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The Wonderful World of the Department Store in Historical Perspective: A

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,” International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 34 (1), pp. 6-34.

Rips, Rae Elizabeth (1938), “An Introductory Study of the Role of the Mail-Order Business in American History, 1872-1914.” Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Chicago, department of history.

Rives, Marcel (1939), Les magasins dits à Prix unique, Conseil National Économique, Paris: Imprimerie Administrative.

Rives, Marcel (1942), Règlementation du commerce de détail, Paris : Librairie Générale de droit et de Jurisprudence.

Robaton, Anna (2008), “Canada Department Stores head for a skake-up,” Shopping Centers Today (SCT), October, pp. 84, 86, 88.

Roberts, Evan (1999) “From Mail Order To Female Order? The Work Culture of Department Store Employees in New Zealand 1890-1960,” dissertation, 2 University of Victoria at Wellington, HIST489 Research Essay, September.

Roberts, Evan (2003), “Don't Sell Things, Sell Effects: Overseas Influences in New Zealand Department Stores, 1909-1956,” Business History Review, Vol. 77 (Summer No. 2): 265-289.

Robertson, P. (1984), "Department Stores–Need for Innovation," Large Mixed Retailing, (April), pp. 12-15. Reference from McGoldrick (1989).

Robbins, Pamela D. (2003), "Stack 'em High and Sell 'em Cheap: James "Doc" Webb and Webb's City, St. Petersburg, Florida," PhD dissertation, Florida State University.

Robin, Gerald (1963), “Patterns of Department Store Shoplifting,” Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 9 (April No. 2), pp. 163-172.


Robinson, E. (1963-64), “Eighteen-Century Commerce and Fashion: Matthew Boulton’s Marketing ‘Techniques,’” Economic History Review,” 2nd series Vol. 16 pp. 39-60.

Robinson, J. George (1951), “Suburbanization of Retailing,” Proceedings of the 13th Annual Controllers’ Congress Pacific Coast Regional Convention, Berkeley: National Retail Dry Goods association, pp. 137-152. Reference from Oaks (1957, p. 89).

Robinson, John (1969), The Department Store Industry in Canada, Research Report, Montreal: Morgan, Ostiguy and Hudon, Inc., September, 12 pages. The date may also be 1971.

Robinson, Newton (1959), “The Acceleration Principle: Department Store Inventories: 1920-1956,” American Economic Review, Vol. 49 (June), pp. 257-271.

Robinson, O. Preston (1933), “Distribution of Types of Jobs in Department Stores,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 9 (April), pp. 26-27.

Robinson, O. Preston (1934), “Changes in Department-Store Organization,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 9 (January), pp. 101-105.

Robinson, O. Preston and Norris Brisco (1949), Store Organization and Operation, NY: Prentice Hall.

Robinson, O. Preston, J. George and Milton Matthews (1958), Store Organization and Operation, second ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, chapters 2-4.

Robinson, Olive and John Wallace (1972) “Pay in retail distribution: wage payment in department stores,” Industrial Relations Journal, (July-September), pp. 17-28.

Roebuck, Alvar C. (1940), "Early and Some Later History of Sears, Roebuck and Co.," 2 volumes Chicago: Unpublished Master's thesis.

Roets, Jacques (1944), La structure fonctionnelle des grands magasins, Brussels: École professionnelle de vente.

Rogers, Ruby (1994), “Samuel Pogue’s Store and Family,” Queen City Heritage, Vol. 52 (No. 4), pp. 2-5. Samual Pogue emigrated from Ireland to Cincinnati in 1849 and helped transform his family’s dry goods store into H. & S. Pogue Comp. known as Pogue’s until 1984.

Rojek, Dean (1979), “Private Justice Systems and Crime Reporting,” Criminology, Vol. 17 (May No. 1), pp.100-111. Shoplifting data generated by the private police sector were gathered from 6 matched pairs of retail stores. Three pairs represented discount stores, 2 pairs medium-priced department stores, and 1 pair high-priced department store. Analysis of matched pairs was based on comparing stores with the same name, but having multiple outlets. The findings showed significant differences between stores by age and gender

Rosenberg, Joseph (1985), “Dillard Department Stores, Inc. 1960-1964”, in Stan Hollander and Terry Nevett eds. Marketing in the Long Run, East Lansing: Michigan State University, pp. 288-298.

Rosenberg, Joseph (1988), Dillard’s The First Fifty Years, with a foreword by Sam Walton, Fayetteville, AK: University of Arkansas Press.


Roseman, Ellen (1972), “Simpsons-Sears puts faith in private-brands appeal,” The Financial Post, July 8, p. 1.

Roseman, Ellen (1972), “Horizon chain plans August debut,” The Financial Post, July 8, p. 4. Horizon was the discount store for Eaton. The Lazarus department store in Columbus OH, also began a discount type store that same year called Capri, selling dry goods (clothes, accessories, etc.). Both were members of AMC (Associate Merchandising Corporation).

Rosenberg, Joseph (1988), Dillard’s, the First Fifty Years, Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press. The book has a foreword by Sam Walton. It is short with 141 pages, with illustrations.

Rosenberg, L. Joseph and C. P. Rao (1989), "William T. Dillard: A Pioneer Merchant in Suburban Shopping Centers," Essays in Economic and Business History Vol. 7, pp. 230-236.

Rosenberg, Marjorie (1985) “A Sad Heart at the Department Store,” American Scholar, Vol. 54 (Spring No. 2), pp. 185-193.

Rosenbloom, Bert (1980), "The Department Store and the Mass Merchandiser: Marketing Challenges and Strategic Responses," in Ronald Stampfl and Elizabeth Hirschman eds. Competitive Structure in Retail Markets: The Department Store Perspective, Proceedings, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 168-177.

Rosenbloom, Jack (1934), Ballyhoo, bargains and banners, NY: Paris, Empire Publishing Company. “An analysis of popular-price department store advertising and promotion methods.”

Rosenthal, Dante (1934), « Les magasins à prix uniques », Grande Revue, Vol. 143 (janvier), pp. 215-221ff.

Rosenwald, Julius (19328), “Mail-Order Merchandising,” in Frederic Wile ed. A Century of Industrial Progress, NY: Double Day, Doran, pp.

Rosier, Camille (1934), « Les magasins ‘à prix uniques’ devant l’opinion française, » L’Actualité Economique, Vol. 10 (7), pp. 289-305.

Ross, Alexander (1993), "The Eaton's Nobody Knows," Canadian Business, Vol. 66 (May), pp. 47-48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 59.

Ross, Alexander (1993), “Eaton face à la crise, Commerce, Juillet, pp. 37-42. Translated from his 1993 article in Canadian Business.

Ross and Macdonald, and Jacques Carlu (1931), “The New Restaurant in the T. Eaton Company Building, Montreal” Journal of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, Vol. 8 (May No.5), pp. 181-186. Less than two pages of text with many pictures of the new restaurant. Carlu was not the main architect of this restaurant.

Ross, Kristin (1992), “Introduction Shopping,” in Émile Zola (1883), Au bonheur des dames. Translated as The Ladies' Paradise, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. v-xxiii. The 18-page introduction provides valuable insights about Zola’s book and Victorian England, given that this was the first of Zola’s works to be translated and the first to be subjected to censorship. The book was marketed in England as “pornographic”, given Zola’s reputation of corrupting France


with his novels. This version was done in 1886 and is the most original. It was the 1883 version that was censured. We also learn that the translator, Henry Vizetelly, was charged and convicted in 1888 for publishing another of Zola’s work (La Terre), which was judged to be obscene and was imprisoned for three months.

