Ana səhifə

Text a central Asia’s Lost Civilization


Yüklə 108.94 Kb.
tarix22.06.2016
ölçüsü108.94 Kb.



UNIT

1






Highlights
Text A Central Asia’s Lost Civilization

Text B Central Asia under the Domination of Turkic Empires

Text C Central Asia after the Mongol Conquests





Warm-up

. Lead-in



Answer the following questions.

  1. What is the function of Tigris-Euphrates in the development of world civilization?

  2. Can you tell us something about the reasons and influences of Central Asia’s lost civilization?

. Listening



Fill in the missing words according to what you hear.

By 3000 B.C., the people of the Kopet-Dag had 1 into walled towns. They used carts drawn by domesticated animals, and their pottery resembles the kind later found in Gonur. Many Soviet and Western archaeologists suspect that the Oxus civilization—at least in Margiana, the region in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan— 2 from this Kopet-Dag culture.

What prompted the settlers to abandon the Kopet-Dag and migrate into the area 3 Gonur? One possibility is drought, says Yale University archaeologist Harvey Weiss. He 4 that the same drought that he claims destroyed the world’s first empire—the Akkadians in Mesopotamia—around 2100 B.C. also drove the Kopet-Dag peoples from their homes. If the small streams that poured out of the mountains stopped 5 , life in the arid climate would have been impossible. That would have forced the people of Kopet-Dag to head 6 Gonur and settle by the Murgab River, the only reliable source of water in the Kara-Kum. With its headwaters in distant Hindu Kush glaciers, the river would have continued flowing even in the 7 summers or longest droughts.

Another possibility is that population 8 forced people down from the mountain slopes and onto the plains, where the Murgab then flowed lazily into a delta, creating an oasis of dense brush teeming with game, fish, and birds. That could explain 9 so many Oxus sites are built on virgin soil, as if carefully planned in advance. “The people came from the foothills of the Kopet-Dag with baggage, a knowledge of agriculture, irrigation systems, metal, ceramics, and jewelry making,” says Iminjan Masimov, a retired Russian archaeologist who once 10 Oxus sites in Margiana.


Text A Central Asia’s Lost Civilization

Andrew Lawler

Archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi is unearthing a chain of long-forgotten towns built 4,000 years ago on the plains of modern Turkmenistan. His findings challenge conventional thinking about culture, trade, and religion in the ancient world.

Viktor Sarianidi, barefoot at dawn, surveys the treeless landscape from a battered lawn chair in the Kara-Kum desert of Turkmenistan. “The mornings here are beautiful,” he says, gesturing regally with his cane, his white hair wild from sleep. “No wife, no children, just the silence, God, and the ruins.”

Where others see only sand and scrub, Sarianidi has turned up the remnants of a wealthy town protected by high walls and battlements. This barren place, a site called Gonur, was once the heart of a vast archipelago of settlements that stretched across 1,000 square miles of Central Asian plains. Although unknown to most Western scholars, this ancient civilization dates back 4,000 years—to the time when the first great societies along the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Indus, and Yellow rivers were flourishing.

Thousands of people lived in towns like Gonur with carefully designed streets, drains, temples, and homes. To water their orchards and fields, they dug lengthy canals to channel glacier-fed rivers that were impervious to drought. They traded with distant cities for ivory, gold, and silver, creating what may have been the first commercial link between the East and the West. They buried their dead in elaborate graves filled with fine jewelry, wheeled carts, and animal sacrifices. Then, within a few centuries, they vanished.

Sarianidi had long suspected that similar sites might be found beneath a collection of strange mounds he had glimpsed during a 1950s trip in the Kara-Kum desert, a barren region in the middle of eastern Turkmenistan. Later, during a brief visit to a colleague’s dig in that area in the mid-1970s, he commandeered a car and driver to investigate the site more closely. It was June, he recalled, and the heat was so overpowering he had to overcome an urge to turn back. Then, not far from the rough road, he spotted mounds rising up from the plain.

