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The Wonderful World of the Department Store in Historical Perspective: A

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: Victoria and Albert Museum. This book examines in detail the background of the only complete Wright interior in Europe. This is the office that Wright designed for his most distinguished patron, Edgar Kaufmann - for whom he also built the daring country house, Fallingwater.”

Wilkinson, Jan (1971), Come and Work for Us in a Department Store (in cooperation with the Boston Store, Milwaukee, Wis., and Federated Department Stores, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio: Sextant.

Wilson, Brad (1951), “The Lazarus Story,” The Columbus Dispatch Magazine, February 4, pp. 6-9.

Wilson, James Grant (1876), “Alexander T. Stewart,” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 20 (April 22 No. 1008), pp. 345-346. A short biography of Stewart, soon after his death. What is surprising about this well written article is that a very similar article was published in the 1867 Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. We don’t know if Wilson was the author of the article written ten years earlier but more likely it was, given the name of the publication and the anonymity of the 1867 one. In this article he says Stewart had warehouses in Paris, Belfast, Manchester, Berlin, Glasgow, Lyons, plus stores in NYC, Boston, Philadelphia, Saratoga Springs. Chicago was not mentioned yet he had one there. But we know he had factories too.

Wilson, Kenneth M. (1976), "Window Glass in America," in Charles Peterson ed. Building Early America: Contributions toward the History of a Great Industry, Radnor, PA: Chilton Book, pp. 150-164. An excellent article on the industry of glass making and plate glass as well, with reference to the department store.

Wines, Roger (1958), “A. T. Stewart and Garden City,” The Nassau County Historical Journal, Vol. 19 (Winter No. 1), pp. 1-15.

Wingate, John and Elmer Schaller (1929), “Merchandise Testing in Retail Organizations,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 4 (January No. 4), pp. 8-14.

Wingate, John (1931), “An All-American Department Store,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 6 (January), pp. 102-105.

Wingate, John and Herman Levinson (1934), “Price Correlation of Women’s Apparel in Department Stores,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 10 (October), pp. 70-78.

Wingate, John (1953), Buying for Retail Stores, 3rd edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. The book discusses retailing with a sprinkle of facts here and there on the department store. It is a good book to know more about the buying functions and its place in the organizational chart.


Wingate, John and Eugene Romney (1934), “Brand Promotion in Department Stores, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 10 (July), pp. 33-40.

Wingate, John and Norris Brisco (1946), Buying for Retail Stores, NY: Prentice-Hall.

Wingate, John and Elmer Schaller (1950), Techniques of Retail Merchandising, NY: Prentice-Hall.

Wingate, John and Arnold Corbin eds. (1956), Changing Patterns in Retailing Readings on Current Trends, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin. A book of readings containing hard to locate articles. The articles discuss not only the department store but also other forms of retail. The various parts on the book are well organized to the point that department store articles can be found in many of them, i.e. store organization, personnel and human relations, buying, and others. I have listed them separately in the bibliography. There are no references listed in the whole book.

Wingate, John (1957), “Department Stores and the New Competition,” in Robert Buzzell ed. (1957), Adaptive Behavior in Marketing, Proceedings of the Winter Conference American Marketing Association, Columbus, OH: Modern Art Company, pp. 10-23. Discussion by RCW Sadler, pp. 24-28. Wingate discusses the inflexibility of department stores in the way they offer services. In order, managers have stuck with the old business model of offering as many services as possible without much thought on costs or on consumers. Few dollars are spent on research (p. 18).

Winkler, John K. (1941), Five and Ten, The Fabulous Life of F. W. Woolworth, NY: Robert McBridge. NY: Bantam Books, 1957.

Winstanley, Michael (1983), The Shopkeeper's World 1830-1914, Manchester: Manchester University Press. The history of small-scaled retailing in England. The author discusses the plight of small shopkeepers such as the grocer, the butcher, and the pawnbrokers, among others. There is a discussion on the village shop, referred to as a miniature department store (chapter 13, pp. 199-215), as well as a section on the department store itself (pp. 34-36). The book was reviewed by Geoffrey Crossick (1984), Urban History Yearbook 1984, Leicester University Press, pp. 186-187.

