Western Society for French Historical Studies.


American Telephone and Telegraph Company (1957), A Survey of Shopping with Department Stores by Telephone and in Person, NY: The Company. The 32-page report summarizes a 1956 study made by National Analysts for the Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company. Valuable information on consumers’ attitudes towards telephone shopping.

Amiel, Barbara (1976), "Trouble in Eatonia," Maclean’s, Vol. 89 (May 31), pp. 26-32.

Amyot, Chantal (1995), “Les achats par catalogue,” Cap-aux-Diamants, No. 40 (Winter), page 60.

“A Nation-Wide Department Store Chain” (1929), Journal of Retailing, Vol. 5 (January), pp. 24-26.

Anderson, Frank (1912), “Big Store vs. the Small Store,” Printers’ Ink, Vol. 79 April 25, pp. 44-45.

Anderson, Oscar Edward Jr. (1953), Refrigeration in America, A History of a New Technology and Its Impact, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Reprinted in 1972 by Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press. He states that ‘aggressive merchandising methods used to promote the new product’ were of great importance, see pp. 213-214. There’s no doubt that the department store helped sell the electric refrigerator.

Anderson, Patricia (1976), "Eaton's Erupts With A Bold New Style," Financial Post, (December 25). Reprinted in James Barnes and Montrose Sommers eds. (1978), Current Topics in Canadian Marketing, Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, pp. 292-294.

Andia, Béatrice de et Caroline François, (2006), Les cathédrales du commerce parisien: grands magasins et enseignes, Paris: Action artistique de la ville de Paris.

Annett, F. A. (1960), Elevators Electric and Electrohydraulic Elevators, Escalators, Moving Sidewalks, and Ramps, 3rd edition NY: McGraw-Hill. The first edition was published in 1927, the second in 1935 under the title Electric Elevators. This new edition is very weak on escalators, ramps, and moving sidewalks. It has no history of the vertical transportation and is 99% technical. Nevertheless, there are a few pages worth reading, notably on the load traffic of elevators (Chapter 10). This is a very important point for customer service in department stores because shoppers do not want to wait too long. Also a neat escalator is discussed called the Travolators (pp. 374-75), as well as escalators for ten story buildings.

Anthémaume, A. (1925), Le roman d’une épidémie parisienne, la kleptomanie?, Paris : Librarie Octave Doin.

Appel, Joseph (1929), “Chains and Independence,” from an address before the Conference on Retail Distribution, Boston, September 5. Reprinted in Daniel Bloomfield ed. (1931) Trends in Retail Distribution, NY: H. W. Wilson, pp. 287-2295. He worked for John Wanamaker Stores.

Appel, Joseph (1930), The Business Biography of John Wanamaker: Founder Builder: America’s Pioneer Merchant from 1861 to 1922, NY: Macmillan.

Appel, Joseph (1938) "Reminiscences in Retailing", Bulleting of the Business Historical Society, Vol. 12 (December), pp. 81-90.


Appel, Joseph (1940), Growing up with Advertising, NY: Business Bourse. The author was associated with Wanamaker from 1899-1936. This autobiography features much information on Wanamaker (see his1930 biography on Wanamaker). Appel credits Powers for his influence to retail advertising when Powers worked for Wanamaker from 1877 to 1886. After Powers coma Manly Gillan, from 1886-1894, then Appel. Wanamaker invented the single column ad.

Appert, M. (1969), “Les vendeuses dans les grands magasins.” Economie et humanisme No. 186 (Mars-Avril), pp. 67-74. An article discussing the labor issues of women working in department stores.

Applegate Edd (1998), Personalities and Products: a Historical Perspective on Advertising in America, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Chapter 5 is on John Wanamaker and his influence on retail advertising, pp. 87-102.

Applegate, Edd (2001), “John Wanamaker: A Life in Retail,” in Terrence Witkowski ed. Milestones in Marketing History, Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing (CHARM), Long Beach, CA: Association for Historical Research in Marketing, pp. 12-17.

Architectural Forum (1937), “Remodeled Floor of Department Store, Halle Bros., Cleveland,” Vol. 67 (July), pp. 6-9.

Architectural Forum (1950), “Branch Store Breaks Modern Design Blockage in Cleveland,” Vol. 92 (February), pp. 96-101. A description of Halle Brothers Co., a Cleveland, Ohio department store.

Architectural Forum (1950), “What Makes a 1940 Department Store Obsolete?” Vol. 92 (July), pp.

Architectural Record (1902), “All Kinds of Stores”, Vol. 12 (August No. 3), pp. 287-303. The article discusses the new generation of department stores in NY.

Architectural Record (1904), “The Schlesinger & Mayer Building,” Vol. 14 (July), pp.

Architectural Record (1944), “Department Stores”, Vol. 108 (November), pp.

Architectural Record (1950), “A Modern Department Store: the Construction and Equipment of the Philadelphia Wanamaker Building” Vol. 114 (March), pp.

Architectural Record (1950), “Department Store with Ample Parking”, Vol. 114 (August).

“Are Department Stores Due for a Renaissance?” (1954), Excepts from the Department Store edition of Grey Matter, February. Reprinted in John Wingate and Arnold Corbin eds. (1956), Changing Patterns in Retailing Readings on Current Trends, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 55-56.

Arena (1899), “The Big Stores,” Vol. 22 (2 August), pp.


Arnold, Stanley (1968), Tale of the Blue Horse and Other Million Dollar Adventures, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. The book presents success stories in PR and sales promotion by an ex-Young and Rubicam executive, on such firms as Macy’s, Ford, NCR, UA, and others.

Arnold, Stephen and Monika Luthra (2000), “Market Entry Effects of Large Format Retailers: A Stakeholder Analysis,” International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, Vol. 28 (No. 4), pp.

Army and Navy Co-operative Society (1969), The Very Best English Goods: A Facsimile of the Original Catalogue of Edwardian Fashions, Furnishings, and Notions sold…in 1907, NY: Frederick A. Praeger.

Arceneaux, Noah (2006), “The Wireless Window: Department Stores and Radio Retailing in the 1920s,” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 83 (Autumn No. 3), pp. 581-595.