In treeless areas, such geographic features often indicate ancient settlements formed from mud-brick structures that later human occupation has compressed over time into artificial hills. The site covered so much land that Sarianidi assumed it dated from medieval times. So he was astonished to find pottery resembling what he had found in ancient Bactria.

When the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan forced him and other archaeologists to relocate to other areas of interest, Sarianidi remembered this site, which locals call Gonur, and determined to return. In the early 1980s, he came back to Turkmenistan, working at Gonur and other sites.

What he has uncovered at Gonur is a central citadel—nearly 350 by 600 feet—surrounded by a high wall and towers, set within another vast wall with square bastions, which in turn is surrounded by an oval wall enclosing large water basins and many buildings. Canals from the Murgab River, which once flowed nearby, provided water for drinking and irrigation. The scale and organization of this construction was unmatched in Central Asia until the Persians’ arrival in the sixth century B.C.

Sarianidi’s team has also turned up intricate jewelry incorporating gold, silver, lapis lazuli, and carnelian. Wares in this distinctive style had long been found in regions as distant as Mesopotamia to the west, the shores of the Persian Gulf to the south, the Russian steppes to the north, and the great cities of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, which once flourished to the east—on the banks of the Indus River of today’s Pakistan. Archaeologists had puzzled over their origin. Sarianidi’s excavations seem to solve the puzzle: these items originated in the region around Gonur.

The archaeological record shows that the site was inhabited for only a few centuries. The people of Gonur may simply have followed the shifting course of the Murgab River to found new towns located to the south and west. Their descendants may have built the fabled city of Merv to the south, for millennia a key stop along the Silk Road. Warfare among the Oxus people could have undermined the fragile system of oasis farming, or nomads from the steppes may have attacked the rich settlements. Sarianidi has found evidence that extensive fires destroyed some of Gonur’s central buildings and that they were never rebuilt. Whatever the cause, within a short period, Oxus settlements declined in number and size, and the Oxus pottery and jewelry styles vanished from the archaeological record. The large and square mud-brick architecture of the Gonur people may live on, however, in the clan compounds of Afghanistan and in the old caravansaries—rest stops for caravans—that dot the landscape from Syria to China.

Why the Oxus culture vanished may never be known. But researchers think they have pinned down the origin of these mysterious people. The answers are turning up in traces of mound settlements bordering the rugged Kopet-Dag mountains to the south, which rise up to form the vast Iranian plateau. The most prominent settlement there lies a grueling 225-mile drive from Gonur. At this site, called Anau, three ancient mounds poke up from the plains. Volunteer Lisa Pumpelli is working there in a trench at the top of a large mound with a spectacular view of the Kopet-Dag mountains. She is helping Hiebert, who is now an archaeologist with the National Geographic Society in Washington, D.C., track down the precursors to the Oxus culture. Both are following in the footsteps of Lisa Pumpelli’s grandfather, Raphael Pumpelly, and great-grandfather, also named Raphael Pumpelly (Pumpelly is an alternate spelling of the family name). “I’m digging in my great-grandfather’s back dirt,” Pumpelli quips.

Trained in geology, the elder Pumpelly believed that Central Asia in ancient times was wetter and more fertile than it is now. He hypothesized a century ago that “the fundamentals of European civilization—organized village life, agriculture, domesticationg of animals, weaving, etc.—were originated on the oases of Central Asia long before the time of Babylon.” Such assertions sounded radical—even outlandish—at that time, but Raphael Pumpelly was persuasive. An adventurer and son of an upstate New York surveyor, he persuaded industrialist Andrew Carnegie to fund his expedition, charmed the authorities in Saint Petersburg into granting permission for a dig in 1903, and was even provided with a private railcar. He was 65 years old when he arrived.

Pumpelly clung to his vision of an early civilization that thrived along the rivers flowing down from the Kopet-Dag. Years later, Soviet archaeologists working along the mountain foothills confirmed that as early as 6500 B.C., small bands of people were living in the Kopet-Dag, raising wheat and barley and grazing their sheep and goats on the mountains’ foothills and slopes. That’s a few thousand years after these grains were domesticated in the Near East but much earlier than most researchers had thought likely, supporting Pumpelly’s view that Central Asian culture developed much sooner than commonly believed.

