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The Shukhevych Cult in Ukraine: Myth Making with Complications

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The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2003), 162.


 Marples, Heroes and Villains, 195; Wiktor Poliszczuk, Legal and Political Assessment of the OUN and UPA (Toronto: Wiktor Poliszcuk, 1997) 33, citing Robitnycha hazeta, Kyiv, September 29, 1992 and Vasyl Mykhalchuk (ed.), “Tudy, de bii za voluiu” – zbirnyk viiskovo-politychnykh materialiv u pamiat’ Maksyma Skorupskoho-Maksa kurinnoho UPA (Kyiv 1992), passim.


 DA SB Ukraїny: F. 5, spr. 67418, T. 1, ark. 208-241, in Serhiichuk (ed.), Roman Shukhevych, 529-530.


 See, for instance Taras Hunczak’s article in Den’. It is representative in that it dates the OUN-Nazi break to early September, 1941, emphasizes that Bandera and Stets’ko were imprisoned in Sachsenhausen at this time, but remains silent on Shukhevych’s whereabouts in 1942. Hunczak correctly dismisses the Russian description of Shukhevych as “a captain of the SS” as false, without providing a corrective that Shukhevych indeed was a captain, but in the Schutzmannschaften, a lesser-known institution, yet one which systematically collaborated with both Einsatzgruppen, the SS and other repressive Nazi organs, and heavily implicated in both the Holocaust as well as war crimes against Jews and gentiles alike. Taras Hunczak, “Shukhevych i batal’ion ‘Nakhtihal’’,” Den’, No. 122, July 17, 2009.


 Mykola Posivnych, “Roman Shukhevych (30.VI.1907-5.III.1950)” in Petro J. Potichnyj and Mykola Posivnych (eds.), Litopys Ukraїns’koї Povstans’koї Armiї, Tom 45, Heneral Roman Shukhevych – ”Taras Chuprynka” Holovnyi Komandyr UPA (Toronto and L’viv: Vydavnytstvo “Litopys UPA,” 2007), 19, 33.


 Potichnyj and Posivnych (eds.) Litopys UPA, Tom 45, 522.


 Ibid., 361, citing A. Fedyshyn in Myroslav Kal’ba, DUN v rozbudovi UPA (Detroit and Ternopil’: Dzhura, 2005), 108.


 O. Ishhuk and S. Kokin (eds.), Litopys UPA, nova seriia, Tom 9, (Kyiv, Toronto: Litpys UPA, 2007), 329, omits a section in which it is noted that “Bandera has a low opinion of Shukhevuch.” Jeffrey Burds, “Archival Practices in the Post-Soviet Zones,” paper presented at the 2008 National Convention of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies, Philadelphia, November 23, 2008.


 Posivnych in Potichnyj and Posivnych (eds.), Litopys UPA, Tom 45, 29.


 Kentii and Lozyts’kyi in Sokhan’ and Potichnyj (eds.), Litopys UPA, nova seriia, Tom 10, 93-94.


 Hryhorij Waskowycz, Roman Šuchevyč – Kommandeur das Befreiungskrieges: Aus Anlass des 30. Todestages (München: Ukrainische Freie Universität, 1981); Petro Mirchuk, Roman Shukhevych (Gen. Taras Chuprynka): Komandyr armiї bezsmertnykh (New York, Toronto and London: Tovarystvo kolyshnikh voiakiv UPA v ZSA, Kanadi i Evropi, 1970), 108; Vasyl’ Kuk, Heneral Roman Shukhevych: Holovnyi komandyr Ukraїns’koї postans’koї armiї (UPA) (Kyїv: Biblioteka ukraїntsia, 1997), 36-37.


 Pobihushchy-Ren (1985), 243.


 Kal’ba, DUN v rozbudovi UPA, 103.


 Pobihushchyi-Ren, Mozaїka moїkh spomyniv; Myroslav Kal’ba, Druzhyny Ukraїns’kykh Natsionalistiv (Detroit: DUN, 1994); Myroslav Kal’ba, My prysiahaly Ukraїni: DUN 1941-1942 (L’viv: Memuarna biblioteka NTSh, 1999); Kal’ba, U lavkah druzhynnykiv; Druzhyny Ukraїns’kykh Nationalistiv v 1941-1942 rokakh (n.p: Vyd-ia Druzhyny ukraїnsks’kykh nationalistiv, 1953).


 Druzhyny Ukraїns’kykh Nationalistiv v 1941-1942 rokakh, 63, 71, 77-78. Pobihushchyi even manage to present the Schutzmänner as victims. “The Legion did not carry out a single execution. Instead, unfortunately, a soldier from the Legion was executed [by the Germans](I do not remember his name).” Ibid., 40.