Artley, Alexandra ed. (1975), The Golden Age of Shop Design: European Shop Interiors 1880-1939, London: The Architectural Press. The book is mostly illustrations of merchandise displays in department stores as well as other more specialized stores. Some of the illustrations are truly spectacular, never before seen anywhere else, but they are all in B&W.

Artz, Georgeanne and Kenneth Stone (2006), “Analyzing the Impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on Local Food Store Sales,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 88 (5), pp. 1296-1303. Wal-Mart is the modern version of a department store of the past. From the 1880s to the 1930s, the department store was subject to many accusations, of hurting small business and preventing them from earning a living wage and profits. Many attempts were made to restrict their growth, to limit the assortment of merchandise they could carry and even to pass tax laws that only applied to department stores. This study is a modern attempt at looking at the consequences of Wal-Mart’s supercenters on local store food sales and of course, it found that local food stores sell less now as a result of their presence. Yet Wal-Mart is a consumer choice. Wal-Mart brings economies of scale and scope along with vertical integration in transportation, storage, delivery, order taking, assortment of goods, financing, etc. that are simply not possible for small local food stores. In other words, Wal-Mart is more productive and efficient. We seldom question when a factory is outdated and needs to close being unable to compete with more efficient producers who have access to more modern equipment, technology and people. Yet in this 21st century, we still adhere to the quaint notion that small retailers are part of our nostalgic past and heritage and need protection from retail giants like Wal-Mart to survive as this study suggest. This is not to say that the Wal-Mart effect is all positive. There are, of course, unintended negative consequences of a Wal-Mart presence in any market. However, this study did not look at such unforeseen effects but mainly the effect on sales of local food stores, which was highly predictable. Why would Wal-Mart enter a market and invest large sums of money if not to take market share from existing local food retailers?

“A Scene at Stewart’s” (1869), US Economist and Dry Goods Reporter, June 22, p. 2.

Ascoli, Pete M. (2006), Julius Rosenwald The Man Who Built Sears, Roebuck and Advanced the Cause of Black Education in the American South, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Ashley, Edward E. Jr. (1929), "Mechanical Equipment of the Department Store," The Architectural Forum, Vol. 50 (June No. 6), pp. 921-934. The author discusses vertical transportation, heating and ventilating, conveyors and pneumatic tubes, lighting and electrical work and other mechanical equipment needed to operate such large stores in the late 1920s.


Ashley, Edward (1933), “The Well-Equipped Store,” The Architectural Forum, Vol. 58 (May), pp. 404-408.

Asher, Louis and Edith Neal (1942), Send No Money, Chicago: Argus Books. The story of Sears Roebuck from its beginning to the time Richard Sears resigned on November 21, 1908. Asher was the advertising manager and a close associate to Richard Sears. The book is not too deep in historical analyses and reads more like a tribute to Richard Sears as an advertising genius and his merchandising skills. Nevertheless, much can be learned from this book such as branding (Seroco), loyalty plans (p. 66, 69; 68 for B2B), segmentation (A customer, p. 56), B2B channels relationships (p. 108), employee benefits, vertical integration (factory owned by Sears or having stock ownership), logistics, pricing issues, internal politics, branch opening (TX in 1906), catalogue printing, first as a spin off then returned, ethics (electric belt, p. 62, ED/ND p. 62), grocery selling (pp. 85-86), channel conflict, Iowaizing―rewarding customers to seek new ones, and so forth. Sears had sales of $53m in 1907, the largest in the USA, and all were mail order sales. This shows that Chandler and company at Harvard, with their fixation on the manufacturing sector missed the important point that Sears actually contributed to the growth of the manufacturing sector (see p. 24, 28, 29; stoves–100k in 1903, sewing machines, bicycles, hats, guns, shoes, etc.). I was hoping to get more information on the restructuring of the shipping of orders, with orders coming in at a rate of up to 100k per day with many returns! After reading Chandler’s (1962) Strategy and Structure in which he cited this book, I thought much information on this issue was in this book. However, Chandler was incorrect when he said it was established in 1906 while Drucker said it was in 1903. One had to read carefully what Asher was saying. In early 1906, the business was moved to a new 40 acre plant, which implies that the new system of shipping had to be operational prior to that period (p. 119). “O.C. Doering and his assistant, John Meier evolved an organized shipping schedule. Mixed orders were the chief problem (p. 123). “In 1906, Doering and John Meir worked out a system of assembling, packing, and shipping orders on an exact time schedule that cleared the shipping room of its unholy mess. The department was given a 15 minute period of grace to get the merchandise down. If it was not received by that time, the order went forward and the balance was shipped later. When the shipping schedule was inaugurated, Sears addressed the meeting of department managers assembled to hear the new regulations. He told them that the 15 minutes schedule was arbitrary and meant just exactly 15 minutes and no more and no less. He said when the New York Central’s Twentieth Century is scheduled to leave at 1:45 it doesn’t mean 1:44 and it doesn’t mean 1:46. Frank Case, manager of the Shoe Department spoke up and said: Well, supposing my shoes aren’t there on time? Sears replied: In that event, Mr. Case, your shoes will have to be forwarded later express prepaid at the expense of your department. This became the policy. The department was penalized, not the customer” (p. 124). The plan had to have been tested much earlier before it was policy in 1906. Drucker’s assertion that Henry Ford may have visited Sears and got the idea, and so Sears may have been the real inventor of the assembly line concept. The department of returned goods needed 50k of space. A new invention called the spiral chute (p. 126) avoided delays of freight elevators. I was also able to conclude that Sears did invent a new crating design to ship stoves, a heavy good (p. 112) which became the standard for all stove manufacturers.

A Short History of the United States with an Interwoven Chronology of the John Wanamaker Business (1910), Philadelphia, Philadelphia, privately, published from the Historical Society of Philadelphia. Reference from Bradley (1998).

“A Sketch of the Greatest Business Man of America-How He Rules His Army of Clerks and Subordinates-The Grand System of His Business” (1875), Cincinnati Gazette, September 16 (column headed New York Sept. 15 1875), reprinted in Posthumous Relatives of the Late Alex. T.