(1,167 words)
New Words

plain // n.

an extensive, level, usually treeless area of land 平原,草原

conventional // adj.

based on or in accordance with general agreement, use, or practice; customary 习惯的,常规的

batter /()/ v.

1. to hit heavily and repeatedly with violent blows 连续击打

2. to damage, as by heavy wear 击碎,捣毁,磨损



regally // adv.

in a royal way 帝王般地,堂皇地

scrub // v.
n.

1. to rub hard in order to clean 用力擦洗2. to remove impurities from (a gas) chemically 擦洗,擦净

straggly, stunted trees or shrubs 矮树丛



remnant /n/ n.

1. something left over 剩余物 2. a surviving trace or vestige; a small surviving group of people 遗迹,遗风

archipelago // n.

1. large group of islands 群岛2. a sea, such as the Aegean, containing a large number of scattered islands 多岛海

drain // n.

1. a pipe or channel by which liquid is drawn off 排水沟2. a gradual outflow or loss; consumption or depletion排水3. something that causes a gradual loss 消耗

orchard // n.

1. an area of land devoted to the cultivation of fruit or nut trees

果园2. the trees cultivated in such an area 果树



impervious // adj.

1. incapable of being penetrated 不渗透的,透不过的2. incapable of being affected 无动于衷的

cart // n.

a small wheeled vehicle typically pushed by hand 运货车,手推车

mound // n.

1. a pile of earth, gravel, sand, rocks, or debris heaped for protection or concealment 土堆,小山 2. a raised mass, as of hay; a heap 堤,筑堤

commandeer /()/ v.

1. to seize for military use; confiscate 征募2. to take arbitrarily or by force 霸占

compress // v.

1. to press together 压缩 2. to make more compact by or as if by pressing 简要叙述

bastion // n.

a projecting part of a fortification 棱堡,堡垒

oval // adj.

resembling an egg in shape 椭圆形的

intricate /n/ adj.

having many complexly arranged elements; elaborate 复杂的,错综的

incorporate // v.

1. to unite (one thing) with something else already in existence;

to cause to merge or combine together into a united whole 合并,混合2. to give substance or material form to; embody 具体体现



lapis lazuli / / n.

an opaque to translucent blue, violet-blue, or greenish-blue semiprecious gemstone composed mainly of lazurite and calcite 青金石

carnelian /i/ n.

a pale to deep red or reddish-brown variety of clear chalcedony, used in jewellery 红玉髓,玛瑙

prowess /pr/ n.

1. superior skill or ability 超凡技术2. superior strength, courage, or daring, especially in battle 英勇,勇敢

repertoire /()/ n.

1. the stock of songs, plays, operas, readings, or other pieces

that a player or company is prepared to perform 保留剧目2. the class of compositions in a genre 全部剧目



scorpion // n.

any of various arachnids of the order Scorpionida, of warm dry regions, having a segmented body and an erectile tail tipped with a venomous sting 蝎子

excavation // n.

1. the act or process of excavating 挖掘,发掘2. a hole formed by excavating 挖掘的洞

millennium // n.

(pl. millennia) a span of a thousand years 一千年,太平盛世

caravansary /rər/ n.

1. an inn built around a large court for accommodating caravans along trade routes in central and western Asia商队旅馆 2. a large inn or hostelry 大旅舍

grueling /u/ adj.

physically or mentally demanding to the point of exhaustion 重罚的,严惩的

trench /n/ n.

1. a deep furrow or ditch 壕沟 2. a long narrow ditch embanked with its own soil and used for concealment and protection in warfare 堑壕

oasis // n.