Roth, Hyman (1916), “The Application of Statistics to Advertising and Marketing,” Publications of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 15 (December), pp. 436-465. The author mentions Chas C. Parlin a number of times (pp. 440,441, He discusses Parlin’s huge study (pp. 457, 458) published in four volumes, with 2500 pages with 100 charts and 12 maps in which Parlin visited 165 cities, conducted over 1k interviews and traveled over 32k miles. The textile industry study lasted a year. He also prepared a volume “An Encyclopedia of Cities “containing an estimate of the trading population and of the department store business in every city of the US of over 5k population”. Among the stats collected was the listing of the leading dry goods stores and their total estimated volume of business. He cited Parlin’s article in PI Oct 22, 1914 urging manufacturers to establish a research department.

Rothchild, John (1991), Going for Broke: How Robert Campeau Bankrupted the Retail Industry, Jolted the Junk Bond Market, and Brought the Boomimg Eighties to a Crashing Halt, NY: Simon and Schuster. History of Federated Department Stores.

Rothchild, John (1991), “Betting the Store,” Esquire, November, pp. 104-108, 178-181.

Rothman, David and Sheila Rothman eds. (1975), Sources of the American Social Tradition, Volume 2, NY: Basic Books, chapter 11: The Department Store, pp. 5-17 The chapter reprints article written by Wanamaker, William Taft, and from the Golden Book of the Wanamaker Store Jubilee Year.

Rothman, David and Sheila Rothman (1988), The Girls of the Department Store: Report and Testimony Taken Before the Special Committee of the Assembly Appointed to Investigate the Condition of Female Labor in the City of New (Women & Children First), New York Legislature Assembly Special Committee. NY: Garland Publication.

Rouse, J. (1962), “Must Shopping Centers Be Inhuman,” Architectural Forum, Vol. 116, pp. 105-119.

Rousseau, Hervé (1975), “Les Révolutions du Commerce en France Depuis 150 Ans,” Chroniques d'actualité de la S.E.D.E.I.S., Vol. 30 (June), pp. 336-352. Some discussion on le Bon Marché and Boucicaut and a short overview of France’s retail distribution.

Rousseau, Hervé (1977), « La crise des grands magasins », Chroniques d'actualité de la S.É.D.É.I.S, 15 janvier. Paris : Société d'études et de documentation économiques, industrielles et sociales.

Roux, L. (1841), “La demoiselle de comptoir,” in Les Français peints par eux-mêmes, tome 3, Paris: Curmer, pp. 233ff.

Roux-Spitz, Michel (1924), “La nouvelle annexe du Bon Marché,” L’Architecte, Juin.

Rowe, R C. (1965), “Wanamaker’s Training Seminar,” Merchandising Week, September 13, p. 48.


Rubin, Leonard (1955),”The Case for the Major Buying Office,” New York Retailer, Vol. 8 ((December), pp. 10-11.

Ruckeyser, Merryle Stanley (1928), "Chain Stores The Revolution in Retailing," The Nation, Vol. 127 (November 28 No. 3308), pp. 568-570. He says, “department stores have apparently reached a phase of diminished rate of growth though their trade continues on a high level” p. 568. The department store share of all retail was 16.5% in 1926. He makes a mistake by saying that chain stores originally established before department stores (p. 528). He says that the chain store is mostly in food distribution (A&P, Kroger), and Woolworth. He makes the point that department stores then were not chains but “financial affiliations.” Sears applies chain store management concepts with centralized buying, home office direction for each store. He presents brief comments on the anti-chain movement and the role of the FTC. He ends by saying that chains “are an instrument for bringing the rule of efficiency to the slovenly field of retail distribution” (p. 569).

Rudd, Hynda (1979), “Auerbach’s one of the West’s Oldest Department Store,” Western States Jewish Historical Quarterly. Vol. pp.

Rush, G.B. (1975), The Supermarket Story Book, Toronto: James Lotimer and Company.

Russell, Fred, R. W. Lyons and S. M. Flickinger (1931), “The Social and Economic Aspects of Chain Stores,” American Economic Review, Supplement Vol. 21 (March), pp. 27-36.

Russell, Hilary (1983), “Eaton’s College Street Store and Seventh Floor,” unpublished paper, Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, as Cited in Haight (1996, p. 41).

Russell, Loris (1976), "Early Nineteenth-Century Lighting," in Charles Peterson ed. Building Early America: Contributions toward the History of a Great Industry, Radnor, PA: Chilton Book, pp. 186-201. A good article written by a former curator of the Royal Ontario Museum, and author of Heritage of Light (1967). It is a good article on the history of artificial lighting, with numerous unique illustrations. Unfortunately, it has no discussion on the commercial use of artificial lighting such as in department stores. Nevertheless, the background information provided is good to know.

Russell, Thomas (1921), “How Selfridge Trains Salesfolk,” Printers’ Ink, Vol. 114 (February 17), pp. 116, 120.

Ruttenberg, Selma (1941), “Branch-Store Developments Among New York City Stores,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 17 (February), pp. 4-6.

Rydell, Robert (1984), All the World's Fairs: Visions of Empire at American International Expositions, 1876-1916, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The book is really not about US world's fairs per se (as staged in the US and not abroad) but on the sociology and anthropology of US fairs as they relate to the use (or not use) of non whites as people exhibits such as Indians, natives from foreign lands such as the Philippines Burneo, and Indonesia. It's a practice that began I think at the 1867 Paris International Exposition when an exhibit of French colonies were part of the exposition. The exposition of these people as showcase for the consumers to see untamed and wild savages is discussed. The 1893 Chicago fair is also discussed at length, given the refusal of Blacks to have an exhibit. Blacks were in fact not used as workers and few actually visited the White City. The book has many good points, which makes it worth looking at. For example, the many


organizers of US world's fair got their talent from the military. The role of the Smithsonian Institution in organizing the fairs cannot be underestimated.

Rydell, Robert (1989), "The Culture of Imperial Abundance: World's Fairs in the Making of American Culture," in Simon Bronner ed Consuming Visions, Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920, NY: WW. Norton, pp. 191-216.

Saeki, Yoshihiko (1982), “Large-scale department stores seek must adjust roles to community interests,” Business Japan, May, pp. 75-81.

Saint, Andrew (1982), “Shopkeepers for a Nation,” History Today, Vol. 33 (March), pp. 48-50. A summary of Au Bon Marché in Paris. The author emphasizes the Miller (1982) book on the history of this department store. The author makes too many historical error by saying that au Bon Marché was the largest, most stylish, up till 1900, forgetting AT Stewart, Marshall Field, Wanamaker and many more department stores in the US prior to 1900. Nevertheless, it is an informative but a short article.

Saint-Léon, Etienne Martin, (1911), Le petit commerce français sa lutte pour la vie, Paris: Victor Lecoffre. See chapter 5.

Saint-Martin, André (1900), Les grands magasins, Paris: Librarie Nouvelle de Droit et de Jurisprudence. This is the author’s 1900 “thèse de droit” (law thesis) from the Université of Paris. This 254 page thesis, the author discusses le Printemps department store. The thesis is listed in the Ministère de L'éducation Catalogue de thèses (1964), Vol. 4, Kraus Reprint Ltd., 17th fascicule année scolaire 1900-1900, No 236. The topic has also been discussed by Garrigues (1898) and Duclos (1902).