Stewart, Proceedings before the Surrogate, Extracts from Newspapers, etc. NY: George F. Nesbitt, 1876, pp. 160-166. Reference from Cantor (1975, p. 168).

Atherton, Lewis (1937), “The Services of the Frontier Merchant,” Missouri Valley Historical Review, Vol. 14 (September No. 2), pp. 153-170.

Atherton, Lewis. E. (1939), “The Pioneer Merchant in Mid-America,” The University of Missouri Studies, Vol. 14, (April No. 2), pp. 7-125. Reprinted in part (pp. 7-17, 32-46, and pp. 121-125) in Stanley J. Shapiro and Alton Doody eds. (1968) Readings in the History of American Marketing, Richard D. Irwin, pp. 300-308 and pp. 309-320.

Atherton, Lewis (1945), "Itinerant Merchandising in the Anti-Bellum South," Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, Vol. 19 (April No. 2), pp. 35-59.

Atherton, Lewis (1947), "Predecessors of the Commercial Drummer in the Old South", Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, Vol. 21 (February), pp. 17-24.

Atherton, Lewis (1949), The Southern Country Store, 1800-1860, Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. It has a good discussion on ready to wear clothes prior to the 1850s, on pp. 83-86. Also on p. 40 is a good discussion on the first U.S. census taking on trade, commerce, and the difficulty in separating a wholesale from a retail business. For e.g. a shoemaker may be a manufacturer but he also sold at retail and wholesale, so where to classify his business? On page 165, he footnotes a reference by Commons (1918) who discusses the system of higgling for each transaction. He also says on p. 135 that merchants in the 1840s were delivering handbills to homes even handing them to servants who were presumably illiterates. So direct marketing was alive in the 1840s. On page 197, he cites a large number of published articles from the 1840-50s in De Bow’s Review or Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine about the virtue of commerce, salesmanship and the prejudice against it.

Atherton, Lewis (1971), The Frontier Merchant in Mid-America, Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.

Atkinson, Frank (1909), “The Selfridge Store, London,” The Architectural Review, Vol. 25 (June), pp. 292-301. An account of the store as a building by its London architect. It has lots of interesting facts about the store. The store has four floors for sales. The fourth floor also has the restaurant and the fifth floor has a roof garden. Unfortunately, the article is short on text with seven store illustrations and four pages of store plans. Nevertheless, it is the only article (I think) showing pictures of the store.

“A. T. Stewart as a Real Estate Operator” (1876), Real Estate Record, Vol. 17 (April 1 No. 420), p. 237.

“A. T. Stewart’s Nice Young Men” (1904), Ladies Home Journal, Vol. 21 September.

Atwood, A. W. (1921), “Why Does Retailing Cost so Much?” Saturday Evening Post, Vol. 193 (May 7), pp. 32, 34-37.

“Au Printemps” (1965), Cent ans de Printemps, cent ans de jeunesse du grand magasin, 1865-1965, Paris. Livre anniversaire.


Auerbach, Jeffrey A. (1999), The Great Exhibition of 1851 A Nation on Display, New Haven, CT Yale University Press. See p. 235 note #41 and p. 246 note #127 (Fay 1951, p. 91; Richards 1990, p. 17). These two last references state that the Crystal Palace Exhibition was indeed the first department store. Of course that is nonsense, according to my research. Moreover, the author argues that following the closing ceremony, the Crystal Palace was opened for a few extra days with up to 30 to 40k entered: “The Crystal Palace was indeed a shopping mall and a department store, dispersing its goods throughout the world,” (p. 121). He added that “the goods displayed did not just cater to middle-class taste, they helped form that taste, educating people not only about what to consume, but to consume in the first place. The Great Exhibition taught British men and women to want things and to buy things, new things and better things” (p. 121). These last comments cannot for now be accepted until more confirmation is found.

Auscher, René (1923), La législation fiscale applicable aux grands magasins et maisons à succursales multiples, Paris. This is the author's 231-page thesis from the law faculty listed in the Ministère de L'éducation Catalogue de thèses (1964), Kraus Reprint Ltd., 40th fascicule année scolaire 1923, No 144.

Averill, Grace (1928), “Survey of Leased Departments, Terms and Contracts,” Bureau of Research and Information, National Retail Dry Goods Association (NRDGA), as reported in the Journal of Retailing Vol. 4 (October No. 3), pp. 20-21.

Avery, F. H. (1926), “America’s First Chain Store System,” Printers’ Ink, Vol. 137 (November 11), page 42. This reference was obtained in a marketing textbook; all issues of volumes 137 and 138 were verified but the article was not found.

“A Welcome Innovation” (1900), The Buyer and Dry Goods Chronicle, Vol. 30 (27 October No. 17), p. 13. Reference from Benson (1986, p. 69). A short article on the escalator in department stores. It is a very short article of the escalator installed at Simpson, Crawford and Simpson in NYC. The article does not say if the retailer is a department store but it states that it could carry 10k passengers per hour and it will soon be universal.

Axt, George and Louis Axt (1929), “Store Fixtures and Interior Equipment,” The Architectural Forum, Vol. 50 (June No. 6), pp. 935-940. The authors discuss displays, wall fixtures and other equipment needed to present merchandise in department stores in the late 1920s, with numerous illustrations.

Axtell, Robert (1954), “Planning Your Branch Store,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 30 (Fall), pp. 115-128, 140. Reprinted in part in John Wingate and Arnold Corbin eds. (1956), Changing Patterns in Retailing Readings on Current Trends, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 303-307.

Azémar, Guy-Patrick and Michèle de La Pradelle (1981), "Une histoire de marché," Les Annales de la recherche urbaine, No. 12 (Octobre), pp. 70-102. The article is not at all on the department store but the following comments are important enough to be included. According to the authors, the department store introduced a distribution system separate from manufacturing, a specialized sales staff, fixed prices, and all other retail shops that modernized as a result with their sale of manufactured goods and goods obtained from distant places (see p. 89).