1. a fertile or green spot in a desert or wasteland, made so by the presence of water 绿洲2. a situation or place preserved from surrounding unpleasantness; a refuge 舒适的地方


Notes to the Text

1. Central ASIA’S Lost Civilization: By Andrew Lawler, Discover, 02747529, Nov2006, Vol. 27, Issue 11.



  1. Kara KumA desert region of Turkmenistan between the Caspian Sea and the Amu Darya. 卡拉库姆沙漠:位于里海和阿姆河之间土库曼斯坦地区的沙漠。

  2. Where others see only sand and scrub, Sarianidi has turned up the remnants of a wealthy town protected by high walls and battlements. 在其他人看来只有沙地和矮树的地方,Sarianidi却发现了曾经被高墙和城垛保护下的残垣断壁。

  3. Tigris—EuphrateThe rivers Tigris and Euphrates in the region now called the Middle-East. The rivers together formed natural borders for an area which harboured several grand ancient civilizations, including Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria. 两河流域,处于中东地区。两河共同构成天然的分界线,其中孕育了丰富的古代文明,如苏美尔、巴比伦、亚素等。

  4. To water their orchards and fields, they dug lengthy canals to channel glacier-fed rivers that were impervious to drought. 为了灌溉果园和田地,他们开掘了长渠来疏导依赖不受干旱影响的、冰川融水的河流。

  5. The site covered so much land that Sarianidi assumed it dated from medieval times. 该地方涉地面积如此之大,以至于Sarianidi曾认为,它的历史可以追溯到中世纪。

  6. BactriaAn ancient country of southwest Asia. It was an eastern province of the Persian Empire before its conquest by the Greeks in 328 B.C. The kingdom was destroyed c. 130 B.C. by nomadic tribes. 大夏。

  7. Murgab RiverRiver in NW Afghanistan and SE Turkmenistan, flowing 600 mi./965 km. from the W Hindu Kush to the Kara-Kum desert, where it disappears into the sand. 穆尔加布河。

  8. MesopotamiaAn ancient region of southwest Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq. The area was the home of numerous early civilizations, including Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria. 美索不达米亚。

  9. Persian GulfAn arm of the Arabian Sea between the Arabian Peninsula and southwest Iran. It has been an important trade route since ancient times and gained added strategic significance after the discovery of oil in the Gulf States in the 1930s. 波斯湾。

  10. HarappaA locality in the Indus River valley of the Punjab in Pakistan. Archaeological finds dating back to the third millennium B.C. include the remains of a well-laid-out city and indicate a possible link between Indian and Sumerian cultures. 哈拉帕。

  11. Mohenjo-DaroA ruined prehistoric city of Pakistan in the Indus River valley northeast of Karachi. Its remains date to 3000 B.C. 摩亨佐达罗。

  12. Kopet-DagA mountain range with a name of Turkic origin from kop “many” and dağ. 科佩特山。

  13. BabylonThe capital of ancient Babylonia in Mesopotamia on the Euphrates River. Established as capital c. 1750 B.C. and rebuilt in regal splendour by Nebuchadnezzar II after its destruction (c. 689 B.C.) by the Assyrians, Babylon was the site of the Hanging Gardens, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. 巴比伦。

  14. An adventurer and son of an upstate New York surveyor, he persuaded industrialist Andrew Carnegie to fund his expedition, charmed the authorities in Saint Petersburg into granting permission for a dig in 1903, and was even provided with a private railcar.作为一名探险家,以及北部纽约的土地测量员,他说服了工业家Andrew Carnegie来资助他的探险,并使得圣彼得堡的权力机构授权他于1903年进行开采,甚至还给他提供了一部私人的轨道车。

  15. Pumpelly clung to his vision of an early civilization that thrived along the rivers flowing down from the Kopet-Dag. Pumpelly 坚持他对繁荣于科佩特山沿岸的早期文明的看法。

Exercises

. Answer the following questions (1-5) and mark true (T) or false (F) statements (6-8).

1. What’s the attitude of Sarianidi towards conventional thinking about culture, trade, and religion in the ancient world?

2. In the Kara-Kum desert of Turkmenistan, why did Sarianidi say “No wife, no children, just the silence, God, and the ruins”?

3. What role did Gonur play in the ancient times?

4. How did thousands of people live in towns like Gonur in ancient times?

5. What was the kind of architecture which the Gonur people may live on?

6. Sarianidi had always believed that similar sites couldn’t been found beneath a collection of strange mounds.

7. The elder Pumpelly believed that Central Asia in ancient times was much better for farm than it is now.

8. It was some hundred years before the grains were introduced in the Near East.


. Put the following sentences into Chinese.

