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The Ottoman Empire~


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Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean, 1500-1750

Guided Reading/Notes



Chapter 19

  1. The Ottoman Empire~

    1. Introduction

      1. Encompassed southeastern Europe

      2. Resembled centralized monarchies of France and Spain

    2. Expansion and Frontiers

      1. What three factors lead to the growth of the empire?

        1. _Shrewdness of founder

        2. Control of strategic link between Europe & Asia (Istanbul)

        3. Creation of a strong, loyal military

      2. Territories acquired

        1. 1389 ~ Conquered Serbian Kingdom at Battle of Kosovo

        2. 1402 ~ Had conquered much of southeastern Europe and Anatolia

        3. 1402 ~ Battle of Ankara captured Bayazid

        4. 1453 ~ Mehmed II the Conqueror-took control of Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul

          1. Constantinople  Istanbul

        5. 1514 ~ Battle of Chaldiran (Armenia) Selim I “the Inexorable” set border between Ottomans and eastern neighbor

        6. 1516/1517 ~ Red Sea became southern border, Algeria and Tunisia joined voluntarily

        7. Suleiman~ known as “the lawgiver”

          1. 1521~ conquered Belgrade

          2. 1522 ~ gained control of island of Rhodes

          3. Reign known as the Golden Age

        8. Ottomans vs. Venice 1453-1502 ~ fought the first rounds of war lasted two-centuries

          1. Island sugar plantations- exploited cheap slave labor

          2. Stifled Ottoman maritime activities in Aegean Sea

    3. Central Institutions

      1. Janissary ~Young Male Christian slaves forced to convert to Islam and become soldiers

        1. Barred from holding jobs or marrying until mid 17th Century

      2. Devshirme ~tax required by Ottomans-Christian villages in Balkans had to submit their male children for consideration as part of Janissary army.

        1. Educated and trained at the sultan’s palace.

        2. Osmanli ~ Turkish form of Ottoman language

      3. Classes of Ottoman Empire

        1. Askeri ~ Military class

          1. Exempt from taxes and dependent on the sultan for well-being

        2. Raya ~ flock of sheep- mass of population – Muslims, Christian, and Jews (flooded into Ottoman territory after expulsion from Spain in 1492)

      4. Balanced Military ~ mounted archers with Janissaries

      5. Sultan’s responsibility  justice and military protection

a.Raya paid taxes that supported Sultan and Military

      1. Religion

        1. Balkan Regions ~ Balkan region-large # of converts to Islam- gradually became the majority

    1. Crisis of the Military State

      1. Reduced number of Landholding cavalrymen to pay for janissaries and fill coffers

        1. Restive element in rural Anatolia

      2. Inflation ~ caused by a flood of cheap silver from New World

        1. Affected remaining landholding cavalrymen joined ranks of dispossessed troops

      3. Levied emergency surtaxes to pay for janissaries

      4. Revolts between 1590-1610 a result of hiring and laying off salaried soldiers

    2. Economic Change and Growing Weakness

      1. Sultan~ resided in palace and had little experience of real world

      2. Janissaries  increased power

      3. Land grants in return for military service disappeared

      4. Rural administration suffered from the transition toTax Farming ~ increased powergreater administrative burden  Powerful Provincial governors or wealthy men who behaved as private landowners

      5. Decline of Ottoman administrative control and rural disorder  opened the way for new economic opportunities

      6. Ottoman Economy became involved in the European commercial network  Izmir gained importance/ Alleppo lost importance-demonstrates the growing influence of W. Europe in Indian Ocean trade & weakness of Ottoman’s ability to control trade.