Winston, Clement and Marie Puglisi (1946), "Regional Patterns of Department Sales," Survey of Current Business, Vol. 26, pp. 18-24.

Winston, Clement and Marie Puglisi (1947), "Postwar Regional Department Sales Patterns," Survey of Current Business, Vol. 27, pp. 18-23.

Witkowski, Terrence (2001), “The Commercial Building as a Promotional Tool in American Marketing History, 1880-1940,” in Terrence Witkowski ed. Milestones in Marketing History, Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing (CHARM), Long Beach, CA: Association for Historical Research in Marketing, pp. 199-210.

Wolf, Barnet and Mark Ferenchlk (2003), “Downtown Lazarus was doomed,” Columbus Dispatch, Sunday October 19, pp. A1, A3.

Wolf, Irwin (1930), “Whose Responsibility Is It to Translate Consumer Demand Into Merchandise Style? Paper presented at the 1930 Consumer Marketing Conference of the American Management Association, held at the William Penn Hotel October 22. Reprinted in Marketing Series Number I-II in 1967 by NY: Kraus Reprint Corporation. Mr. Wolf was the Secretary and General Merchandise Manager of the Kaufmann Stores.


Wolfe, Jane (1993), Blood rich: when oil billions, high fashion, and royal intimacies are not enough, Boston: Little, Brown. Sakowitz department store, Texas.

Wolfe, Joshua (1989), « Ogilvy, » Continuité, No. 42 hiver, pp. 30-31. This Montreal store was once a high class store but it converted into leasing arrangements with upscale retailers making Ogilvy more like a landlord that a retailer.

Wolfer, Sondra (2002), “Old Bronx, N.Y., Department Store Has New Future,” Knight Ridder Tribune News, November 15, page 1.

Wolfers, Howard (1980), “The Big Stores Between the Wars,” in Jill Roe ed. Twentieth Century Sydney: Studies in Urban and Social History, Sydney: Hale and Iremonger.

Wolff, Reinhold (1940), “The Rise of the Super Market and Some Marketing Consequences,” Dun’s Review, Vol. 48 (September), pp. 8-13, 46-47. The beginning of the supermarket as analyzed by an economist. He gives excellent reasons of the type of environmental factors that contributed to the growth of the supermarket.

Woll, Milton (1961), “Store Organization: How to Build in the Capacity for Change,” Stores, Vol. 43 (October), pp. 18-21.

Woll, Milton (1961), “Modern Organization Structure for Large Stores,” Stores, Vol. 43 (November), pp. 36, 38.

Woll, Milton (1961), “Modern Retail Organization Structure,” Stores, Vol. 43 (December), pp. 15-17.

Wood, Barry James (1982), Shop Windows 75 Years of the Art of Display, NY.

Wood, James H. (1987), Halle’s Memoirs of a Family Department Store 1891-1982, Cleveland, OH: Geranium Press.

Wood, Richardson and Virginia Keyser (1953), The Case Study of Sears, Roebuck de Mexico, S. A. (first case study in an NPA series) on United States Business Performance Abroad, Washington: National Planning Association). See Brown (1948) and Truitt (1983). Three pages reprinted in Stanley Hollander ed. (1959), Explorations in Retailing, MSU Business Studies 1959, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, pp. 60-62.

Wood, Robert (1948), Mail Order Retailing: Pioneered in Chicago, NY: Newcomen Society.

Wood, Steve (2001), “Regulatory Constrained Restructuring: The US Department Store Industry in the 1990s,” Environment and Planning A, Vol. 33 (July No. 7), pp. 1279-1304.

Wood, Steve and Neil Wrigley (2007), “Market power and regulation: the last great US department store consolidation?,” International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 35 (1), pp. 20-37.

Woodhouse, Chase Going (1943), The Big Store: Opportunities in Department Store Work, NY: Funk and Wagnalls.


Woodward Stores Limited the Shopping (1971), Guide of the West: Woodward’s Catalogue 1898-1953, Vancouver: J.J. Douglas. Reprint of the 1912 and 1929 catalogues.