  1. This barren place, a site called Gonur, was once the heart of a vast archipelago of settlements that stretched across 1,000 square miles of Central Asian plains.

  2. They traded with distant cities for ivory, gold, and silver, creating what may have been the first commercial link between the East and the West.

  3. In treeless areas, such geographic features often indicate ancient settlements formed from mud-brick structures that later human occupation has compressed over time into artificial hills.

  4. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, a handful of Western researchers got word of Sarianidi’s finds and began to investigate themselves.

  5. U.S. labs determined that the early phase of the Gonur settlement dated to 2000 B.C.—five centuries earlier than Sarianidi had initially postulated—and that the people grew a wide variety of crops, including wheat, barley, lentils, grapes, and fleshy fruits.

  6. The people of Gonur may simply have followed the shifting course of the Murgab River to found new towns located to the south and west.

  7. Whatever the cause, within a short period, Oxus settlements declined in number and size, and the Oxus pottery and jewelry styles vanished from the archaeological record.

  8. Years later, Soviet archaeologists working along the mountain foothills confirmed that as early as 6500 B.C. small bands of people were living in the Kopet-Dag, raising wheat and barley and grazing their sheep and goats on the mountains’ foothills and slopes.

. Cloze



Fill in the blanks below with words from the following list. However, not all of the words should be used. And change the forms where necessary.


obscure

urban


dig

finding

desert


run

scholar

farther


handful

civilization

nomad


desert

revolution

trade


Greek

News of this lost 1 began leaking out in the 1970s, when archaeologists came to 2 in the southern reaches of the Soviet Union and in Afghanistan. Their 3 , which were published only in 4 Russian-language journals, describing a culture with the tongue-twisting name Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex. Bactria is the old Greek name for northern Afghanistan and the northeast corner of Iran, while Margiana is 5 north, in what is today Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Through the region 6 the Amu Dar’ya River, which was known in 7 history as the Oxus River. Western 8 subsequently used that landmark to dub the newly found culture the Oxus civilization.

The initial trickle of information dried up in 1979 when the 9 in Iran and war in Afghanistan locked away the southern half of the Oxus. Later, with the 1990 fall of the Soviet Union, many Russian archaeologists withdrew from Central Asia. Undeterred, Sarianidi and a 10 of other archaeologists soldiered on, unearthing additional elaborate structures and artifacts. Because of what they have found, scholars can no longer regard ancient Central Asia 11 a wasteland notable primarily as the origin of 12 like Genghis Khan. In Sarianidi’s view, this harsh land of 13 , marsh, and steppe may instead have served as a center in a broad, early 14 network, the hub of a wheel connecting goods, ideas, and technologies among the earliest of urban peoples.
. Group-discussion

Work in groups to discuss the following questions.


  1. What kind of life did the people in the towns such as Gonur live before they vanished? What do you think is the main reason for their vanishing?

  2. What is the great impact of the collapse of Soviet Union on Central Asia?

  3. Why does Sarianidi say, “Here you understand who you are”?


Text B Central Asia under the Domination of Turkic Empires

Imperator Invictus
Turkic Empires: the Early Post-Classical Era (500-1200 CE)


In 552 AD, the Rouran (柔然) Empire collapsed at the uprising of the Gokturks (“Tu-Jue” in Chinese). Under their Kaghan Bumin and his successors, the Gokturks expanded rapidly to encompass (包含,包括) all of greater Mongolia, the lands westward to the Caspian Sea and the lands eastward to Korea. The Gokturks built the most significant steppe empire so far in history, holding large areas of both the eastern and western steppes. The Gokturks destroyed the Hepthalite Empire and waged wars against China and even against Sassanid Iran. However, the vast empire could not maintain its stability, and split into eastern and western divisions. Both empires were weakened by internal instability and eventually defeated in 630 by Tang China, which soon regained control of the Silk Road. The eastern empire was revived (复苏,复活) under new leadership and lasted until its collapse in 744 AD. Even though the Gokturk Kaghanate disappeared, the term “Turk” was passed on to many subsequent Turkic-speaking peoples of Eurasia, including the future Seljuk Turks. The immediate successor to the Gokturk Empire in the east was the Uyghurs. The Uyghurs, another Turkic-speaking people, were once subjects to the Gokturks. As the second Gokturk Empire declined, the Uyghurs seized power in the region. By the 760s, the Uyghur had renewed most of the former power of the Gokturks while the Tang Dynasty faced rebellion and began declining. However, the Uyghurs fell into disunity by the 830s AD and collapsed. Following the collapse of the Uyghur Kaghanate, many smaller kingdoms appeared in the area, but no extensive empire would rule the Eastern Steppes until the Mongols of the 13th century.

