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The Genetic Resources of Hippophae and its Utilization Lu Rongsen


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The Genetic Resources of Hippophae and its Utilization

Lu Rongsen

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu Institute of Biology,

Chengdu, China, 610041

E-mail: rongsenl@163.net


Abstract


The Genetic Resources of Hippophae are very rich. Hippophae includes 15 species and subspecies that are widely distributed in Europe and Asia. Only 4 subspecies are being used in practical research and development. This paper summarized the existing utilization of genetic resources of Hippophae and its potential uses in the future.

  1. Introduction

Seabuckthorn is very rich in its biodiversity. According to the latest study, there are 15 species and subspecies in Hippophae , but only 4 subspecies are being used. For example, Russian scientists have used one subspecies ( Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. mongolica ) for more than 70 years and many good varieties have been bred out but their localization in adapting on other weather conditions limited those varieties to be popularized in the other parts of the world. China has used another subspecies ( H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis ) which has been widely used for ecological restoration and producing a series of products. In Europe, Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. rhamnoides is used in many countries like Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Sweden, Finland etc. Several improved varieties bred from this subspecies have been cultivated in these counties. In the Central Asia and South Asia, a widely distributed subspecies is Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. turkestanica. Due to its rich wild resources this subspecies is being used for producing a lot of products in India, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Kirghizstan etc. Since H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis and Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. turkestanica both are rich in wild resources, so they are directly being used for various purpose. But these two subspecies have a lot of disadvantages like small berries, many thorns, lower content of oil and lower yield per unit area.

However, there are other 11 species and subspecies in Hippophae which have many good characteristics such as less thorns, high contents of vitamins, oil and resistance to drought, cold and saline and alkali, but most of these species and subspecies have not been used in growing and breeding. Very few studies have been done on these species and subspecies. Since many countries are awareness of seabuckthorn is a very important plant in economy and ecology, it is believed that more attention and more studies will be given to those genetic resources of Hippophae , including that have been used and that have not been touched but very promised.



  1. A Review of Genetic Resources of Hippophae

2.1. A Simple History of Seabuckthorn Taxonomy

Seabuckthorn is a general term given to the shrub-tree Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. which was named by Swedish taxonomist Linnaeus in 1753. After that several other species were found and named by many taxonomists. In 1971, finnish taxonomist Arne Rousi divided this species into 9 subspecies that is growing from Norway in Scandinavia to the Northwest of China. For the other species and subspecies Arne Rousi recognized three species: Hippophae rhamnoides L, Hippophae salicifolia D.Don, and Hippophae tibetana. In 1978, Chinese taxonomists, Liu Shengwu and He Tinnong, reported a new species, H. neurocarpa from the Qinghai Plateau, China. In 1995, another Chinese taxonomist, Lian Yongshan found 1 new species and 2 subspecies: H.goniacarpa, H. goniacarpa subsp. litangensis and H. nrurocarpa subsp. stellatopilosa. In 2000, Lian Yongshan summarized previous studies of seabuckthorn taxonomy and raised his new taxonomic system of Hippophae. According to Lian, there are 15 taxons in Hippophae:



1. H. rhamnoides. subsp. rhamnoides

2.H. rham. subsp. sinensis

3.H. rham. subsp. yunnanensis

4. H. rham. subsp. mongolica

5.H. rham. subsp. turkestanica

6. H. rham. subsp. fluviatilis

7. H. rham. subsp. carpatica

8. H. rham. subsp. caucasica

9. H. goniocarpa

10. H. goniocarpa subsp. litangensis

11. H. neurocarpa

12. H. neurocarpa subsp. stellatopilosa

13. H. tibetana

14. H. gyantsensis

15. H. salicifolia

2.2. The Distribution and Status of Utilization of Hippophae

The following table shows the distribution and the status of utilization of Hippophae:

Table 1. The Distribution and the Status of Utilization of Hippophae:


Taxons
The Areas of Distribution
The Status of Utilization

1. H. rhamnoides. subsp. rhamnoides


Scandinavian countries, Baltic Sea countries, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Ireland, Poland, U.K. France, Russia

Many varieties are cultivated in some European countries and Canada.