Woolworth F.W. Company (1929), 1879-1929. Fifty years of Woolworth. Over 2100 Woolworth stores celebrate this year in 1500 cities in 5 countries of the world, the fiftieth anniversary of the F. W. Woolworth Co., with amazing buying opportunities for your nickels and dimes NY: F. W. Woolworth Co.

Woolworth, F. W. Co (1954), Woolworth’s First 75 Years the Story of Everybody's Store, NY. See page 54 to find out that Seymour H. Knox opened the first of a chain of variety stores in Toronto in 1897, and E.P. Charlton and Co. opened its first stores in Montreal and Vancouver in 1898 or 1899.

Wooster, Martin M. (2006), “The greatest 20th century donor you've never heard of,” Philanthropy Magazine, May 1. A discussion on Julius Rosenwald, the great donor who helped black education in the South by building hundreds of schools. He was Sears’s first executive. Available online

Worth, Rachel (1999), “Fashioning the Clothing Product: Technology and Design at Marks and Spencer,” Textile History, Vol. 30 (Autumn No. 2), pp. 234-250.

Worthington, S. (1989), “The Skala-Buda Department Store,” Retail and Distribution Management, (September-October), pp. 28-29.

Worthy, James (1949), Discovering and Evaluating Employee Attitudes, NY: American Management Association.

Worthy, James (1951), “How Sears Gets Its Executives,” Women’s Wear Daily, February 9 and 16, March 2 and 9. A series of articles by the President of Sears.

Worthy, James (1955), “The Next Ten Years in Retailing,” An address made before the National Retail Dry Goods Association in NYC. Reprinted in John Wingate and Arnold Corbin eds. (1956), Changing Patterns in Retailing Readings on Current Trends, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 8-18.

Worthy, James (1959), Big Business and Free Men, NY: Harper and Brothers.

Worthy, James (1980), “Sears Roebuck: General Robert E. Wood’s Retail Strategy<” in Paul Uselding ed. Business and Economic History, papers presented at the 26th Meeting of the Business History Conference, University of Illinois, pp. 61-73.

Worthy, James (1984), Shaping an American Institution: Robert E. Wood and Sears, Roebuck, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Reviewed by Daniel Wren (1985), Academy of Management Review, Vol. 10 (July No. 3), pp. 627-628.

Worthy, James (1985), "Evolution of Marketing Strategy at Sears, Roebuck", in Terry Nevett and Stan Hollander (eds.), Marketing in the Long Run, Proceedings of the Second Marketing History Conference, East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, pp. 175-181.


Worthy, James (1986), "Human Relations Research at Sears, Roebuck in the 1940s: A Memoir in D. A. Wren and J. A. Pearce eds. Papers Dedicated to the Development of Modern Management, Mississippi State: Academy of Management.

Worthy, James (1992), “The More Things Change, The More They Stay the Same The Original Sears, Roebuck and Co. Studies,” Journal of Management Inquiry, Vol. 1 (March), pp. 14-38.

Wortman, Marlene Stein (1977), “Domesticating the Nineteenth Century American City,” Prospects, Vol. 3 pp. 531-572.

Wren, Daniel A. and Ronald G. Greenwood (1998), "Business Leaders: A Historical Sketch of Richard W. Sears," Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, Vol. 5 (2), pp. 40-49. The great price maker"; "Send us no money"; "With cash, we pay the freight." These were advertising phrases that reached out to rural America and captured a market that was eager for the products available in urban areas. The idea of ordering by mail was not new: Benjamin Franklin issued a catalog in 1744 offering a list of six hundred books that could be ordered by mail. A. T. Stewart, R. H. Macy, John Wanamaker, and Charles Tiffany had mail order departments that targeted primarily the inland cities of America. The Larkin Company had a catalog for ordering soap, tea, coffee, and extracts; Butler Brothers of Boston offered hardware; and National Cloak and Suit (later renamed National Bella Hess) was also in the mail order business, specializing in certain product lines with urban markets in mind. In 1880, 72 percent of America's population was classified as rural, and this market was relatively untapped. Aaron Montgomery Ward and his brother-in-law, George R. Thorne, pioneered the idea of a general-merchandise catalog that was targeted for the rural market. Ward began his career as a clerk for Field, Palmer, and Leiter (predecessor to the Marshall Field Company) and launched his catalog business with one-page flyers, followed by a catalog of a broad range of merchandise.