Babeau, Albert (1885), La vie rurale dans l’ancienne France, second edition (deuxième édition revue et augmentée), Librairie Académique Didier, Paris : Émile Perrin Libraire-Editeur. The first edition was published in 1883. A delightful book to read describing the standard of living of rural French citizens before the Revolution using numerous sources of data, from deceased people’s


inventory, observations, past authors’ reports who travelled all over France and reported their findings in published in books. He is able to provide useful information from the mid 15th c. to the late 17th c. on how these people lived based on detailed discussion of the type of homes they had. Few had glass windows; many had their houses adjoining with the barn resulting in sickness and unsanitary conditions. Clothing was also much discussed as well as household possessions. The most important furniture was the bed and it was an item specifically included in wills. Chapter 4 (pp. 87-97) is on Les Colporteurs from whom these peasant were able to acquire many of their goods. These petty peddlers travelled rural areas of France in search of customers. The author then discusses what these people ate, their leisure habits, the type of work they had (les gentilhommes, les professions libérales, i.e., services they provided to rural people), the family, religion. etc. In brief the author provides a good snap shot of the French people living in rural areas before the Revolution.

“Back to the future (Sears) the department store chain is breaking with its past, for fear of having no future,” (1993), The Economist, Vol. 329 (October 9 No. 7832), p. 74.

Badel, Laurence (1999), “Employers’ Organizations in French Department Stores During the Inter-war Period: Between Conservation and Innovation,” in Geoffrey Crossick and Serge Jaumain eds. Cathedrals of Consumption The European Department Store, 1850-1939, Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 299-318.

Bader, Louis (1940), “What The Economics of the Macy-Bamberger Retailing Experiments,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 16 (October), pp. 82-84.

Baird, David (1978), "The Investment Environment-Merchandising-The Department Store Industry," Toronto: Burns Fry Ltd. May.

Baird, D. G. (1938), “Decentralization of Store Control Proves Successful with Sears,” Chain Store Age, Vol. 14 (July No. 7), pp. 21-23. By 1938, Sears had 332 stores in 45 states. From 1925 to 1928, stores were controlled by Chicago. Then slowly zone managers were created, while making store managers act independently. This system was put in place by General Robert Woods.

Baker, Crowdus (1961), “After Seventy-Five Years–LookingAhead,” in the 33rd Annual Boston Conference on Distribution, Boston, pp. 15-20. A brief history of Sears as well as current information on Sears, although a bit too focused on Sears’ past and present accomplishments.

Baker, Harry Givens (1953), Rich's of Atlanta: The Story of a Store Since 1867, Atlanta, Georgia: Division of Research, School of Business Administration, University of Georgia. A 1907 newspaper article describes wonderful details of the Rich’s new building. Morris Rich, 1847-1928. The book was also published by Foote and Davis.

Baker, Helen and Robert France (1950), “Personnel Administration and Labor Relations in Department Stores: An Analysis of Development and Practices,” Industrial Relations Section, Department of Economics and Social Institutions, NJ: Princeton University. Reprinted in John Wingate and Arnold Corbin eds. (1956), Changing Patterns in Retailing Readings on Current Trends, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 356-359.

Baker, Nina-Brown (1954), Nickels and Dimes, NY: Harcourt Brace. A book on Frank Winfield Woolworth, 1852-1919.


Baker, Nina-Brown (1956), Big Catalogue: The Life of Aaron Montgomery Ward, NY: Harcourt, Brace. Ward’s life, 1843-1913.

Baker, Ray S. (1899), “The Modern Skyscraper,” Munsey’s Magazine, Vol. 22 (October No. 1), pp. 48-59. A wonderful non technical article depicting step by step the erection of a modern tall building with ample illustrations.

Balchen, Audrey (1986), Department Store Sales Fairchild Fact File, Market Research Division, NY: Fairchild Publication. Definition of a department store. “SIC Manual defines department store as establishments normally employing 25 people or more, having combined sales of apparel and soft goods amounting to 20% or more of the total sales, and selling each of the following lines of merchandise (1) furniture, home furnishings, appliances, radios and TV sets, (2) A general line of apparel for the family, (3) household linens and dry goods.” (p. 1).

Bales, G. (1927), "Financial Budgeting in a Department Store," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 4, pp. 471-479.

Ball, J. N. (1977), Merchants and Merchandise: The Expansion of Trade in Europe 1500-1630, NY: St. Martin's Press.

BAK, a blogger created The Department Store Museum containing detailed information on about 44 dept stores in Canada and the USA. “The on-line museum of America and Canada's late, lamented independent department stores. The museum is repository for all sorts of information about classic department stores which either no longer exist, or no longer aspire to the greatness they attained at their apex.” It has lots of pictures and some unique information on some department stores, such as Marshall Field had store branches as early as September of 1928, and more branches were added as Chicago’s population grew. But there are no references. We can assume that the blogger had access from other bloggers who supplied him with some proprietary information. It makes sense given the rather unusual and sometimes spectacular set of pictures. He seems to have stopped adding information in November 2110. Available at:

Banner, Lois W. (1983), American Beauty, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. An historical overview of beauty in the 19th c. and beyond with a focus on New York, given it was the nation’s fashion capital. Discussion on the department store on pp. 32-36, 184-188. She says that Altman’s department store (p. 119) introduced a “making-up” department store and women began to carry a “Lady’s Pocket Companion,” or a “Portable Complection” containing what we would call today a purse with cosmetics. So the department store was innovative in setting up cosmetics counters and the need to have her set of cosmetics. Banner (p. 300) discusses Genin on page 35. She also provides more refs on Genin: Francis Pulsky and Theresa Pulsky (1853), White, Red and Black: Sketches of American Society, 3 vols. NY: Redfield, Vol. 2, p. 238. Hazel Hunton (1950), Pantaloons and Petticoats: The Diary of a Young American, NY: Field, page 107 and in Lillian Foster (1860), Way-Side Glimpses, North and South, NY: Rudd and Carleton, pp. 208-209.

Barbaro, Michael (2006), “Showing a New Style, Department Stores Surges,” NYT, November 17, 3 pages.