Saisselin, Rémy G. (1984), Bricabracomania The Bourgeois and the Bibelot, London: Thames and Hudson and Rutgers, the State University. Chapter 3 “Enter Woman: The Department store as Cultural Space,” pp. 31-49. The chapter examines the relationship between art and the department store. On pages 33-34, the author makes some incredible statements but with no research support or references. For e.g. he says that the Bon Marché was the first department store, the first to have fixed prices, the first to accept returned goods, free entry, small markups, high volume of sales, and served as a model for others to follow. He also states that the first elevator was in 1865 at Strawbridge and Clothier of Philadelphia. Macy’s and Wanamaker were using electric lighting by 1878 and the electric elevator (lift) by the 1880s. Jordan Marsh introduced the telephone in 1876. Marshall Field was using the pneumatic tube system in 1893. The cash register was used in the 1880s. “These stores also necessitated a new architecture: new construction materials such as iron and steel, reinforced concrete, and the vast use of glass all made for grander and higher buildings. “Capitalism had found its palace” (p. 34).

Sakaida, Jun and Hirofumi Tanaka (1993), “A rebirth scenario for Seibu Department Store (Seibu Hyakkaten saisei no shinario), Nikkei Business, 17 May, pp. 38-42.

“Saks Expansion Set: Cost $200 Million” (1979), New York Times, February 23, p. D1.

Sales Management (1922), “Selling through department stores and specialty shops. A case study by JWT ad campaign which stated that twelve years ago a manufacturer sold only 5% of his product under his own brand name the balance was under dealers own private brands. Today it’s 90% and all jobbing has been eliminated.


Salmon, Lucy (1909), “The Economics of Spending,” The Outlook, Vol. 9 (April 17), pp. 884-890. This article published in a London, England magazine, discusses the myriad ways to attract customers and increase sales, as reported by Abelson (1989, p. 232, note 37). She also questions the male dominated world of retailing.

Salmon, Walter (1974), “Can Discount Department Stores Continue to Prosper?,” Mass Retailing Institute.

Salzman, L. F. (1931), English Trade in the Middle Ages, London: Oxford.

Salzman, L. F. (1952), Buildings in England down to 1540: A Documentary History, London: Oxford.

Sams, Earl C. (1931), “The Relationship of the Chain Store to the Independent Store,” in Daniel Bloomfield ed. (1931), Trends in Retail Distribution Including a Brief on Chain Stores, The Handbook Series Volume 3, NY: The H. W. Wilson, pp. 277-287. As President of the JC Penney Company, the author discusses the J. C. Penney department store in relation to independent stores. This address was given before the Boston Conference on Retail Distribution, University Club, on September 5, 1929.

Samson, Peter (1981), "The Department Store, Its Past and Its Future: A Review Article," Business History Review, Vol. 55 (Spring), pp. 26-34. Also reprinted in Stanley Hollander and K. Rassuli eds. (1993), Marketing Vol. 2, Aldershot, UK: Elgar, pp. 317-325.

Sanders, Lise Shapiro (2006), Consuming fantasies: labor, leisure, and the London shopgirl, 1880-1920, Columbus: Ohio State University Press. The book “examines the cultural significance of the shopgirl - both historical figure and fictional heroine-from the end of Queen Victoria's reign through the First World War. As the author reveals, the shopgirl embodied the fantasies associated with a growing consumer culture: romantic adventure, upward mobility, and the acquisition of material goods.”

Sands, I. L. (1957), “Personnel Practices in Department Stores,” New York Retailer, Vol. 10 (June), pp. 18-21. The article reports on retail practices such as organization of personnel, sources of employees, use of testing, training programs, and employee benefits.

Sangster, Margaret E. (1918), “John Wanamaker at Eighty: A Personal Interview,” The Christian Herald, June 26.

Santink, Joy L. (1988), “Timothy Eaton and the Rise of the Department Store,’’ doctoral dissertation, Toronto: University of Toronto.

Santink, Joy L. (1990), Timothy Eaton and the Rise of His Department Store, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Reviewed by Carl Ryant (1991), Business History Review, Vol. 65 (Winter), page 1001. “The introduction of the Eaton catalogue in 1884 gave Canadians, particularly those in pioneer farming communities, access to a variety of merchandise. At his death in 1907 at age 72, Eaton employed over 9000 people in his Toronto and Winnipeg stores, in factories in Toronto and Oshawa, and in offices in London, England, and Paris” (

Sargeant, Helene (1949), “How’s Everything in Filene’s Basement?,” Stores, Vol. 31 (September), pp. 14-16, 46, 48, 50.


Sargentson, Carolyn (1996), Merchants and Luxury Markets: The Marchands Merciers of Eighteen-Century Paris, London: The Victoria and Albert Museum, with the J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California. Reviewed by Sarah Kane (1996), Journal of Design History, Vol. 9 (4), pp. 297-301.

Sauer, Chris and Suzan Burton (1999), “Is There a Place for Department Stores on The Internet? Lessons from an Abandoned Pilot,” Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 14, pp. 387-398.

Saunders, Dero (1951), “Department Stores: Race for the Suburbs,” Fortune, Vo. 44 (December), pp. 98-102, 164, 166, 168, 170, 172, 173. Reprinted in John Westing ed. (1953) Readings in Marketing, NY: Prentice-Hall, pp. 88-94. A solid article on the need for department stores to establish branches in order to cater to their suburbanite consumers, a need that took two decades for some large stores to do (i.e. Eaton’s, Lazarus, and others). See also Fortune (1953).

Sauriol, Marguerite (2003),“La grève 1952,” Cap-aux-Diamants, No. 72 (Winter), page 95. A general strike at the Dupuis Frères department store.

Sauriol, Marguerite (2003), “Paquet : evolution d’une compagnie,” Cap-aux-Diamants, No. 73 (Spring), page 55.

Savitt, Ronald (1989), “Looking Back to See Ahead: Writing the History of American Retailing,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 65 (Fall), pp. 326-355. A must read article for anyone interested to know more about the history of U.S. retailing and the pitfalls in doing such research.

Savitt, Ronald (1992), “Time Paths in the Diffusion of the Retail Innovation: E. A. Filene’s Model Stock Plan,” Essays In Economic and Business History, Vol. 10, pp. 210-219.

Savitt, Ronald (1999), "Innovation in American Retailing, 1919-39: Improving Inventory Management," The International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research Vol. 9 (July No. 3), pp. 307-320. The article discusses the model stock plan proposed by E. A Filene in 1930, the son of the founder of the Boston department store.

Sawits, Murray (1967), “Model for Branch Store Planning,” Harvard Business Review,” Vol. 45 (July-August), pp. 140-143. How much does a new branch store’s volume represents new business to the company?

Sayous, André (1913), "Le mouvement de concentration dans le commerce de détail," in Arthur Fontaine ed. La concentration des entreprises industrielles et commerciales, Paris: Félix Alcan.

Schacter, H. W. (1930), Profitable Department Store Management, NY: Harper and Bros.

Schaefer, P. W. (1954), “Strengthening Selling Supervision and Service Through the Two Pyramid Approach,” an address before the Store Management Session of the 43rd annual convention of the Dry Goods Retail Association, New York, January. Reprinted in John Wingate and Arnold Corbin eds. (1956), Changing Patterns in Retailing Readings on Current Trends, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 293-302.

Schamb, Herbert (1953), “Separating Buying and Selling,” an address before the 42nd Annual Convention of the National Retail Dry Goods Association, New York, January. Reprinted in John Wingate and Arnold Corbin eds. (1956), Changing Patterns in Retailing Readings on Current Trends, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 204-208.


Schlèber, Louis E. (1916), The Modern Store, Boston: The Lamson Company. The 37-page book is an overview of how to construct a modern department store, circa 1916. It is full of architectural drawings and engineering details. The book is large (13’’ x 10’), has limited availability, from Harvard University, School of Architecture, and the book is called an article in the text.