Wren, Daniel and Ronald Greenwood (1998), Management Innovators The People and Ideas That Shaped Modern Business, NY: Oxford University Press. Chapter 3 “Sellers,” discusses only two sellers: A. T. Stewart and Richard Sears, pp. 50-68. The authors stated that Stewart’s Marble Palace is still with us, but as condominium apartments, known as Stewart House (as stated in Elias 1992, p. 79). Reynolds (1984) does not agree. The building was completely destroyed in a 1956 fire. What stands there, as Stewart Apartment, is brand new building, not a converted one, as is implied in the quote. The authors also made a mistake by labeling A.T. Stewart’s second store as the Marble Palace rather than the Cast Iron Palace. The following information may be in this book or in the previous ref: Otto Doering, the plant superintendent, saved Sears, Roebuck and Company, aided by a new building on a forty-acre tract on Chicago's west side. Drucker (1954) said it was a building Doering designed in 1903.

Wright, Amos W. (1891), “Marshall Field,” Harper’s Weekly, Vol. 35 (March 21), pp. 210-211. A short biography of Marshall Field. He worked in a dry goods store for 4 yrs in Pittsfield, Mass., and then came to Chicago in 1856. In 1871, Field, Lieter and Co. had sales of $8 million. In 1891, sales reached $35 million. Field had branch houses in England, France and Germany. He was known as the A.T. Stewart of the 1890s.

Wright, Cynthia (1993), “The Most Prominent Rendezvous of the Feminine Toronto: Eaton’s College Street and the Organization of Shopping in Toronto: 1920-1950,” unpublished doctoral dissertation, Graduate Department of Education, University of Toronto. On pp.75-76, the author documents that Eaton’s profit were over $5 million in 1925 but plunged to under $900,000 in 1933. DA1 54(9) 3562-3563-A.


Wright, Cynthia (2000), “Rewriting the Modern: Reflections on Race, Nation and the Death of a Department Store,” Social History/Histoire sociale, Vol. 33 (May No. 65), pp. 153-167. The article is about the demise of Eaton’s and its meaning. It is in a sense “a death-of Eatons’ commentary” and it needs to be read by those interested in the social and business history of a Canadian icon.

Wright, John L. (1899), “The Department Store in the East,” The Arena, Vol. 22 (August), pp. 165-173.

Wright, John L., John S. Steele and Samuel R. Kirkpatrick (1899), "The Department Store in the East," Arena, Vol. 22 (August), pp. 165-186. This is the way this reference is usually referred to. In reality, there are three separate articles with different titles (see above).

Wright, J. L., J. S. Steele and S. R. Kirkpatrick (1899), "The Department Store in the West," Arena, Vol. 22 (September), pp. 320-341. This is the way this reference is usually referred to. In reality, this reference is wrong given that three separate articles exist with different titles and three different authors. The real authors are William Handy, Eva Carlin and Ellis Meredith. Researchers cite this reference without ever having seen it or read it.

Wrigley, J. (1887), Rules and regulations subject to the provisions of the deed poll, Hudson’s Bay Company, Winnipeg?, 1981, c1887. CIHM/ICMH Microfiche series (Institut canadien de micro reproduction historique).

Wyckham, Robert (1967), “Aggregate Department Store Images: Social and Experimental Factors,” in Reed Moyer ed. Changing Marketing Systems, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 333-337.

Wyckham, Robert (1982), “The Marketing Concept in France,” in Michel Laroche ed. Proceedings, Marketing Division, University of Ottawa: Association of Administrative Sciences of Canada, pp. 323-331. A discussion on the marketing practices of French retailers including department stores.

Wyzanski, Henry N. (1926), “Department Store Consolidation," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 4 (July), pp. 459-470.

D'Ydewalle, Charles (1965), Au Bon Marché de la boutique au grand magasin, Paris: Librairie Plon. This book is one of a series on the historical origin and development of some of France’s largest companies. It has 57 illustrations, some of which are quite unique. Surprisingly, this 183-page book contains no references. No wonder Miller (1981, pp. 6-7), has called such books “more company panegyrics or anecdotal excursions”, more impressionistic rather than a professional and scholarly study of the historical origin and evolution of the Bon Marché department store.