Bardin, G. (1869), “Machines servant à la confection des vêtements,” Études sur l’Exposition de 1867, 8ièm série, E. Lacroix, directeur de la publication, Paris: Lacroix, pp. 37-100. A study on the impact of the sewing machine in Paris in the 1860s.


Barker, Clare Wright and Melvin Anshen (1939), Modern Marketing, NY: McGraw-Hill. Chapter 9 “Large-Scale Retailing,” pp. 128-153. A department store definition is provided on page 129 footnote 1. It was taken from C. W. Barker and I. D. Anderson (1935), Principles of Retailing, NY: McGraw-Hill Book, p. 17. Then on page 137, footnote 2, the department store chain is also defined with some interesting comments that such stores “do not provide for customers all the services commonly given by typical department store,” and that “the merchandising emphasis is not placed on fashionable wearing apparel to the extent that it is in typical department stores.” Teele (1935?, p. 7), was the source of these comments.

Barmash, Isadore (1956), “The Spectacular Rise of E. J. Korvette,” Fortune Vol. 54 (November No. 5), pp. 122-124ff.

Barmash, Isadore (1976), For the Good of the Company, NY: Grosset and Dunlap. A story of the Newberry Stores, McCrory Department Stores.

Barmash, Isadore (1981), More Than They Bargained For The Rise and Fall of Korvettes, NY: Lebhar-Friedman Books/Chain Store Publishing Corporation. An excellent book on the rise and fall of Eugene Ferkauf’s retail innovation: the discount (department) store. See also Robert Drew-Bear (1970).

Barmash, Isadore (1981), “Research!,” Stores, April, pp. 19-24. Reprinted in Robert Robicheaux, W. Pride and O.C. Ferrell eds. (1983), Marketing Contemporary Dimensions, 3rd edition Boston: Houghton Mifflin, pp. 36-43. The article is on market share changes in retailing and the need for department stores to study these changes.

Barmash, Isadore (1983), “Strategies for Increasing or at Least, Not Losing Market Share,” Stores, Vol. 65 March, pp. 24-29. Reprinted in Barry Berman and Joel Evans eds. (1984), Readings in Marketing Management, NY: Wiley, pp. 292–301. An article on the department store as well as other types of stores. Private branding, product assortments are emphasized. Direct import via group buying is more important. May Merchandising Corp and May Department Store International have 300 people in 13 offices around the world. Store size 200k sq ft median. Private brands are on the increase now 15% for some stores, up to 40% as a goal. AMC, the largest store owned merchandising research buying office, was still around with 28 members. Wanamaker, Gimbel’s, May, etc. all were still around.

Barmash, Isadore (1983), Net Net A Novel About the Discount Store Game, Washington, DC: Beard Books.

Barmash, Isadore (1989), Macy's for Sale, NY: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Chapter 2 (pp. 22-35) is a short history of Macy’s. On page 29, Barmash provides a list of first about the Herald Square store, most are wrong. There is a rare picture of the store on page 88.

Barmash, Isadore, Edward Gold, Marvin Klapper, Sandy Parker, Sidney Rutberg, Mort Sheinman, and Stanley Siegelman (2005), Fashion , Retailing and a Bygone Era: Woman’s Wear Daily A Look Back, NY: Beard Book. The authors are all former editors of WWD and the period covered is from 1947 to 2000.

Barnett. Lincoln (1965), “The Voice Heard Round the World,” American Heritage, Vol.. 16 (April), pp. 158-169. The birth of the telephone but nothing on the department store.


Baron, Ava and Susan Klepp (1984), “‘If I Didn’t Have My Sewing Machine…’ Women and Sewing and Sewing Machine Technology,” in Joan Jensen and Sue Davidson eds. A Needle, A Bobbin, A Strike Women Needleworkers in America, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, pp. 20-59. This article is essential if one wants to understand why department stores were so successful. The article provides numerous pre-department store reasons and on going factors, which all contributed to the rise of importance of such stores in the later half of the 19th c.

Baroux, Claude (1990), «Le souvenir de Trujillo», LSA, No. 1236/1237 décembre, pp. 107-108. The man who trained many Frenchmen to imitate the American distribution revolution that had occurred 20 to 30 years earlier. He called him ‘le pape de la distribution”. The short text includes a picture of Trujillo who died of a heart attack in 1971 in Bogota at the age of 51. It seems he had already retired.

Barringer, E. L. (1931), "Sears, Roebuck Enters Gas Business with Station in Atlanta," National Petroleum News, Vol. 23 (August 12), pp. 64-65.

Barth, Gunther (1980), "The Department Store," in City People: The Rise of Modern City Culture in Nineteenth-Century America, NY: Oxford University Press. Chapter 4, pp. 110-147. An excellent chapter on the history of the department store but from an American perspective. The author is able to capture in less than thirty pages a very insightful and surprisingly detailed analysis of the social implications of the rise of the department store at the end of the 19th c. The author has condensed a tremendous amount of historical information and is able to present succinctly what the department store did for women and for society in general. This article is a must read for those interested in the macromarketing impact of the rise of the department store in the US. Moreover, the references on pp. 247-253 and pp. 271-272 are unique. He also has a short but informative discussion on William Whiteley and his London village shops (pp. 118-120). A. T. Lane (1983) reviewed the book Urban History Yearbook 1983, Leicester University Press, pp. 172-173.

Barton, Timothy (1986), “A Fair to Remember,” Inland Architect, Vol. 30 (May June), pp. 62-66. The Fair was a Chicago department store.

Bassett, John M. (1975), Timothy Eaton, Don Mills, Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside.

Bates, Albert (1976), “The Troubled Future of Retailing,” Business Horizons, Vol. 19. Reprinted in Richard Wendel ed. (1979), Readings in Marketing 79/80, Annual Editions, Guilford, CT: Dushkin Publishing, pp. 200-206. The article discusses the troubled rate of profit performance in the retail sector. Managerial complexities involved in retail diversification have created pressures to move away from innovation toward more operations and control of core business. He list a number of food retail innovations since 1960. The list is rather impressive (high rise freezers, stamp dispensers, bottle return systems, specialized fixtures, etc.). Many can also be applied to department store.