Schlereth, Thomas (1980), “Mail-Order Catalogues as Resources in Material Culture Studies," in Artifacts and the American Past, Nashville, TN: American Association for the State and Local History. Chapter 2, pp. 48-65, and Notes on Chapter 2, pp. 250-257.

Schlereth, Thomas (1989), “Country Stores, County Fairs, and Mail-Order Catalogues Consumption in Rural America,” in Simon Bronner ed. Consuming Visions Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920, NY: WW. Norton, pp. 339-375.

Schlereth, Thomas (1990), “Mail-Order Catalogues as Resources in Material Culture Studies," in Cultural History and Material Culture Everyday Life, Landscapes, Museums, Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press. Chapter 2, pp. 36-84. This chapter was originally published in Prospects: An Annual Journal of American Cultural Studies, Vol. 7 (1980), pp. 141-161.

Schlereth, Thomas (1991), Victorian America Transformations in Everyday Life, 1876-1915, NY: HarperCollins Publishers. An excellent book on changing lifestyles caused by the technological innovations, urbanization, and the department store, among other changes that transformed America in the late 19th c. Chapter 4 is a must read. However, he makes a number of small errors. For e.g. he calls Rich's of Columbus, while it should be Lazarus, Rich's is located in Atlanta, Georgia.

Schlesinger, Benjamin (1906), “How to Bring Visitors into the Store,” System, Vol. 9 (March), page 292.

Schmalz, Carl (1933-35). Operating Results of Department and Specialty Stores in 1932, 1933 and 1934, Bureau of Business Research, Graduate School of Business Administration, Boston: Harvard University, Bulletin No. 91 (63p.), 92 (48p.), and 96 (48p.).

Schmidt, Leigh Eric (1992), “Christianity in the Marketplace: Christmas and the Consumer Culture Joy to (Some of) the World,” Cross Currents, Vol. 42 (Fall No. 3), pp. 342ff, downloaded from the internet on Nov. 26, 2007 (13 pages).

Schmiechen, James and Kenneth Carls (1999), The British Market Hall: a Social and Architectural History, New Haven: Yale University Press. Reviewed by Albert Schmidt (2001), Journal of Social History, Vol. 34 (3), pp. 743-745. This reviewer says that the Georgian or Victorian market hall was the antecedent of the department store, which is pure nonsense. He did not read the book carefully. The book is more about produce and meat selling in urban setting, a long British tradition such as the Soulard Farmers Market in existence for over 150 years, which provides a wide assortment of foodstuffs to thousands of shoppers each week. To say that market halls led to the dept store, as this reviewer claims, is ludicrous for many reasons. Such farmers’ markets still operate in many urban settings in developed countries, and they certainly do not compete with department stores for customers and both do not offer the same assortment of goods or services. This fun to read book has lots of information and wonderful insights on marketing and retailing, especially related to space. How location affects shopping habits and social values. The market hall place, as an arrangement of public space, brought stability, security, employment,


improved nutrition, reduced diseases, promoted civility, reduced crime, and even reduced social tensions among different classes, where people do their shopping. I especially liked the role architecture plays in shaping not only a city but how a building-type can change behavior. It can also become an influential social and economic force for the whole community (see pp. 51ff). Over 700 public market buildings were built from 1750 in the UK. The book excludes London (perhaps because it had more advanced retail institutions?).

Schmucki, Pat and Phil Miller (1989), “Lazarus A look Toward the Future Through the Eyes of Its New CEO,” Columbus Alive, March 2–March 16, pp. 9-12, 16.

Schoenbaum, David (1966), Hitler’s Social Revolution: Class and Status in Nazi Germany 1933-1939, Garden City, NJ: Doubleday. According to Artley (1970), the book contains some information on the Nazi cultural hostility to department stores, which culminated in the burning of 29 Jewish-owned stores in 1938. The book also has useful social background to the exile of such eminent German architects as Erich Mendelsohn” (page 128).

Schoff, James Stanley (1962), “Department Store’s Position in Today’s Distribution,” in The Retail Revolution, Why did it happen? What’s it all about? Where is it heading? a series of lectures for the New York Society of Security Analysts, NY: Fairchild Publications, pp. 36-40. The author was then President of Bloomingdale’s. The book has many other authors that discuss the department store with retailing. All the authors are from practitioners. Sol cantor, then president of Interstate Department Stores “Discounting- Fact or Fiction,” pp. 29-35. Morris Natelson’s “What’s Behind the Retail Revolution” is interesting but he makes the error that the department store began 50 years ago, i.e. in the 1910s. (pp. 1-8).

Schofield, Mary-Peale (1966), “The Cleveland Arcade,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 25 (December), pp. 281-291.

Schreiber, G.R. (1961), A Concise History of Vending in the U.S.A, Chicago: Vend Magazine.

Schreiner, John (1986), “Woodward: A merchant who just wouldn’t quit,” Financial Post, May 17, p. 43.

Schroeder, Joseph Jr. ed. (1970), 1896 Illustrated Catalogue of Jewelry and European Fashions, Marshall Field and Co. Northfield, IL: Gun Digest Publishing.

Schuyler, Montgomery (1904), “A ‘Modern Classic,’” Architectural Record, Vol. 15 (May No. 5), pp. 431-444. The first page briefly discusses A.T. Stewart’s and “of the millionaire’s infatuation for an architect who was little better than an architect and whose works have mostly, to the relief of the judicious, followed him, the only conspicuous monuments of his art left being the 'up-town store.’” The name of the architect is not mentioned.

Schuyler, Montgomery (1909), “The Evolution of the Skyscraper,” Scribner’ Magazine, Vol. 46 (September No. 2), pp. 257-271.

Schartzman, David (1969), “The Growth of Sales Per Man-hour in Retail Trade, 1929-1963,” in Victor R. Fuchs ed. Production and Productivity in the Service Industries, Vol. 34, Studies in Income and Wealth, NBER. NY: Columbia University Press, pp. 201-236.

Schwartzman, Daniel (1965), “Check List for Department Store Programming,” Architectural Record, Vol. 137 (May), pp. 188-190.


Scola, Roger (1982), “Retailing in the Nineteenth-Century Town: Some Problems and Possibilities,” in James H. Johnson and Colin G. Pooley eds. The Structure of Nineteenth Century Cities, London: Croom Helm, NY: St. Martin’s Press, pp. 153-169.

Scott, Peter and James Walker (2007), “Advertising, promotion, and the competitive advantage of interwar UK department stores,” Center for International Business History, University of Reading Business School,

Scott, H. Walter (1904), “One American Principle: Some Comparisons of the Manner in Which American and European Merchants Treat Their Customers,” Merchants Record and Show Window, Vol. 15 (October), pp. 17-18.

Scott, W. Basil (1928), “Historical Steelwork: A Short History,” The Architects Journal, 11 July, pp. 55-57.

Scott, W. Basil (1929), “Some Historical Notes on the Application of Iron and Steel to Building Construction,” Structural Engineer, Vol. 7 No 1 (January), pp. 4-12. No. 3 (March), pp. 99-102.

Scott, W. Basil (1930), “Iron and Steel,” in W. R. Gilbert ed. Modern Steelwork, London pp. 238-250.

Scoville, Joseph Alfred (1869), The Old Merchants of New York City, NY: Carleton Publisher. Five volumes published from 1863 to 1869 under the author’s pseudonym Walter Barrett, 1870. The five books were reprinted in 1968 by Greenwood Press and the edition that was reprinted was the 1885 one. Volumes 2 and 5 mention AT Stewart. Other volumes do but they are not pertinent. See pp 74 and 208 in volume 5, and page 197 in volume 2. Check pp. 338-39.