 Petro Duzhyi, Roman Shukhevych – polityk, voїn, hromadianyn (L’viv: Halyts’ka Vydavnycha Spilka, 1998), 145-146, citing Druzhyny Ukraїns’kykh Natsionalistiv u 1941-1942 rokakh, 65, 88. This collection of memoirs, the only published account besides Pobihushchyi, was also used as the basis for Posivnych’s account of Shukhevych’s whereabouts in 1941-1942 in Vol. 45 of Litopys UPA. Posivnych in Potichnyj and Posivnych (eds.), 29.


 Volodymyr V’’iatrovych, “Roman Shukhevych: soldat,” Ukraїns’ka Pravda, May 2, 2008. (accessed May 6, 2008)


 Volodymyr V’iatrovych, “Iak tvorylasia lehenda pro Nachtigall,” Dzerkalo Tyzhnia No. 6 (685) 16-22 February 2008. (Accessed March 16, 2008)


 Masha Mishchenko, “Pratsivnyk SBU: My їzdyly v Izraїl’ pobachaty dos’e proty Shukhevycha – a ioho prost one isnue” UNIAN March 25, 2008. (Accessed April 8, 2008)

60 Ibid.


 Posokhov. “Shukhevych.”

62 Nikolai Ippolitovich Obryn’ba, Sud’ba opolchentsa. (Moscow: Iauza, Eksmo, 2005), 283-284. (accessed November 18, 2007)


 Serhii Hrabovs’kyi, “Tak proty koho zh voiuvav Shukhevych u Bilorusi?,” Ukraїns’ka Pravda, (accessed November 18, 2007)


 Ibid. Hrabovs’kyi refers to the partisan Izrail Abramovich Lapidus, commander of the Kutozov detachment of the second Minsk partisan brigade, and the secretary of the Minsk rural underground raion committee of the KP(b)B. E. G. Ioffe, G. D. Knat’ko and V. D. Selemenev, Kholokost v Belarusi. 1941-1944 (Minsk: Natsional’nyi Arkhiv Respubliki Belarus’, 2002), 219-221. It should be noted that Jewish commanders among Soviet partisan formations were rare, as the Soviet authorities deliberately strived to diminish the number of Jews in leading roles in the partisan movement in order to combat the stereotype of the żydokomuna. Leonid Smilovitsky, “Antisemitism in the Soviet Partisan Movement, 1941-1944: The Case of Belorussia,” Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Fall 2006): 217; Evgenij Rozenblat “Belarus: Specific Features of the Region’s Jewish Collaboration and Resistance” in David Gaunt, Paul A. Levine and Laura Pelosuo (eds.) Collaboration and Resistance During the Holocaust: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania (Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Oxford, Vienna: Peter Lang, 2004).

65 “Iurii Shukhevych: “Ia hadaiu, Prezydent udostoїїt’ moho bat’ka naivyshchoї nahorody,” L’vivs’kyi portal, July 6, 2007. ї (Accessed February 22, 2008)


 Marples, Heroes and Villains, 261, citing Iziaslav Kokodnyak, “50 rokiv bezsmertiya,” Za vil’nu Ukraїnu, 28 July, 2000, 4.


 “The Undefeated” (Neskorenyi), Dir: Oles Yanchuk Ukraine/USA (2000), Ukrainian Film Fest, Metro Cinema, Edmonton, Alberta. (Accessed April 17, 2008).


 Ihor Ivanovych Il’iushyn, Volyns’ka trahediia 1943-1944 rr. (Kyiv: Instytut istoriї Ukraїny NAN Ukraїny, 2003), 198.


 The portrayal of the UPA as a multi-ethnic organization has become a cornerstone in the pro-UPA narrative, often used in response to allegations that the organization indulged in anti-Semitic activities. Yet, even the Schutzmannschaft Battalions were multi-ethnic. For instance, Turkmens and Uzbeks served in Ukrainian Schutzmannschaft Battalion 134. Some of the “ethnic” members of the UPA likely switched over from various German auxiliary formations in 1943. An apologist book on the OUN(m)-organized paramilitary formation Bukovyns’kyi Kuren’, which was later reorganized as Schutzmannschaft battalions 115 and 118, lists Russians, Poles, even four Jews in battalion 118. This topic calls for more research. Bolianovs’kyi, 132; Duda and Staryk, Bukovyns’kyi Kuren’, 148.