      7. Coffee new product traded from the Arabian port of Mocha was the rage in 15th century

      8. Tulips 1718-1730 craze for high-priced tulip bulbs that swept Ottoman ruling circles

        1. 1636- rare bulbs went for 2,500 florins apiece = 22 oxen

      9. The Patrona Halil Rebellion gave independence movements the opportunity to start their own states and showed decay at the center yet spelled benefit elsewhere

      10. Muhammad ibn Abd al -Wahhab~ leader of the conservative Sunni movement that emerged in Arabia

  1. The Safavid Empire -

    1. Introductions

      1. Chief rival of Ottomans’ in Iran

      2. How did the Safavid Empire resemble the Ottomans?

        1. Used land grants to support cavalry

        2. Population spoke many different languages

        3. Land not sea power

        4. Urban elite had influence-served as intermediaries between people & government

        5. Nomadic chieftans (same as d)

        6. Religious scholars (same as d & e)

      3. How did the Safavid Empire differ from the Ottomans?

        1. Royal tradition rooted in pre-Islamic legends

        2. Adoption of Shiism

    2. The Rise of Safavids

      1. Iran ~ Ismail  emerged chief of Iran out of the struggle for power

        1. Hereditary leader of militant Sufi brotherhood Safaviya

        2. 1502 claimed himself shah of Iran – declared his realm Shi’ite Islam

          1. Shi’ite Islam ~ revered the family of Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali

            1. Spoke Turkish

            2. Belonged to nomadic groups – qizilbash- or Redheads- wore red turbans

            3. Many considered Ismail god incarnate

            4. Iranian subject population resisted rule ~ Neighboring lands gave asylum to Sunni refugees

            5. Took a century and a series of brutal persecutions to become majority Shi’ite land

    3. Society and Religion

      1. RESULT- deep chasm between Iran and neighbors (all Sunni’s)  Iraq separated Arab Zone from Persian Zone

      2. Persian = Second language

      3. Cultural and artistic accomplishments of the Islamic empires included poetry, histories, drama, fiction, architectural style, painted, vivid mosaic tile work

      4. Shi’ite doctrine stated all temporal rulers were Hidden Iman~temporary stand-ins-12th descendant of Ali disappeared as a child but will return.

      5. Martyrdom of Imam Husayn is remembered in Shi’ite community 1st 2 weeks of every lunar year-regularized emotional outpouring.




    1. A Tale of Two Cities : Isfahan and Istanbul

      1. Shah Abbas I ~ decreed that Isfahan become Iran’s capital in 1598

      2. In the chart below compare the two cities of Isfahan and Istanbul You might see this on a test

Same


              1. wheeled vehicles scarce-camels preferred

              2. lack of open space-streets narrow and irregular

              3. crowded houses-interior courtyards

              4. furnishings similar- shelves & niches for books cut into mud walls in Isfahan, Istanbul houses made of wood/glazed tiles w/ geometric patterns in both.

              5. artisans/merchants had guilds

              6. guilds-social, religious, economic bonds

              7. women secluded-Isfahan “anderun”, Istanbul-“haren”

Isfahan

Istanbul

Brightly colored tiled domes


Grey-stone domes

gentle peaks, unobtrusive minarets



Tall, thin pointed minarets based on Hagia Sophia(Aya Sophia)

Airy, palace overlooking plaza-received dignitaries, and reviewed troops

Giant royal plaza-large enough for army to play polo



High walls surrounding sultan’s palace

Inland-middle of the empire


Port & ships

Not very cosmopolitan, few Europeans


Very cosmopolitan, diverse population, many Europeans




      1. How were women in the Islamic world treated?

        1. Isolated

        2. Used male agents to buy/sell property

        3. Sharia Law permitted a wife to retain her property after marriage and gave some women a stake in the general economy and degree of independence

        4. Could appear in court

        5. Testified for themselves

        6. veiled

        7. Islamic men & women covered their hair, arms, & legs

      2. Despite religious disapproval of homosexuality, attachments to adolescent boys were neither unusual or hidden.

    1. Economic Crisis and Political Collapse

      1. Silk fabrics ~ monopolized by the shahs provided the mainstay of Safavid Empire’s foreign trade

      2. Characterize the literature and the artistic innovations of the Safavid Empire.

Carpets w/ geometric & arabesque designs, small manufacturing base, epic, lyric, mystic poetry, legal, theological, drama, fiction