Sctrick, Robert (1990), “Préface,” in Emile Zola (1883), Au bonheur des dames. Paris: Presses Pocket, pp. I-XI. The preface is about the novel and the way Zola perceived the department store and women in general. The inside cover page mentions Sctrick in the preface but also comments written by Claude Aziza. However, Aziza’s name does not appear anywhere else in the book except on this inside title page. I assumed that he is the one that wrote the long “Dossier historique and littéraire,” pp. 447-488. This part is very relevant to the department store for a number of reasons. Aziza gives us a chronology of Zola’s works as well as important events and people that left a mark on his life. For example, Zola was novelist and he abandoned journalism in 1880. He was very much involved in the “affaire Dreyfus” and he may have been murdered in 1902 as a result of his involvement in this (in)famous French trial. There are comments from some of the books written on the department store but he also gives useful information about the history of the department store in general (notably from page 463 and beyond).

Scull, E.H. (1923), “New Trend in Store Management,” System, Vol. 40 (September) pp. 382-383. The installation of tubes in a department store.

Scull, Herbert (1958), “The Independent Department Store,” Stores Vol. 40 (February), pp. 21-25.

Scull, Penrose (1967), From Peddlers to Merchant Princes: A History of Selling in America, Chicago: Follett Publishing. The author discusses the history of personal selling in the USA. He has a chapter on the department store. Many illustrations are very neat, one of which is an elevator with a steam engine (p. 189) He also discusses the lives of numerous salesmen who


eventually founded some of the largest manufacturing corporations in the USA (McCormick, Procter, Heinz, Deere, Ford, etc.). It's the first book on the history of selling per se, so says the author. But far too many pages read like a biography of some of the entrepreneurs who first started out in sales and then became industrialists. There is a unique illustration of Stewart’s Marble Palace on page 70. The illustration is also in Elias (1992, p. 115), but it is different with trees and a full view of Broadway, along with other buildings. Scull shows the Marble Palace from the front while Elias shows the store on an angle.

Sears, Roebuck and Co. (1897), Catalogue No. 104, Chicago, unpaginated. Reprinted by Chelsea House, New York, 1976.

Sears, Roebuck and Co. (1900), Catalogue No. 110. Chicago. Reprinted by DBI Books, Northfield, IL, 1970.

Sears, Roebuck and Co. (1902), Catalogue No. 111. Chicago.

Sears, Roebuck & Co. (1980), The Sears International Story, Chicago: Sears, Roebuck and Co.

“Sears Entering Super Service” (1931), Petroleum Age, Vol. 25 (September No. 9), pp. 36-37.

“Sears to increase holding to 60.5% in Simpson Sears” (1991), Wall Street Journal, June 19, page 4.

“Sears Canada Inc. Completes Purchase of Toronto Stores,” (1991), Wall Street Journal, July 29, p. C17. “A 1952 joint venture with the former Simpsons Ltd. department store chain forbade it from opening a store within 25 miles of a Simpsons outlet. That condition lapsed along with the joint venture in 1978, but by then other retailers had snapped up many of the choice locations during Toronto's hottest era of shopping-mall development.”

“Sears to pay US$1.9B for Land’s End” (2002), The National Post, May 14, page FP4. “Sears, Roebuck Baltimore Store Feature World’s Largest Window” (1938), Chain Store Age, Vol. 14 (December No. 12), pp. 24-25. The article presents the new Sears store with its massive display window 40 feet in height, 40 feet in width and 25 feet in depth used to dramatize the merchandise. The store was fully AC even then. The size of this display window makes AT Stewart‘s mirrors look rather small (5 ft x 13 ft or 56 inches x 158 inches) and innocuous back in the late 1840s and early 1850s.

Seccombe, Thomas (nd), “William Whiteley,” Dictionary of National Biography, Supplement, 3, pp. 652-653. A short biography of Whiteley known as the “universal provider” because of his unique merchandising skills of the 1860s. He had 15 shops with 2k employees in 1876, selling meats, eggs, cheese, hardware, house and building decorations, and carpets. He also offered real estate services, cleaning and dying, among others goods and services sold. There is a neat and concise discussion of William Whiteley in Gunther Barth (1980), City People, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 118-121.

Sédillot, René (1964), Histoire des marchands et des marchés, Paris: Librarie Arthème Fayard. The author discusses department stores from pp. 378-396. Surprising, he has a short bibliography on Aristide Boucicaut (pp. 391-396) who he refers to as 'Aristide le Juste'. Boucicaut is often referred to by European authors as the man who invented the department store. Of course, a number of contemporary authors have questioned this fact. Finally, the author has a short


discussion on the type of retailing institutions that emerged in the 20th c. namely supermarkets, chains stores, and the like.

Seelye, Winthrop (1931), “An ‘All American’ Basement Store,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 7 (April), pp. 6-7.

Seidl, Joan (1983), “Consumers’ Choices: A Study of Households Furnishings, 1880-1920,” Minnesota History, December, pp. 183-197.

Seillière, Ernest (1939), "Georges d'Avenel Historien et Moraliste," Revue des deux mondes, Tome 53 (September 15), pp. 443-455.

“Selfridge’s Report” (1910), Dry Goods Economist, June 4, p. 1245. This reference is from Rappaport (2000).

Selfridge, Harry Gordon (1913), Selfridge’s of London: A Five Year Retrospect, London: Selfridge’s and Co. (callisthenes).

Selfridge, Harry Gordon (1918), The Romance of Commerce, NY: John Lane Co. There is also a second edition published in 1923 by London: J. Lane. See p. 366, 377, Selfridge has an organizational chart for the 20th c. department store. Harry Selfridge worked for Marshall Field in Chicago and was Field’s most aggressive and innovative manager, with his artistic shows that enthralled the city. Selfridge was the brilliant store manager who then went to London to open his own department store in 1908. He discusses the role of fairs and the history of trade on pp. 121-138. See his biography by Williams (1956), Pound (1960), and Honeycomb (1984).

Selfridge, Harry Gordon (1935), “Selling Selfridge, Some Random Reflections of an American Merchant in London” Saturday Evening Post, Vol. 208 (July 27) pp. 18-19, 51, 53. The Post ran 4 pieces on Selfridge from July 27 to September 7. The second was published on August 10, pp. 66-70. The third was on August 24, and the fourth was on September 7.

“Selfridge Sells Out” (1904), Dry Goods Economist, Vol. 32 (August 13) pp. 212-213.

Sennett, Richard (1978), The Fall of Public Man, NY, pp. 140-149.

Servé, Mireille (1988), “Grands magasins et publicité à la fin du XIXe et au début du XXe siècle,” Cahiers de Clio, Vol. 95, pp. 15-33. The article presents a narrative interpretation of various ads used by department stores. The various ads were taken from archival materials found in the Bon Marché collection located in Brussels. The article has a number of interesting ads. The sales figures of the Bon Marché from 1878 to 1890 are also listed as well as a number of illustrations.

Seth, Andrew and Geoffrey Randall (1999), The Grocers: The Rise and Rise of the Supermarket Chains, London/Dover, London/NH: Kogan Page. A brief history of the European supermarket with an emphasis on the corporate history of Tesco, Sainsbury, Asda, Safeway, and Marks and Spencer with a bit on US retailing. The authors relied on personal interviews to get their information. As a result, the list of references is minimal at best. Aldi is barely mentioned in this text yet Aldi has been quite successful in the US unlike Marks and Spencer or more recently Tesco’s initial entry in the California market.