 See Volodymyr V’’iatrovych, Stavlennia OUN do ievreїv: formuvannia pozytiї na tli katastrofy (L’viv: Vydavnytstvo “MS”, 2006), who attempts to exonerate the OUN of anti-Semtism, and the interviews and articles by the poet Moses Fishbein, for instance “The Jewish card in Russian operations against Ukraine,” Kyiv Post, June 30, 2009. (Accessed September 7, 2009). Fishbein has kept a high profile in Ukrainian and international media, arguing that the survival of a handful of Jewish physicians within the ranks of the UPA proves that the organization could not have been anti-Semitic. But see also the critique by Taras Kurylo and John-Paul Himka [Ivan Khymka], “Iak OUN stavylasia do ievreїv? Rozdumy nad knyzhkoiu Volodymyra V’’iatrovycha Stavlennia OUN do ievreїv: formuvannia pozytiї na tli katastrofy.Ukraїna Moderna 13 (2008): 252-265.


 Stephen Bandera, “Jewish Leaders Snub Ukraine Award Citing Rise in anti-Semitism,” Kyiv Post, October 24, 2007. The Ukraine List (UKL) 422, #17, October 31, 2007.


 “Visit of Ukrainian President Yuschenko to Yad Vashem: Yad Vashem Chairman Chalev Thanks Ukrainian President Yushchenko for Instructing the Relevant Professionals to Reach an Agreement regarding the Bruno Schultz Murals, Chairman of the Council Lapid Protest Granting Honor to man Involved in Murder of Jews During Holocaust,” (Accessed April 10, 2008)


 “Yushchenko ne dospustyt’ ksenofobiї, ale i proty shtampiv,” Ukraїns’ka Pravda, November 15, 2007, (accessed November 18, 2007). Nationalist historians have long dismissed allegations of anti-Semitism. “Neither the Ukrainian underground nor any other organizations … cultivated anti-Semitic programs or policies.” Taras Hunczak, “Ukrainian-Jewish Relations during the Soviet and Nazi Occupations,” in Yuri Boshyk (ed.), Ukraine during World War II: History and its Aftermath (Edmonton, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies at the University of Alberta, 1986), 42.


 Sean Gaffney, “Ukraine President Defends National Hero” The Associated Press, November 16, 2007. UNIAN (accessed January 17, 2008).


 “SBU sprostuvala Iad Vashem shchodo Shukhevycha” BBC Ukrainian, March 4, 2008.


 “V arkhivi izraїl’skoho memorial’noho kompleksu “Iad Vashem” nemae dos’e na Romana Shukhevycha” Sluzba bezpeki Ukraїny, March 4, 2008. (accessed April 23, 2008)


 Patryliak, Viis’kova diial’nist’, 361-362, citing TsDAVO Ukraїny, f. 3833, op. 1, spr. 57, ark. 18.


 John-Paul Himka, “True and False Lessons from the Nachtigall Episode,” Brama, March 19, 2008. On the role of Ukrainian militia in the L’viv pogrom, see Idem., “Dostovirnist’ svidchennia: reliatsiia Ruzi Vagner pro l’vivs’kyi pohrom vlitku 1941 r.,”Holokost i suchasnist’: studii v Ukraini i svitu, Naukovyi chasopys No. 2(4) 2008: 43-79.


 “Trust Ukraine scholars,” Kyiv Post, March 13, 2008.


 Roman Krutsyk, “Memorial: Pane Prezydente, zaberit’ nareshti dokumenty Shukhevycha z Iad Vashem,” Maidan, December 20, 2007. (Accessed January 17, 2008)


 Hunczak, “Shukhevych i batal’ion ‘Nakhtihal’’”


 Pavel Felgenhauer, “Medvedev Forms a Commission to Protect Russian History,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol.6 Issue 98, May 21, 2009.


 Hunczak, “Shukhevych”; Fishbein, “The Jewish card.” While these words figure in these two opinion pieces, I have not been able to find these words in the reporting from Churkin’s meeting. However, Russian media contained similar statements: “One of the latest of these invented tales, dealing with the themes of the “Holodomor, the genocide of the Ukrainian people” consist of providing a backdrop for a second ideological academic undertaking (magistral’naia aktsiia) of the Ukrainian leadership. And in particular, that is the glorification of Ukrainian enablers of the Nazis (ukrainskie posobnikov natsistov). Without being too concerned about it, the authorities popularize Nazism in Ukraine, something that grows by each day. Last year President Yushchenko designated Roman Shukhevych a hero – his Insurgent Army fought against his own people.” “Postpred Ukrainy v OON: Priznanie Holodomora genotsidom – delo tekhniki” October 29, 2008 (accessed September 7, 2009); “Vitali Churkin: Genotsida protiv ukrainskogo naroda ne bylo,” Rossiiskaia Gazeta, October 29, 2008. (Accessed September 7, 2009)


 Viktor Chikin, “Oranzhevye khroniki,” 7 Dnei: gazeta dlia vsei sem’i, 7 Dnei, No. 22, May 22, 2008.