2. H. rham. subsp. sinensis


The North, Northwest, Southwest of China

Wild resources are used for ecological restoration and berries are processed for products. Some new varieties are in tests.

3. H. rham. subsp. yunnanensis

Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet of China

Wild resources are used for ecological restoration only.

4. H. rham. subsp. mongolica


Siberia of Russia, Mongolia, Xinjiang of China

More than 60 varieties are cultivated in Russia, Mongolia, many East European counties. Many West European counties, Canada and China introduced the varieties for test

5. H. rham. subsp. turkestanica

India, Pakistan, Afkhanistan,Turkmenistan, Kirghizstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Iran, Turkey, Xinjiang , Tibet of China

Wild resources are used for ecological restoration and berries are processed for various products

6. H. rham. subsp. fluviatilis

Around Alps Mountains: Germany, France, Switzerland, Austria, Czech, Slovakia, Italy,

Most of wild resources are protected as forest species. Some berries are collected for processing products

7. H. rham. subsp. carpatica

The Capathinan Mountains, Transsylvanian Alps,the valley and the mouths of the Donube and its tributary.

Most of wild resources are protected as forest species. Some varieties are cultivated for processing products

8. H. rham. subsp. caucasica

The Caucasus Mountains, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Ukraine, Romania, Turkey, Bulgaria, Iran, Russia.

Most of wild resources are protected as forest species. Some selected varieties are cultivated for test.

9. H. goniocarpa

Sichuan, Qinghai of China

Most of wild resources are protected as forest species. Very few studies have been don on it.

10. H. goniocarpa subsp. litangensis

Sichuan, Qinghai of China

Most of wild resources are protected as forest species. Very few studies have been don on it.

11. H. neurocarpa


Sichuan, Qinghai,Gansu of China

Most of wild resources are protected as forest species. Very few studies have been don on it.

12. H. neurocarpa subsp. stellatopilosa


Sichuan, Qinghai, Tibet of China

Most of wild resources are protected as forest species. Very few studies have been don on it.

13. H. tibetana


Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu, Tibet of China, Nepal, India

Most of wild resources are protected as grassland species. Very few studies have been don on it.

14. H. gyantsensis

Tibet of China

Most of wild resources are protected as forest species. Some berries are collected for producing Tibetan medicine.

15. H. salicifolia

The southern slope of Himalayan Mt. Tibet of China, Bhutan, Nepal, India

Most of wild resources are protected as forest species. Some berries are collected for producing products.



  1. Practical Utilization of Genetic Resources of Hippophae

3.1. Some Utilization of Genetic Resources of Hippophae In China

Since 1980s some research programs on introduction, selection and breeding have bee conducted in China.



      1. Introduction of Russian varieties from former USSR.

In 1980-2000 more than 30 Russian varieties were introduced to China for tests. From those around 10 varieties were considered to be suitable for China’s natural environment.

      1. Seabuckthorn provenance tests.

From 1985 about 19 Chinese seabuckthorn provenances were collected from 10 provinces of China were tested on 10 sites in the Northern China. The tests shown that the provenances from Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia have small berries, late mature period but more content of vitamin C. Those provenances from Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Hebei have bigger berries and earlier mature period but the vitamin C contents are less than that from Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia.

      1. Breeding for Purpose of Leaves Utilization.

Seabuckthorn leaves are rich in protein, fats and flavonoids that are used for fodder and medicine. In 2001-2004 a program on breeding types of leaves utilization was carried out. Some good varieties with high yield forage and less thorns have been selected out.

      1. Hybridization for Improving Chinese Seabuckthorn.

H. rhamnoides. subsp. sinensis is a dominated species of Hippopgae in

China. It accounts for 95% of total seabuckthorn resources of China. But it has some disadvantages like small berries, many thorns, lower yield etc. a program on improving Chinese seabuckthorn by making hybridization was carried from 1990s. Some progress on the program is promising. For example, a hybridization between a Russian variety (♀) and a Chinese variety (♂) has produced some promising hybrids.