Settle, Alison (1952), A Family of Shops, London: Marshall and Snelgrove.


Sevin, CH (1947), “Some Aspects of Distribution Cost Analysis,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 12 (July), pp. 92-98.

Shafer, Joseph (1928), “The Ford Stores- A New Departure in Retailing,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 6 (April No. 3), pp. 313-321. In 1926, sales were $12 million of which 51% were for groceries and drugs, 31% meat, and the rest in dry goods including shoes. He discusses the operations of the stores, the turnover rate, no sales promotion or advertising, etc. Ford took off 2% from invoices paid the next month, yet the stock was sold before payment was due.

Sharpe, Pamela (1995), “‘Cheapness and Economy’: Manufacturing and Retailing Ready-Made Clothing in London and Essex 1830-50,” Textile History, Vol. 26 (Autumn No. 2), pp. 203-213.

Shapiro, Ann-Louise (1989), “Disordered Bodies/Disorderly Acts: Medical Discourse and the Female Criminal in Nineteenth-Century Paris,” Genders, Vol. 4 (Spring), pp. 68-86.

Shapiro, Emory (1953), “The Selling Problems of Department Store Salespeople,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 17 (January), pp. 284-288. A rather unusual article presented in point form.

Sharf, Frederic (1993), “Bunkio Matsuki: Salem’s Most Prominent Japanese Citizen,” Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol. 129 (No. 2), pp. 135-161.

Shaw, Gareth (1982), “The Role of Retailing in the Urban Economy,” in James H. Johnson and Colin G. Pooley eds. The Structure of Nineteenth Century Cities, London: Croom Helm, NY: St. Martin’s Press, pp. 171-194.

Shaw, Gareth (1992), “Large-Scale Retailing in Germany and the Development of New Retail Organizations,” in John Benson and Gareth Shaw eds. The Evolution of Retail Systems, c.1800-1914, London: Leicester University Press, pp. 166-165. The article discusses the evolution of the department store in Germany. Many references listed are in German.

Shaw, Gareth (1992), “The Evolution and Impact of Large-Scale Retailing in Britain,” in John Benson and Gareth Shaw eds. The Evolution of Retail Systems, c.1800-1914, London: Leicester University Press, pp. 135-185. The article discusses the department store industry in Britain and the geography of retailing.

Shaw, Gareth and Tim Coles (1996), “Conference Report: The Department Store in European Society, 1850-1939,” Urban History Vol. 23 (May), pp. 90-92. A brief summary of a Conference on the department store held at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, September 21-23, 1995. Some of the 16 papers presented at the conference led to the publication of the book by Geoffrey Crossick and Serge Jaumain eds. (1999) Cathedrals of Consumption The European Department Store, 1850-1939, Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing.

Shaw, Gareth and John Benson eds. (1999), The Retailing Industry, 3 volumes, London. I. B. Tauris. Volume 1 Perspectives and the early modern period; volume 2 The coming of the mass market 1800-1945; volume 3 post 1945.

Shaw, Hollie (2010), “History Inspired,” National Post, November 20, p. A10. A column in this national newspaper on how HBC new president Bonnie Brook is trying to revise the Bay’s image. She says “We like to think of ourselves as the Macy’s, the Bloomingdales and the Nordstrom of Canada.” She’s forgetting that Canada’s upscale market is very limited compared to the in U.S.


Shaw, S. (1958), “The Shopping Center Revolution and Its Impact,” Business Economic Review, April.

Shearer, Charles (1904), Bloomingdale’s Diary, NY: Bloomingdale Brothers. Reference from Fullerton (1990), page 79.

Sheikh, Fawzia (1998), “The Great Never-Ending Department Store Sale,” Marketing Magazine, (June 8), pp. 15-16.

Sheldon, Lurana (1900), For Gold or Soul? The Story of a Great Department Store, NY: Street

and Smith. Reprinted by Kessinger Publishing, June 2004.

Shell, Ellen Ruppel (2009), Cheap: The High Cost of Discount Culture, NY: Penguin Press.

Sheppard, Jerry Paul and Shamsud Chowdhury (2005), “Riding the Wrong Wave Organizational Failures as a Failed Turnaround,” Long Range Planning, Vol.38 pp. 239-260. It discusses Eaton’s, Simpson–Sears merger, etc.

Shergill, gurvinder Singh and Yiyin Chen (2007), “Customer Perceptions of Factory Outlet Stores versus Traditional Department Stores,” Massey University, Department of Commerce, working paper series. December.

Shortt, Garland (1938), “Planning and Management in a Modern Wrapping Department,” Bulletin of the National Retail Dry Goods Association,Vol. 20 (July), pp. 44-46

Sibley, Celestine (1967), Dear Store, An Affectionate Portrait of Rich’s, Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Sicilia, David (1976), “A. T. Stewart and the Origins of the Department Store,” unpublished undergraduate senior honors thesis in the social sciences, New College of Hofstra University, NY, May.

Siegel, Arthur ed. (1965), Chicago's Famous Buildings, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The book is mostly illustrations of Chicago's unique buildings. However, the 22-page introduction is worth reading because it discusses Louis Sullivan and the role of the architect. Some of the comments about how stores should be built are seminal. They succinctly summarize the market orientation that a department store is democratic and needs to enhance shoppers' experience by its design. The introduction also shows that money and art can synergistically go together.

Siklos, Richard (1994), "Macy's Holiday Revival," The Financial Post, December 24, pp. 46-47. The article says that Macy's ended its bankruptcy proceedings as of that week. It was engineered by Vancouver-born Ron Tysoe, one of the world's leading authorities on the intricacies of large retail bankruptcies. Tysoe was acting as vice-chairman and chief financial officer of Federated Department Store. Tysoe was part of the Robert Campeau empire in Toronto. Also, former US Secretary of State, Cyrus Vance, was appointed to mediate the Macy bankruptcy proceedings. Silk, Alvin and Louis Stern (1963), "The Changing Nature of Innovations in Marketing: A Study of Selected Business Leaders, 1852-1958," Business History Review, Vol. 37 (Fall), pp. 182-199. The article discusses innovators but mostly from a producer’s perspective, i.e. Henry Ford, Harley Procter of Procter &Gamble, James Duke, tobacco, C. W. Post and W. K. Kellogg, cereal, George Romney of American Motors. Others are discussed such as Edward Clark and his branch sales


offices for Singer, Gerard Swope of GE, and Richard Deupree of P&G. But nothing on the distributive trades per se (part of the service sector). Only Clark seems to be related to distribution. Yet without distribution, innovative producers would not have been able to reach the market. Tysoe was regarded by some as the surrogate son of Robert Campeau. Tysoe resigned as president of Campeau Corp in 1991, after he had helped with the Chapter 11 restructuring of Federated, and was then named CFO of Federated.

Silberman, Charles (1955), “Retailing: It’s a New Ball Game,” Fortune, Vol. 53 (August). Reprinted in Harper Boyd, Richard Clewett and Ralph Westfall eds. (1957), Contemporary American Marketing Readings on the Changing Market Structure, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, pp. 257-268.

Silberman, Charles (1962), “The Revolutionists of Retailing,” Fortune, Vol. 66 (April No. 4), pp. 99-102, 254-265. Reprinted in H.C. Barksdale ed. (1964), Marketing: Change and Exchange Readings from Fortune, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, pp. 189-205.

Silberman, Charles (1962), “The Discounters Choose Their Weapons: The Distribution Upheaval II,” Vol. 66 (May No. 5), pp. 118-120, 186-188. Reprinted in H. C. Barksdale ed. (1964), Marketing: Change and Exchange Readings from Fortune, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, pp. 206-217. He says that in 1961 there were 1,500 to 2,400 discount department stores.