Baudier (1913), Les Grands Magasins à Paris: leur organisation commerciale, Paris. This reference is from Bonnet (1929), page 420.

Bauer, Mark (2007), “Give the Lady What She Wants-As long as It’s Macy’s,” Revised Sept 19, 2007, available

Baxter, W.J. (1928), Chain Store Distribution and Management, NY: Harper & Brothers.

Beable, W. H. (1926), Romance of a Great Business, London: Heath, Cranton Ltd.


BBDO (1954-56), Department store staff presentation, 3 volumes, NY: Batten, Barton, Durstine and Osborn.

Beach, Moses Yale (1845), Wealth and Biography of the Wealthy Citizens of New York City, 5th edition NY: Sun Office. On page 27 he has a short biography of AT Stewart that says “The celebrated Dry Good Merchant of Broadway, whose shop is the grand resort of the fashionables. He has lately bought Washington Hall, which he intends to fit up for stores. He married a Miss Mitchell, a lady of some property”. His assets are evaluated at $400,000. The 12th edition published in 1855 also has Stewart on page 69. His assets are now $2 million. The biography says he bought the land after the Washington Hotel burnt down and “built upon it a part of the magnificent building which extends from Read to Chambers street. Here with his partners, he now carries on the largest retail trade in the city, besides an extensive wholesale trade. He has combined every branch of business which could consistently be united with the dry goods. “Both editions have been reproduced in one book by Arno Press 1973 as The Wealthy Citizens of New York.

Beal, Thomas David (1998), "Selling Gotham: The Retail Trade in New York from the Public Market to Alexander T. Stewart's Marble Palace, 1625-1860," PhD dissertation, State University of New York, Stony Brook.

Beasley, Norman (1948), Main Street Merchant- The Story of the J. C. Penney Company, NY: Whittlesey House/McGraw-Hill.

Beaumont, Constance (1997), Better Models for Superstores, Washington, DC: National Trust for Historic Preservation. The book is about the preservation of buildings and one article entitled “Target Recycles a Department Store in Pasadena,” pp. 11-15, shows to what extent an old department store building (that housed the 164,000-square-foot J. W. Robinson’s, built in 1957) can be restored without tearing it down. The National Trust for Historic Preservation has its head office in Washington with, regional offices allover the US. It publishes the Preservation magazine Historic Preservation Forum, and Forum News. It has a computer data bank called Preserve Link, a system designed for the preservation community.

Beauregard, Ludger ed. (1972), Montréal Guide d’excursions/Field Guide, 22nd International Geographical Congress, Montréal : Les Presse de l’Université de Montréal. All articles and text of the 197-page Proceedings of this Conference are published in both languages, side by side. This type of presentation has not been done often before or since. Some of the papers presented are very pertinent to marketing. The last chapter written by the editor predicted that Montreal would become a megalopolis with a population of 6.7 million by the year 2000 (p. 193). He also predicted that Montreal would become even more bilingual. In his article entitled “The City Centre,” pp. 65-77, he says on page 73, that the Eaton store in downtown Montreal on the average had 30,000 to 50,000 shoppers per day, and the one day record was 100,000 shoppers. He also says that Eaton had plans to build two 34-story towers on Ste. Catherine Street, which were never built. Another one of his articles in this book is his “Metropolitan Activities,” pp. 116-1-24, which describes the wholesaling sector of Montreal and highlights not only the importance of the Central Market for fruit and vegetables, opened since 1960, and Place Bonaventure (1967) but also of Montreal being a fashion center where a sizable number of clothing manufacturers are located which makes Montreal a major distribution centre of such goods and many others such as tobacco, alcohol, petroleum, and pharmaceuticals. Of course since 1972, many changes have occurred in such markets and in Quebec as well.


Becker, Boris and Carl Larson (1987), "Lives in Retailing: A Bibliography of American Retail Merchants in Books," Journal of Marketing Education, Vol. 9 (Fall), pp. 64-71. The article provides a bibliography of American retailing, including the department store. The list is useful for retailing history. Some of the references are on retail merchants not previously seen.

Becker, Colette (1971), “Preface,” in Émile Zola, Au Bonheur des dames, Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, pp. 13-37.

Becker, Stephen (1964), Marshall Field III A Biography, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Becker, Collette and Jeanne Gaillard. (1982), Au Bonheur des Dames, Zola: Analyse Critique, Paris: Hatier. The book discusses Zola’s book.

Beckley, Donald (1947), “The Prince School of Retailing Looks Ahead,” Stores, Vol. 29 (January No. 1), pp. 23-25. He’s the Director of the Prince School of Retailing, Simmons College, Boston.

Beckley, Donald (1952), Executive Training in Department Stores, Boston: Simmons College.

Beckley, Robert (1990), “The Arcade: A Forgotten Urban Type,” Inland Architect, Vol. 34 (July-August No. 4), pp. 52-57. The emphasis is on the Milwaukee Center.

Beckman, Theodore, Harold Maynard, and William Davidson (1957), Principles of Marketing, 6th edition, NY: The Ronald Press, chapter 9 “Department Stores,” pp. 171-188. The first time that a whole chapter is devoted to the department store. This is due to Davidson’s influence, given that his 1951 dissertation was in the area and Beckman was his dissertation advisor. See also Maynard and Beckman (1946), Maynard, Weidler and Beckman (1927).

Beckman, Theodore and William Davidson (1962), Marketing, 7th edition, NY: The Ronald Press, chapter 9 “Department Stores,” pp. 179-197. The amount of pages devoted to the department store is the largest ever in all of the textbook’s editions. This is surprising because the department store was declining in importance as a retailing institution. Note that the book’s title changed for the first time since 1927.

Beckman, Theodore and William Davidson, with the assistance of James Engel (1967), Marketing, 8th edition, NY: The Ronald Press, pp. 276-284. The whole chapter devoted to the department store has been eliminated and the topic is now discussed along with the chain store and other retailing institutions. This is similar to the book’s first edition in 1927.