 Idem., “Oranzhevye khroniki,” 7 Dnei: gazeta dlia vsei sem’i, No. 20, May 15, 2008.

86 Ibid.


 Idem., 7 Dnei no. 21 and no. 22, May 22 and 29, 2008.


 See, for instance the open letter from the League of Descendants of Lwow’s professors murdered by Gestapo in Kuly 1941, September 18, 2002 to president Leonid Kuchma and the Ukrainian ambassador in Poland, protesting the erection of a bust of Shuchevych in L’viv. “Premeditated Murder of 25 Polish Professors, and in addition their Families and Guests, on July 4, 1941 in Lwów, Poland,” (accessed September 5, 2009)


 Łukasz Jastryąb. “Władca tryzuba” Tygodnik Przegląd, No, 37, September 10. 2007 (accessed September 5, 2009)


 Jacek Dytkowski, “Lwów buduje pomnik Syuchewzcyowi,” Nasz Dziennik, No. 29 (3350) February 4, 2009. (accessed September 5, 2009)


 Marcin Wojciechowski. “Gdz Lach z Kozakiem się kłócą, Moskal zaciera ręce: Zakaz wyjazdu do Polski rajdu śladami Bandery to cios w politykę pojednania między naszymi krajami i triumf radykalów po obu stronach granicy, Ale rząd nie miał innego wyjścia.” Gazeta Wyborcza, August 8-9. 2009, 2; Marcin Kobiałka, “Szlaban na rajd Bandery: Rząd zabronią w piątek wjazdu do Polski czworgu kolarzy z Ukrainy, uczestnikom rajdu Bandery. – Wyłudzili wizy – oświadczyło MSWiA, Jednak prawadziwą pryczyną zakazu bzły raczej protesty w Polsce,” Gazeta Wyborcza, August 8-9, 2009, 3.


 Asked “How would you define your country’s relation to the following groups during World War II?,” 64 per cent of respondent that Ukrainians answered that relations with Ukrainians were bad, a higher number even than Germans (63) and Russians (57). Wojciech Syacki and Marcin Wojciechowski. “Źli Niemcy. źli Ukraińcy: To Niemcy byli głównymi wrogami Polaków w II wojnie i to oni zadali nam najwięcej cierpień. Ale najgorzej wspominamy kontakty z Ukraińcami,” Gazeta Wyborcza, August 24. 2009. 4,


 Mykola Riabchuk, “Ukraine: Neither Heroes nor Villains: Review of Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine, by David Marples (Budapest: Central European Press, 2007),” Transitions Online, 6 February, 2007.


 John Armstrong, Ukrainian Nationalism, 3rd Edition (Englewood, CO: Ukrainian Academic Press, 1990), 117.


 Ivan Lysiak-Rudnyts’kyi, “Natsionalizm i totalitaryzm (Vidpovid’ M. Prokopovi),” Journal of Ukrainian Studies 7, no. 2 (13) (Fall 1982): 83-85.


 “Kanadyjczycy proszą Juszczenkę o nadanie Banderze tytułu Bohatera Ukrainy,” niezależne informacyjno-analityczne wydanie internetowe, August 10, 2009. (accessed September 7, 2009)


 Tzetan Todorov, “The Lunchbox and the Bomb,” IWM Newsletter (Summer 2003): 81.


 Timothy Garton Ash, “The Life of Death,” The New York Review of Books, December 19, 1985, 32.


 John-Paul Himka, “War Criminality: A Blank Spot in the Collective Memory of the Ukrainian Diaspora,” Spaces of Identity, Vol. 5, No. 1 (2005), 13-14.


 Andreas Kappeler, Der Schwerige Weg zur Nation: Beiträge zur neuern Geschichte der Ukraine (Vienna: Böhlau, 2003), 19.


 Andreas Umland, “Eshche odna ukrainskaia anomaliia: parlament bez pravoradikal’noi fraktsii,”Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (forthcoming, June, 2008)


 Nina Paulovicova, writing on the attempt to rehabilitate Slovak integral nationalist collaborators find this form of nostalgia unhelpful for the process of nation building. She refers to this phenomenon as “Forgetting as a Mode of National Memory.” Nina Paulovicova, “The ‘Unmasterable Past’?: Slovaks and the Holocaust. The reception of the Holocaust in Post-Communist Slovakia.” Paper presented at the University of Alberta Holocaust Workshop, November 11, 2007, 6, 9.


 Richard S. Esbenshade, “Remembering to Forget: Memory, History, National Identity in Postwar East-Central Europe,”Representations, No. 49, Special Issue: Identifying Histories: Eastern Europe Before and After 1989. (Winter, 1995), 84, citing Günter Grass, “Losses,” Granta 42 (Winter, 1992): 102.

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