Silberman, Charles (1962), “The Department Stores Are Waking Up: The Distribution Upheaval III," Fortune, Vol. 66 (July No. 1), pp. 143-147, 246-253. Reprinted in Rom Markin Jr. ed. (1971), Retailing Concepts, Institutions, and Management, NY: The Macmillan Company, pp. 120-128. Also reprinted in H.C. Barksdale ed. (1964), Marketing: Change and Exchange Readings from Fortune, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, pp. 218-232.

Silcoff, Sean (1997), “Emporiums Strike Back,” Canadian Business,” Vol. 70 (September No. 12), pp. 52-58.

Silcoff, Sean (1998), "Unsafe at any speed," Canadian Business, Vol. 71 (May 29), pp. 19-20.

Silcoff, Sean (1998), "Move over, Timothy Eaton," Canadian Business, Vol. 71 (June 26-July 10, No. 11), pp. 58-64.

Silcoff, Sean (1999),"Life after Eaton's," Canadian Business, Vol. 72. (Sept. 10), pp. 30-32, 41, 42.

Sipherd, Ray (1993), The Christmas Store, NY: St Martin’s Press. Fiction.

Sliveira, Piedde da (1995), Les grands magasins du Louvre, Paris : Caisse de retraite des enterprises à commerce multiples. Accueil information 2, rue de L’oratoire 75001, Paris (CCM).

Silverman, Debora (1986), Selling Culture: Bloomingdale’s, Diana Vreeland and the New Aristocracy of Taste in Reagan’s America, NY: Pantheon Books.

Simon, Jules (1860), “Le salaire et le travail des femmes,” Revue des Deux Mondes, 15 février. Simon was a social critic and he wrote many articles in this periodical on the plight of women in the clothing trade and elsewhere. His 1891 book (L’Ouvrière) discusses the topic.


Simonet, Fernand (1934), Le petit commerce de détail: sa lutte avec le grand commerce de détail, Louvain/Paris: École des sciences commerciales et économiques/Librarie d’économie commerciale.

Simonson, Lee (1933), “Redesigning Department Stores,” The Architectural Forum, Vol. 58 (May No. 5), pp. 374-378.

Simounet, A. (1977), Au Bonheur des Dames d’Émile Zola, Pédagogie Moderne, Lectoguide. A book discussing Zola’s 1883 book.

Simpsom, John David (2001), “Did May Company’s Acquisition of Associated Dry Goods Corporation Reduce Competition? An Event Study Analysis,” Review of Industrial Organization, Vol. 18 (June No. 4), pp. 351-362.

Siry, Joseph (1984), “The Carson Pirie Scott Building in Chicago,” doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Siry, Joseph (1988), Carson Pirie Scott: Louis Sullivan and the Chicago Department Store, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. A book on the Schlesinger and Mayer department store now known as the Carson Pirie Scott and Co. The store has been long known as an important work in the history of architecture. The book introduces the Chicago School of architecture, in contrast to the New York one. More importantly, the book is also about Louis Sullivan, its main architect. The store had many innovations as presented by the author. The book is based in part on Siry’s Ph.D. (1984) dissertation. The book was reviewed by Martin Birkhans (1990), Newsletter of Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain, Vol. 43 (Winter), pp. 14-15. Also reviewed by Mark Foster (1990) Winterthur Portfolio, Vol. 25 (Winter No. 4), pp. 303-305, and by Julian Stallabrass (1991), The Burlington Magazine, Vol. 133 (May), pp. 330-331. Also by Robert Twombly (1989), Journal of American History, Vol. 76 (December No. 3), p. 955. Also reviewed by Lauren Weingarden (1990), Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 49 (June No. 2), pp. 222-226. The Carson was Chicago’s first department store in 1875.

Siry, Joseph (1990), “Louis Sullivan’s Building for John D. Van Vallen and Son,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 49 (March No. 1), pp. 67-89; with 24 illustrations.

Sloan, Carole (2001), “JCPenney Eyes Long-Term Results,” Home Textiles Today, February 26, pp. 2, 23.

Sloane, Leonard 91965), “G. Fox: A Bit of Hartford History,” The New York Times, December 23, pp. 27, 33.

Slocum, Kenneth (1963), “Shopping at Home,” Wall Street Journal, December 20. The article says that JC Penney first ever catalogue was Fall 1963 with a 1,254-page book. Sears 1963 catalogs had 135,000 items compared with 80,000 for their largest stores.

Smalley, O. A. and Fred D. Sturdivant (1973), The Credit Merchants: A History of Spiegel, Inc., Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Smith, Albert ed. (1958), Competitive Distribution in a Free High–Level Economy and Its Implications for the University, University of Pittsburgh Press. Malcolm McNair in his article discusses retailing, including department stores.


Smith, Bonnie G. (1981), Ladies of the Leisure Class: The Bourgeoises of Northern France in the Nineteenth Century, Princeton University Press.

Smith, Colin (1999), “The Market Place and the Market’s Place in London, circa 1660-1840,” PhD thesis, University College London.

Smith, Colin (2002), “The Wholesale and Retail Markets of London, 1660-1840,” Economic History Review, Vol. 55 (February No. 1), pp. 31-50.

Smith, Henry (1937), Retail Distribution A Critical Analysis, London: Oxford University Press. From pp. 48 to 80, the department store is discussed as well as his attempt to define it from a British perspective.

Smith, Judith (1989), “Gender and Class in Working Class History,” Radical History Review, Vol. 44 (Spring), pp. 152-158.

Smith, Larry (1952), “Department Store Trends in the Development of Shopping Centers,” Urban Land, Monthly Bulletin of the Urban Land Institute, March.

Smith, Lyndon (1904), “The Schlesinger and Mayer Building: An Attempt to Give Functional Expression to the Architecture of a Department Store,” Architectural Record, Vol. 16 (July), pp. 53-60.

Smith, Mary Ann (1974), "John Snook and the Design for A. T. Stewart's Store," New York Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. 58 (January), pp. 18-33.

Smith, Matthew Hale (1869), Sunshine and Shadow in New York, Hartford: J. B. Burr and Co. The author discusses New York “with its lights and shades, in a series of graphic papers: to sketch New York as I have seen it” (p. 3). Chapter 4 (pp. 52-62) is on A. T. Stewart. He paints a picture of Stewart as a very busy man, who was once penniless and became very rich. He sees Stewart’s whole life as a success, dedicated to his work, honest, shrewd, in spite of being “the autocrat of New York merchants.

Smith, Paul (1956), Shopping Centers: Planning and Management, NY: National Retail Dry Goods Association. History of the shopping center.

Smith, Paul (1956), “Trends in Branch-Store Organization,” Journal of Retailing, Vol. 32 (Fall), pp. 123-128, 155. The article is based on the author’s PhD thesis (NYU) and was sponsored by the National Retail Dry Goods Association.

Smith, Paul and Eugene Kelley (1960), “Competing Retail Systems: the Shopping Center and the Central Business District, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 36 (Spring), pp. 11-18.

Smith, Raymond and William Darrow (1999), "Strategic Management and Entrepreneurial Opportunity: The Rise of Sears Inc.," Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 11 (March), pp. 1-16.

Smith, Samuel Van Dyke (1961), The Executive Function of Organization Applied to Branch Department Stores, St. Louis: Graduate School of Business Administration, Washington University. Reference from Bucklin (1964). Is the reference a book or a thesis?