Beckman, Theodore, William Davidson, and W. Wayne Talarzyk (1973), Marketing, 9th edition, NY: The Ronald Press, pp. 253- 258. The last edition of the book (since 1927) and the number of pages devoted to the department store is the smallest ever, in line with the decline of the department store.

Beckman, Theodore and Herman Nolan (1938), The Chain Store Problem, McGraw-Hill. A survey and data analysis done by the authors on the role and competitive power of the chain store in relation to other retail formats, including the department store. Wanamaker is discussed in the book.

Beem, Eugene (1952), “Testing “Consumer Financed Rating and Testing Agencies,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 16 (January, No. 3), pp. 272-285.


Beil, P.J. ed. (1956), Variety Store Merchandising, NY: Variety Store Merchandisers Publications.

Belcher, John and J.J. Joass architects (1912), “Whiteley’s New Premises,” The Architectural Review, Vol. 31 (March), pp. 164-178. Perhaps these two architects wrote this article? The article has 16 illustrations some are spectacular.

Belisle, Donica (2005), “Exploring Postwar Consumption: The Campaign to Unionize Eaton’s in Toronto, 1948-1952,” The Canadian Historical Review 86:4 (December), pp. 641-672.

Belisle, Donica (2006), “A Labour Force for the Consumer Century: Commodification in Canada’s Largest Department Stores, 1890-1940,” Labour/Le Travail 58:2 (Fall), pp. 107-144.

Belisle, Donica (2007) “Negotiating Paternalism: Women and Canada’s Largest Department Stores, 1890-1960,” The Journal of Women’s History, Vol. 19 (Spring No. 1), pp. 58-81.

Belisle, Donica (2011), Department Stores and the Making of Modern Canada, Vancouver: UBC Press.

Bell, Carolyn Shaw (1967), Consumer Choice in the American Economy, NY: Random House. Chapter 5 discusses the merchandising revolution in America, including a discussion on the evolution of the department store.

Bell, Marion (1977), Crusade in the City: Revivalism in 19th c. Philadelphia, Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses. Marion Bell’s doctoral dissertation from Temple University discusses Wanamaker’s religious activities and gives insights into his character and personality. Wanamaker’s religious side is well documented. He was first a clerk at the newly established YMCA when he was only 19. Soon after, he showed his talent for organization making the Y well funded. His affiliation persisted throughout his career.

Bell, Martin (1956), “The Cooperative Department Store: An Economic Analysis of the Attempt to Establish a Chain of Cooperative Department stores as Visualized by Edward A. Filene, Parts 1–1V,” unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 541 pages. Available AAT 0017211.

Bell, Martin (1957), “Edward A. Filene’s Cooperative Department Store a Saga of Modern Marketing,” in Robert Buzzell ed. (1957), Adaptive Behavior in Marketing, Proceedings of the Winter Conference American Marketing Association, Columbus, OH: Modern Art Company, pp. 199-207. This very interesting story of the famed Edward A. Filene (who died in 1937). Filene became enthralled with the idea of establishing a chain of cooperative department stores. A big chunk of his fortune was spent attempting to realize his dream of establishing a cooperative scheme. He honestly believed there was too much waste in distribution and his new stores would be more efficient. He also felt at the time that his new venture would reduce unemployment, which was rampant at the time. His venture was named Consumer Distribution Corporation or CDC, which stands today for something much different. The article is based on his PhD dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate school of Arts and Science called, “an economic analysis of the attempt to establish a chain of cooperative department stores as visualized by Edward A. Filene.” The exact title is as above. See also Peck (1900), Brown (1937), Bell (1958, 1961), and Cary (1977).


Bell, Martin (1958), "The Co-operative Department Store: Outgrowth of Filene's Marketing Thought," Journal of Retailing, Volume 34 (Summer and Fall), pp. 82-89 and 154-174.

Bell, Martin (1961), “A Revised Concept of the Consumer's Co-Operative,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 25 (January No. 3), pp. 37-41.

Bender, Thomas and William Taylor (1987), “Culture and Architecture: Some Aesthetic Tensions in the Shaping of Modern New York City,” in William Sharpe and Leonard Wallock eds. Visions of the Modern City, Essays in History, Art, and Literature, second edition NY: The John Hopkins University Press, pp.189-219. The article has information on elevators not known before. It also has a number of pages devoted to the department store, especially the Haughwout store, called in the article as the Haughwout building. The authors even provide a picture of the building taken in 1952 (page 199). This revised article was first published in the 1983 first edition of the book (published by the Heyman Center for the Humanities, Columbia University), with Bender as the sole author.

Benhamou, Laurence (2003, “Chic factor,” National Post, August 9, p. PT3. A short article on Les Galleries Lafayette and other Parisian department stores. The author says the founders of Lafayette opened the initial store in 1893. The new addition was once completed will have 66k sq meters store and it will the world’s biggest department store. Le Printemps plans to open “the biggest beauty products department in the world, a 4k sq meter addition, or 60% bigger that its current cosmetics department. Le Printemps store was bough by in 1991 by Pinault-Printemps Redoute. La Samaritaine was once the Paris biggest store and its first store was opened in 1865. La Samaritaine was bought by LVMH in 2001. Unfortunately, most of the dates do not correspond to the date in the literature, adding more confusion.

Benjamin, Thelma (1934), London Shops and Shopping, London: Herbert Joseph.

Benjamin, Walter (1967), Illuminations, edited with an introduction by Hannah Arendt, trans. by Harry Zohn, NY: Schocken Books.

Benjamin, Walter (1971), Paris capital du XIXe siècle, La Vie Urbaine No. 1, pp. 34-48. Lots of discussion an arcades.

Benjamin ,Walter (1989), Paris: capital du XIXe siècle. Le livre des passages, Paris: Éditions du Cerf. Translated from German by Jean Lacoste from the original work by Rolf Tiedemann. There’s another title to the book: Das passagen-werk.