Yamey, Basil S. (1952), "The Origins of Resale Price Maintenance: A Study of Three Branches of Retail Trade," The Economic Journal, Vol. 62 (September), pp. 522-545. The article makes it clear it was not a department store innovation. In fact, the department store (and others such as coops, multiples) was offering “extensive and significant price reductions, and large sections of the public responded to the attraction of lower prices” (p. 523). It seems the initiative of RPM came from retailers themselves; but the role played by the department store is unclear at least as discussed in this article.


Yamey, Basil (1954), “The Evolution of Shopkeeping,” Lloyds Bank Review, No. 31 (January), pp. 31-44. The origin of the department store in the UK is Whiteley, according to Yamey.

Young, Louise (1999), “Marketing the Modern: Department Stores, Consumer Culture and the New Middle Class in Interwar Japan,” International Labor and Working-Class History, No. 55, pp. 52-70.

“Your Delivery Department and Its Cost Problems” (1954), from a brochure prepared by United Parcel Service. Reprinted in John Wingate and Arnold Corbin eds. (1956), Changing Patterns in Retailing Readings on Current Trends, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 339-341.

Young, John (1966), “The Growing Strength of Department Stores,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 42 (Fall), pp. 41-51.

Young, Louise (1999), “Marketing the Modern: Department Stores, Consumer Culture, and the New Middle Class in Interwar Japan,” International Labor and Working Class History, Vol. 55 (Spring), pp. 52-70.

Yunich, David (1961), “The Department Store–The Coming Years of Decision,” 33rd Boston Conference on Distribution, Boston, pp. 49-53. The department store will need to transform itself to face the future according to the author.

Yunich, David (1965), “EDP in the Department Store,” Columbia Journal of World Business, Vol. 1 (Fall), pp. 87-92.

Zahar, Marcel (1928), “Les Grands Magasins,” l’Art Vivant, 1er décembre, pp. 921-925. The article discusses the architecture of department stores with 4 pages of illustrations.

Zamagni, Vera (1993), “Le développement de formes modernes de commerce organisé en Italie au XIXe et XXe siècles,” Culture technique, No. 27 July), pp. 69-73. According to the author, consumer coops were very popular in Italy from the late 18th c. to modern times. Nevertheless, the first department store was opened in Milan in 1877 called “Aux villes d’Italie” owned and operated by the Bocconis. They quickly established branches in Florence, Genoa, Rome, Naples, Palermo, Venice, Bologna, and Livonia. As of 1879, they employed over 2,000 people and distributed 30,000 catalogues.

Zeisman, D. (1999), “Eaton’s didn’t learn from Woodward’s,” Globe and Mail, September 10, page B2.

Zellner, Wendy (2003), “Call It Mall-Mart,” Business Week, July 14, pp. 40-41. An article discussing the location of discount stores, i.e. Wal-Mart, in shopping centers. This is rather strange because such stores have been in existence for a long time, at least in Canada. When Wal-Mart bought Woolco stores in the mid-1990s, many of the stores were in shopping centers. It is true that Zellers are not in shopping centers but are free standing stores.

Zhuang, Guijun, Nan Zhou and Neil C. Herndon Jr. (2002), “Scale economies of department stores in the People's Republic of China,” The International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research, Vol. 12 (No. 1), pp.

Zimmerman, Max M (1930), “Can Lower Prices Take the Place of Advertised Brands?,” Printers' Ink, Vol. 152 (August 14 No. 7), pp. 3-4, 6, 8, 131, 132-133.


Zimmerman, Max M (1930), “Chain Stores Weighed in the Balance,” Printers' Ink, Vol. 152 (September 25 No. 13), pp. 3-4, 6, 8, 138, 140-141. How are manufacturers affected by chain-store growth?

Zimmerman, Max M and F. R. Grant (1937), “Warning: Here Comes the Super-Market!,” Nation’s Business, March, pp. 20-22, 96-99. Good description on the birth of this new retail innovation but with some errors. He alludes that this store is unlike the old general store and the village store. Sales and number of shoppers are small by early 20th c. department store standards. See Zimmerman (1941), Business Week (1933), Soper (1983).