      1. No technological advancements!!!

      2. Had difficulty finding money to pay troops armed with firearms

        1. Systematic adoption of cannon and firearms in the Safavid Empire needed to hold off Ottomans and the Uzbeks

      3. Cheap silver decline of overland trade because of mismanagement of silk monopoly

        1. hard to find money to pay army and bureaucracy

      4. Weakness lack of navy




  1. The Mughal (Mongol) Empire

    1. Differ from Ottomans & Safavids  Hindu influence

    2. Political Foundations

      1. Babur~ founder- 1483-1530

      2. Turkish descent- Timur married a descendant of Genghis Khan

      3. Wanted to expand into India

        1. Akbar- Established central administration of the expanding state

          1. Through him & 3 successors all but tip of India fell under Mughal rule

          2. Granted land revenues to military officers & government officials

            1. Mansabs – military officers/government officials, some high, some low were entitled to revenue assignments.

      4. Prosperous economy = cotton cloth trade & efficient administration

    3. Hindus and Muslims

      1. Rajputs- Hindu Warriors.

      2. What was Akbar’s policy of religious reconciliation between Muslims and Hindus ?

        1. Rescinded the head tax

        2. Married a Rajput princess-produced an heir

        3. Maintained Hindu traditions of conflict resolutions for Hindus

        4. Religious tolerance-Made himself center of a new “Divine Faith”-blended elements of Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrianism, Sikh, Christian

      3. Court reflected a mixture of Muslim and Hindu tradition

      4. Sikhism~

        1. Nanak- religions first guru

        2. Stressed meditation as a means of seeking enlightenment

        3. Drew upon both Muslim and Hindu imagery in teachings

        4. Army of Pure – signaled faith

          1. Uncut hair

          2. turban

          3. a comb

          4. Steel bracelet

          5. Sword, dagger

          6. Military-style breeches

    4. Central Decay and Regional Challenges

      1. What factors played a role in their descent?

        1. Land-grant system

        2. Failure to effectively integrate New Mughal territories in the south into the imperial structure

        3. Military defeat-Delhi sacked-political fragmentation ensued

      2. Who benefited as a result of the Mughal states decline?

        1. Regional powers and smaller princely states

  1. Trade Empires in the Indian Ocean

    1. Why did the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires decline simultaneously?

      1. Changes in military technology,

      2. Changes in the world economy,

      3. Maintaining the military-difficulty basing a land empire on military force paid through land grants.

    2. Muslims in the East Indies and East Africa

      1. Why was the expansion of Islam into East Africa and Southern Asia extensive?

        1. Trade, missionaries, equal treatment of converts, and children of mixed parentage.

      2. Where did Islam effectively counter the aggressive Christianity of Europeans?

        1. Southern island of Philippines (Mindanao) & nearby archipelago of Sula

        2. Brunai Sultanate in N. Borneo & the Acheh Sultnate in N. Sumatra

      3. What caused high migration in the East African lake region and Kenyan highlands?

        1. drought

      4. Valuable exports of East Africa

        1. ivory

        2. ambergris

        3. beeswax

        4. copal tree resin

        5. wood

        6. gold

        7. slaves

      5. Which European country conquered the East African Port cities?

        1. Portugal

      6. As a result of the Dutch defeating the Portuguese, what valuable colony did they obtain?

        1. Malacca


Map Assignment:

Using the text label the following on the map provided:



  • Be sure to make a key!

  • Ottoman Empire

  • Safavid Empire

  • Mughal Empire 1530

  • Mughal Empire 1656

  • Mediterranean Sea

  • Red Sea

  • Black Sea

  • Caspian Sea

  • Persian Gulf

  • Arabian Sea

  • Indian Ocean

  • Gallipoli

  • Istanbul

  • Adriatic Sea



COMPARISON OF THREE EMPIRES

Complete the following chart using your notes and text.







REASONS FOR RISE TO POWER

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

RELATIONS WITH EUROPE

OTTOMAN











SAFAVID











MUGHAL













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