Bennett, Tony (1995), The Birth of the Museum, London: Routledge. The link between museums, amusement parks and World’s fairs is presented. In addition, the author also alludes to the same link with the department store. Only a few pages discuss the link. According to the author, Fairs promoted civility and such behavior was transferred to the department store (and museums) as large crowds became accustomed to see displays of goods, without the need to steal (i.e. act in a civil manner). Of course, he did not discuss shoplifting (or then known as kleptomania). Order was the rule, the store educated people, just like museums and Fairs did. He said what other social historians have alluded to is that people went to fairs to look and be looked/noticed, similar to the behavior manifested in museums and department stores. Is it not a bit farfetched to think that department stores were once considered place to be seen and to look as to who else was there was considered cool? Perhaps, the higher floors in such stores also acted like sightseeing for people to look down at shoppers below?


Benson, John (1983), The Penny Capitalists: A Study of Nineteenth Century Working-Class Entrepreneurship, Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. Also NJ: Rutgers University Press. He views store ownership by penny merchants as an improvement in economic status.

Benson, John (1985), "Hawking and Peddling in Canada, 1867-1914," Histoire Sociale/Social History, Vol. 18 (No. 35), pp. 75-83.

Benson, John (1990), “Retailing in Hamilton, Ontario, 1891-1941,” British Journal of Canadian Studies, Vol. 5 (No. 2), pp. 396-413.

Benson, John (1990), Entrepreneurism in Canada: A History of Penny Capitalism, Lewiston, Queenston and Lambeter: Edwin Mellen Press.

Benson, John and Gareth Shaw eds. (1999), Retailing History, 3 volumes UK: J.B. Tauris. Also NY: St Martin’s Press. A set of 3 volumes that covers retailing from its beginning to today.

Benson, John and Gareth Shaw eds. (1992), The Evolution of Retail Systems, 1800-1914, Leicester: Leicester University Press. A collection of essays comparing retailing in Europe and the US. It has three articles on Canadian retailing by John Benson. German and British retailing is emphasized.

Benson, John (1992), “Large-Scale Retailing in Canada,” in John Benson and Gareth Shaw eds. The Evolution of Retail Systems, c.1800-1914, London. Leicester University Press, pp. 186-198. Benson, John (1994), The Rise of Consumer Society in England, 1880-1980, London: Longman.

Benson, John, Andrew Alexander, D. Hodson, J. Jones and Gareth Shaw (1999), “Sources for the Study of Urban Retailing 1800-1950,” Local Historian, Vol. 29 (No. 3), pp. 167-182.

Benson, John and Laura Ugolini eds. (2003), A Nation of Shopkeepers Five Centuries of British Retailing, London: I. B. Tauris. The book is a set of readings discussing the history of consumption and retail history in Britain. The book “examines the complex relationship between retailing development and the consuming environment”. The department store is frequently mentioned and discussed but there are no individual articles devoted to the subject matter. But the book present an interesting hypothesis that “‘large scale retailing played a far lesser role in the growth of the modern city than is generally thought and how the success of department stores was determined less by entrepreneurial ‘spirit’ and more by the unforeseen consequences of legislation.” Retail history is by definition multidisciplinary à la macromarketing, but at the same time specialized areas of study are also de rigueur. For example, we can say that consumption history (i.e. consumption historians) is a bone fide subdiscipline of retail history, which is also part of marketing history.

Benson, John and Laura Ugolini eds. (2006), Cultures of Selling Perspectives on Consumption and Society since 1700, Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing. A collection of 10 articles, some on the department store and a chapter on display windows. The history of retail selling but only from a UK perspective. The 10 original research articles do not discuss retail selling in NA and little is discussed on travelling retail selling or salesmen per se. Reviews by Lesley Whitworthin (2007), Economic History Review, Vol. 60 (2), pp. 427-428.

Benson, Susan Porter (1978), “‘The Clerking Sisterhood:’ Rationalization and the Work Culture of Saleswomen in American Department Stores, 1890-1960,” Radical America, Vol. 12 (March-April No. 2), pp. 41-55. Reprinted in James Green ed. (1983), Worker’s Struggles, Past and Present, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp. 101-116.


Benson, Susan Porter (1979), "Palace of Consumption and Machine for Selling: The American Department Store, 1880-1940," Radical History Review, Vol. 21 (Fall), pp. 199-221.

Benson, Susan Porter (1981),"The Cinderella of Occupation: Managing the Work of Department Store Saleswomen, 1900-1940," Business History Review Vol. 55 (Spring), pp. 10-12. Also reprinted in Stanley Hollander and Kathy Rassuli eds. (1993), Marketing Volume 2, Aldershot, UK: Elgar, pp. 326-350. Reprinted in Mary Yeager ed. (1999), Women in Business Volume 3, Cheltenharn, UK and Northampton, VT: Elgar, pp. 354-378.

Benson, Susan Porter (1983), “A Great Theater: Saleswomen, Customers and Managers in American Department Store, 1890-1950,” doctoral dissertation, Brown University.

Benson, Susan Porter (1983), “‘The Customers Ain’t God’: The Work Culture of Department Store Saleswomen, 1840-1940,” in Michael Frisch and Daniel Walkowitz eds. Working-Class America: Essays on Labor, Community and American Society, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, pp. 185-211.

Benson, Susan Porter (1986), Counter Culture: Saleswomen, Managers and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890-1940, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. The history of women workers in American department stores.

Bentall, Rowen (1974), My Store of Memories, London. The history of a British department store.

Berger, Ronald (1980), “The Development of Retail Trade in Provincial England, ca 1550-1700,” Journal of Economic History, Vol. 40 (March No. 1), pp. 123-128. Many references are cited on fairs.

Bergeron, Louis (1983), “Les grands magasins,” in Y. Lequin ed. Histoire des Français, XIXe– XXe siècles, Tome 2, La Société, Paris: Armand Colin, pp. 258-260.

Bergmann, Joan (1987), “What is a department store? Why does it matter?,” Stores, Vol. 69 July, pp. 12, 81. This is an editorial written by the editor discussing the criteria used by the US Department definition of a department store (SIC 531). It should be noted that the US definition is not the same as the one used by Statistics Canada, its US counterpart.

Berkley, George (1998)

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