Zimmerman, Max M. (1937), Super Market Spectacular Exponent of Mass Distribution, NY: Super Market, 137 pages.

Zimmerman, Max M. (1939), The super market grows up: An analysis of progress in the expanding field of self-service distribution, NY: Super Market Pub, 23 pages.

Zimmerman, Max M. (1941), “The Supermarket and the Changing Retail Structure,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 5 (April No. 4), pp. 402-409. He says the supermarket idea had been established out West 15 years earlier. It was Cullen who used self-service and made it into a national retail movement. On page 404, he explains what are the unique characteristics of a supermarket vs. other food stores.

Zimmerman, Max (1946), “Tomorrow’s Supermarket,” Management Review, Vol. 35 (June No. 6), pp. 239-241.

Zimmerman, Max M. (1955), The Super Market-A Revolution in Distribution, NY: McGraw-Hill. A book on the history of the supermarket. Chapter 2: “The Origin of the Super Market,” pp. 16-30. Chapter 3: “The Upstart Industry Crashes the Distribution World, Michael Cullen,” pp. 31-53. Chapter 4: “The Super Market Begins Its Expansion,” pp. 54-68.

Zinkhan, G. M. and L. F. Stoiadin (1984), “Impact of Sex Role Stereotypes on Service Priority in Department Stores,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 69 (4), 691-693.

Zipf, George K. (1950),”Quantitative Analysis of Sears, Roebuck and Company’s Catalogue,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 15 (July), pp. 1-13.

Zola, Émile (1883), Au Bonheur des Dames, Paris: Charpentier; Paris: Livre de Poche, 1971. Zola actually started to research the topic of the department store in 1864 and finished his research in 1869 even though the book was only published in 1883. There is no doubt that the book is based on the Bon Marché department store, and his founder Aristide Boucicaut who died (in 1877) before he had a chance to see the finished product). Of course, the book is a novel and fiction, but based on the department store that existed in Paris at that time.

Zola, Émile (1883), Au Bonheur des Dames, Paris: Lacroix. Translated by Brian Nelson (1995) as The Ladies' Paradise, NY: Oxford University Press, with a 19-page introduction (pp. vii-xxiii), as well as a set of explanatory notes (pp. 433-438), and a chronology and a select bibliography of Zola, pp. xxiv-xxxi. It is interesting to note some of Nelson’s comments about the department store. According to him, the Bon Marché, the actual store depicted by Zola in his Au bonheur des dames, was the first department store in the world, it was the largest store in the world before 1914, and it was the first store designed and built for shopping. Such comments, among others


made by Nelson, are unfortunately incorrect. It is actually troublesome that such errors are still being committed, especially in 1995. For the record, AT Stewart’s store was the first department store built in 1846 called the Marble Palace, for the specific purpose of shopping. The store was expanded until Stewart built another one, which opened in 1862. The Bon Marché opened in 1852 and it was not until much later that the store was redesigned more for shopping. A final note is that Artley reported that the book was translated by April Fitzlyon as Ladies Delight London: John Calder in 1957 and issued as a paperback in 1960 by Paul Elek Ltd., London. She says that the book “is a brilliant fictional account of the rise of a late 19th century Parisian department store which contains many detailed descriptive passages of revolutionary display techniques” (page 128).

Zola, Émile (1927), "Notes sur le Bon Marché," Oeuvres Complètes, 12, Au Bonheur des Dames. Zola was a novelist as well as a journalist. His discussion of this department store in Paris indicates that he knew the department store business very well and had access to proprietary information. Let us not forget that he abandoned journalism in 1880.

Zuckerman Art (1958), “America’s Shopping-Center Revolution,” Dun’s Review and Modern Industry, Vol. 71 (May), pp. 36-37, 93-102. A must read for anyone interested in the history of the department store, post 1950s. The analysis and predictions made are truly amazing for an article published in 1958. He shows how department stores tried to lure consumers back to the downtown area but without much success, even though it worked initially. Department stores were facing market forces beyond their control, and also their inability to understand what was going on.

Zukin, Sharon (2003), Point of Purchase: How Shopping Changed American Culture. NY: Routledge.

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