The Bio-economic Characteristics and Berries’ Characteristics in Hybrids, Russian and Chinese Varieties of Seabuckthorn are shown in following tables:

Table 2. Comparison of Bio-economic Characteristics in Hybrids, Russian and Chinese Varieties of Seabuckthorn

( Fuxin, Liaoning, China )


Varieties

Age of Tree(year)

Height of Tree

(m)


Diameter of

Canopy


(m)

Diameter of Trunk

(cm)


Length of Growth(cm)

Thorns

(pcs/10cm)



Yield Per a Tree(kg/tree)

Chinese SBT


4

1.95

1.55x1.60

5,05

18.5

3.2

1.99

Hybrid-1


4

2.07

1.60x1.53

4.95

27.0

0.8

4.04

Hybrid-2


4

2.20

1.20x1.25

5.10

29.0

0.9

4.53

Hybrid-3


4

2.10

1.20x1.35

5.65

28.0

0.9

4.50

Hybrid-4


4

2.40

1.50x1.60

6.03

26.5

1.0

5.02

Russian ‘Chuisk’

4

2.27

1.61x1.65

6.38

28,5

0.4

5.06

Table 3. Comparison of Berries’ Characteristics in Hybrids, Russian and Chinese Varieties of Seabuckthorn

( Fuxin, Liaoning, China )


Varieties

Color of Berries

Juice Content

(%)


Weight of 100

Berries


(g)

Soluble Solid Substances (%)

Organic Acids

(%)


Vc Content

(mg/100g)



Oil Content of Pulp(%)

Oil Content of Seeds(%)

Harvest

Date


Chinese SBT


Orange-

yellow


80.3

19.4

13.0

2.85

526.0

1.59

8.12

Sept.11,

2002


Hybrid-1


Orange-

yellow


80.3

21.8

9.0

2.07

78.0

5.04

8.48

Sept.1,

2002


Hybrid-2


yellow

81.0

27.3

9.0

2.09

69.0

4.13

8.31

Sept.1,

2002


Hybrid-3


Orange-

red


75.0

22.3

10.0

1.66

127.0

4.50

10.21

Sept.1,

2002


Hybrid-4


Yellow

84.0

48.5

7.0

1.54

175.0

5.21

8.67

Sept.8,

2002


Russian ‘Chuisk’

Orange-

yellow


90.0

59.7

5.0

1.01

37.0

6.72

11.20

Aug.19,

2002


From these 2 tables it can be seen that the Chinese seabuckthorn variety can be improved through hybridization in increasing the size of berries, the oil content, reducing thorns and so as to increasing the yield per a plant.

3.2. Some Utilization of Genetic Resources of Hippophae In Europe and other countries

3.2.1 Progress of Utilization of Genetic Resources of Hippophae In Russia

Seabuckthorn selection and breeding in Russia started from 1933,

during the last 70 years more than 60 new varieties were bred out from H. rhamnoides subsp. mongolica and H. rhamnoides subsp. rhamnoides through distant hybridization, radiation and chemomorphosis. The

Russian varieties have many good characteristics such as large berries,

high content of oil, high yield per plant and less thorns. Perhaps the highest yield per plant in the world was created by Russian varieties. Several famous varieties like “Orange”, “Chuisk”, “Superior”, “Sun”, and “Alay” have been successfully cultivated in the Northeast China.

3.2.2 Progress of Utilization of Genetic Resources of Hippophae In Germany

Seabuckthorn selection and breeding in Germany started from 1962s, till now about 27 varieties and breeding clones are collected in several German research institutes. Those collections include 9 collections from indigenous wild populations, 3 from crossing populations, 9 from open pollinated populations, 6 from crossing with H. rhamnoides subsp. mongolica clones (from Altai Mt. in Russia). Among those collections “Askola”, “Dorana”, “Frugana”, “Hergo”, “Leikora”, and a pollination variety “Pollmix” have been cultivated in Germany and introduced to some other counties.

3.2.3 Progress of Utilization of Genetic Resources of Hippophae In Other Countries

Based on using H. rhamnoides subsp. rhamnoides, Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus and the west part of Russia have their own breeding programs although they introduced many Russian varieties for tests.

France, Italy, Switzerland, Southern Germany are using H. rhamnoides subsp. fluviatilis from Alps Mt. to breed their varieties. In the same time they are also testing some Russian and German varieties.

Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria selected some varieties from H. rhamnoides subsp. caucasica for tests.

Canada has selected a good variety “ Indian Summer” from introduced H. rhamnoides subsp. rhamnoides. This variety has been cultivated in Canada and many exotic species and varieties are in tests.

Bolivia has planted the seedlings of H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis in area of 75 hectare. These seedlings are reported growing well there.

Chile introduced 3 German and 6 Russian varieties for test in 1994. The results of testing shown that the German varieties performed better than that of Russia. The suitable area for German varieties is on S 53°in Chile.

Pakistan, India, Nepal mainly use their local species H. rhamnoides subsp. turkestanica, H. salicifolia and H. tibetana to collect berries for producing products.

4. Prospect of Utilization of Genetic Resources of Hippophae

4.1 Potential value of wild species of Hippophae

As mentioned above, Hippophae is rich in diversity but only 4 subspecies are used in certain scale. The other 11 species and subspecies are very potential for selection and breeding. For example, H. salicifolia has the highest content of vitamin C ( 1400-1700 mg/100 g ) and its plant has very few thorns; H. tibetana has large berries ( 40-50g/100 berries ) and the highest seed oil content ( 18-19 %); H. neurocarpa and H. neurocarpa subsp. stellatopilosa are real oil seabuckthorn with 12-18 % of pulp oil and 10-14 % of seed oil; H. rham. subsp. caucasica has also large berries with long peduncles.

Generalize all practical utilization of genetic resources of Hippophae, it can be seen that no one variety could be suitable for various environment in all counties that grow seabuckthorn. Each region or country should have their own varieties that adapt their weather and environment. Fortunately, the biodiversity of Hippophae provides a possibility to breed many kinds of varieties that could adapt many different countries all over the world.

4.2 Prospect of Utilization of Genetic Resources of Hippophae

It seems that the most valuable species at moment are H. rhamnoides subsp. mongolica and H. rhamnoides subsp. rhamnoides, H. rhamnoides subsp. sinensis, H. rhamnoides subsp. turkestanica. Based on those 4 subspecies, many good varieties have been bred out and they have been successfully cultivated in many countries. But these varieties are far not favorite due to their some disadvantages. Through various breeding methods these varieties could be improved further by using other species and subspecies of Hippophae.

It is estimated that more than 20 countries have their own breeding programs on seabuckthorn. Each country has its localization of genetic resources so it is needed to make an international cooperation on exchange of genetic resources of Hippophae. It is believed that the favorite and superior varieties will be produced through wide international cooperation.

References


    1. Rousi. A, The Genus Hippophae L., A Taxonomic Study. Annales Botanic Fen.,1971

    2. Lian Yongshan et al. Biology and Chemistry of Hippophae, Gansu

Science & Technology Press, 2000

    1. A Study on Seabuckthorn Breeding for Purpose of Leaves Utilization,

The Global Seabuckthorn Research and Development 2003 No.2,Vol.1 p.17-22

    1. Fernando Sanchez, Curent Seabuckthorn Research Activities in

Chile, The Global Seabuckthorn Research and Development 2003 No.1,Vol.1 p.24-26

5. Manfred Fischer et al.The Seabuckthorn Collection in Germany-an Example for the Neccessatyof Keeping and Sustainable Using of Genetic Resources,Proceedings for the 1st Congress of the International Seabuckthorn Association, September 14-18,2003, Berlin, Germany

6. Lu Rongsen, The Chemical Composition of Hippohae Fruit in China,

International Symposium on Seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Synthesis of Reports, Barnual, Russia 23-25 August, 1993

7. Shan Jinyiou, A Comparative Study on Varieties Introduced Abroad in Suiling County, Helongjiang, China, “HIPPOPHAE”( in Chinese ), Vol.15, No.3, p.13-15, 2002

8. Zhao Hanzhang, Seabuckthorn Cultivation and its Utilization, China Agriculture Press, 1999, Beijing



9. Meng Fanlin et al. A Study on Hybrids Crossbred Russian and Chinese Varieties of Seabuckthorn, (unpublished)


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