Snyder, Richard (1948) National Trends in Department Store Sales of 42 Merchandise Lines, 1935-1948, Chicago. Snyder Business Research Reports. Reference cited by Alt (1949, p. 442) as a private report. Available at the Cleveland Public Library.

Snyder, Gerald (1967), « Le commerce de détail » in Canada un siècle 1867-1967, Catalogue no. CS11-203/1967F Ottawa: Queen’s Printer, pp. 229-242. A short history of retailing in Canada in which Eaton’s contribution to the sector’s evolution is evident. He says that Eaton was the first to have a mail order counter in 1916. Snyder says that Eaton’s business model was unlike other retailers but he fails to mention that many of Eaton’s innovations were created elsewhere and not by him. He says Toronto established the Seymour H. Knox in 1897, a chain of bazaars in Toronto. Around 1900, E.P. Charleton and Company existed in Vancouver and Montreal also a chain of bazaars. Then in 1912, these two firms joined to form a chain store that merged with Woolworth. In 1920, T.P. Loblaw had self-service grocery stores.

Sobel, Robert (1974), The Entrepreneurs: Explorations Within the American Business Tradition, NY: Weybright and Talley. Chapter 3 “John Wanamaker: The Triumph of Content Over Form,” pp. 73-109 and pp. 389-390. This chapter “provides the most perceptive insights into Wanamaker as a retailer and a man but essentially ignores his forays into politics and government.” Nevertheless, the information provided presents Wanamaker as a risk taker and as a savvy retailer. Sobel notes on p. 86 that free entrance was not invented by Wanamaker for Stewart and other merchants in NY pioneered that in 1840s. Sobel mentions the Oak Hall store, a men’s clothing store and not a department store, had sales of $2.1m in 1870, manned by 43 reps, 70 cutters and 20 clerks (p. 88).It was the largest men’s clothing store in the nation. In 1871 Wanamaker opened stores in Pittsburgh and NYC, followed by Washington, Richmond and other cities. He went on a buying expedition in 1871 then visited stores in 1875 such as Bon Marche, Whitely, Louvre and others. The rand depot is discussed (see pp. 96ff). Wanamaker even sold Ford autos in his store. Sobel says Wanamaker refused to engage in price cutting such as other department store did and he was still catering to middle class buyers neglecting lower class shoppers.

Sobel, Robert and David B. Sicilia (1986), The Entrepreneurs An American Adventure, Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. The book has a number of biographies on such retail giants as A.T. Stewart, Montgomery Ward, and others. Moreover, the text on innovators such as King Gillette and Henry Ford makes excellent reading for marketing historians.

Soles-Cohen, J. Jr. (1959), “Jake Gimbel: Hoosier Philanthropist,” Publication of the American Jewish Historical Society.

“Some Features of Department Store Management” (1902), Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 19 (March), pp. 156-158. This short article often gives G. Spencer as the author, but the name is not there, given that the article is one of many short ones, similar to a digest of articles. Perhaps Spencer was the person responsible for the digests? However it was Edward Meade. The incorrect reference is from Nystrom (1915, page 215).

“Some unusual Advertising” (1902), Inland Printer, Vol. 30 (December), pp. 415-417. The article discusses some drawings used for advertising the Marshall Field’s department store.

Soper, Will (1983), "Supermarkets," American History Illustrated, Vol. 18 (No. 1), pp. 40-47. The article discusses the origin of the supermarket. It has an analogy with the department store because it brings in issues or facts that are original just like a study of the origin of the department store. An interesting fact is that the Super Market Institute was formed in 1937, or 7 years after


King Kullen (Mike Cullen) opened his store in 1930, organized by Kullen himself. In contrast, the department store trade group was formed 75 years after Stewart's 1846 store. We also see that the origin of the supermarket is also unclear, with some saying the first prototype appeared in 1927, see Hatten (1988) who says it was December 1927. Editors of Business Week in 1933 said the super market would vanish when good times returned. Clarence Saunders, who developed a cash-carry store (economy store) in Sept 1916, in Memphis Tenn., a self-service food store called Piggly Wiggly. Later, he even secured a patent on the store layout. His planned Keedoozle store, described in a Dec 15th Forbes 1941 article, a new innovation of Saunders but it never materialized and he died in 1953. According to the Super Market Institute, the origin of the supermarket is subject to dispute. Soper says "There were precedents other than Saunders' Piggly Wiggly; the Cifrino brothers had a one stop, all goods store in Dorchester, Massachusetts; and in Houston Texas, J. Weingarten's had self-service in its grocery department. But the huge self-service, cash and carry, one-stop outlet with small markup, large volume, and the all-important parking lot to the Great Depression and a man named Michael Cullen" (p. 44). He went on to say that Cullen was boycotted by the media due to the efforts of his competitors, but managed to distribute 10k four-page flyers door to door. Was it the first such large attempt ever? His December 1932 store was 50k sq. ft located in an abandoned automobile factory called the 'Big Bear.’ But Big Bear was started by Robert Otis not Cullen? It also sold non-food items, and even rented space to others who sold ladies' wear, shoes, cosmetics, car accessories, paints, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, even goldfish, among others (see Business Week 1933). Cullen paid his suppliers in cash once a week, just like Stewart did back in the late 1830s. He added approx. 10 stores in 1933. The shopping cart had not yet been invented when he opened and it took some time before it was perfected. Cullen did without it for the first seven years possibility because kids were joy-riding the wheeled baskets injuring themselves and the parents sued stores who had them. For more technical information on how the Keedoozle store worked, see Ellsworth (1961 item 24, p. 193). See also Brooks (1963), The Fate of the Edsel and Other Business Misadventures, NY: Harper and Row. It also has articles on Piggly-Wiggly Stores.

Soubourou, Pierre-Henri René (1904), "De la psychologie des voleuses dans les grands magasins, Université de Bordeaux." This is the author's 72 page thesis from the faculty of medicine, listed in the Ministère de L'éducation Catalogue de thèses (1964), Vol. 4, Kraus Reprint Ltd., 20th fascicule année scolaire 1903-1904, No 91.

Spann, Edward (1981), The New Metropolis New York City, 1840-1857, NY: Columbia University Press. AT Stewart is discussed on pp. 40-41, 97-98 and other pages. Stewart sold cashmere shawls at $2k (p. 223). A new fact among others is the establishment of public transportation in NY such as omnibuses and how much traffic there was in NY. How Stewart spent lots of money to avoid having a railroad built in front of his store (with the support of other merchants on Broadway). But he was willing to get into the omnibus business (pp. 302-3). See also chapter 4 ‘Poverty’ and chapter 5 ‘A Rich and Growing City.’ On page 71, he says at least two-thirds of New Yorkers subsisted on hardly more than one dollar per week per person. Wages had fallen less than $5 per week. The average laborer being fortunate to earn $200 per year. Of some 50,000 employed women, at least half earned less than $2 per week when employed. Given the non existence of unemployment insurance, welfare, no public health care, no aid for widows, abandoned kids or orphans, etc. no wonder the majority lived in poverty, except of course the so called middle class as described in far too many books as being the norm. He discusses public education for kids. He also refers to climate control at the Astor House in 1853, i.e. AC?

Spector, Robert and Patrick McCarthy (2000), Nordstorm The Inside Story of America’s #1 Customer Service Company, 2nd edition NY: John Wiley. The first edition was in 1995. The industry does not have a customer service model like Nordstrom. This guide shows how


Nordstrom created and maintains a culture of customer service and how readers can translate these customer service principles to their own businesses.

Spector, Robert (2005), Category killers: the retail revolution and its impact on consumer culture, Boston: Harvard Business School Press

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