The successors of the Gokturks in the west were the Bulgars and the Khazars. The Khazars foraged a strong khanate in the region between the Black and Caspian Sea. The Khazarians kingdom became dominant over the Bulgars and became the major power of the region. The Khazars were also notably unique in their adoption of Judaism as their religion. West of the Khazars, the Steppes near Europe continued to see dynamic influences from the steppes in the form of migrations. One remnant of the Bulgars migrated from the steppes and formed a state near the Danube, north of the Byzantine Empire. The Danube Bulgars would become a significant power in the 9th century. Around that time, one century after the abrupt collapse of the Hunnic Empire, the Avars invaded Europe from the steppes. The Avars launched punitive (刑罚的,惩罚性的) campaigns into central Europe and until settling in Pannonia in the late 500s AD. Avar power continued in Pannonia, where it dwindled (减少,变小) in influence until the Avar state was annexed (吞并) by Charlemagne. Incursions from the steppes resumed in 896, when the Magyars entered the Hungarian plains, from where they launched expeditions into other parts of Europe. After the raids, the Magyars settled permanently in the Hungarian Plains. While nomadic conquests were rather frequent in outer Asia and Eastern Europe, Western Europe proved to be too far from the steppes for sustained nomadic incursions.

In the early 11th century, one branch of Turks, known as the Oghuz Turks, migrated into Southwest Asia where they later became known as the Seljuks. The Seljuks would become significant to the history of both Europe and the Middle East. At the beginning of the migrations, the Seljuks came into contact (or actually, conflict) with the Ghaznavids, another Turkic dynasty that had built an empire around modern-day Afghanistan. After much warfare, the Ghaznavids were defeated. The Seljuks continued into Iran, captured Baghdad, and expanded outward to encompass vast territories from Central Asia, to Egypt and the Mediterranean. In 1071, the Seljuks advanced into Asia Minor, where they defeated the army of Byzantium at Manzikert. The battle of Manzikert resulted in the initiation of the Crusades.

The Seljuk Empire was the largest empire in outer Asia that had its origins from inner Asia. However, the empire only lasted about a century. In 1156, the empire collapsed under a series of revolts. Of the many kingdoms that splintered (分裂) out of the Seljuk Empire, one of the most notable was the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia, which laid the foundation for future Turkish states of Turkey.

As noted earlier, following the collapse of the Uyghur Kaghanate in the eastern steppes, no large nomadic empire could dominate the entire region. New kingdoms appeared in the region and surrounding areas. In the far eastern regions of the Mongolia steppes, the Khitans rose to prominence with their establishment of the Liao Dynasty in 907 in Eastern Mongolia and parts of Northern China. The Khitans were a Tungusic nomadic group, distinct from Turkic nomads and possibly related to the old Xianbei. In 1125, The Khitans were driven out into Central Asia by the Jurchen, another Tungusic group, who proved to be a formidable (强大的,可怕的) war machine. The Jurchen aggressively waged war with the Song Dynasty of China. Their powerful cavalry gave them the upper hand against the Song. The Jurchen captured a significant portion of Northern China, forcing the Song to relocate their capital south. Like many nomadic conquerors, the Jurchen established themselves into local customs, adopting the Chinese Dynastic name of Jin. As lord of Northern China, the Jin saw the steppes nations as their subjects. But the Jin would eventually be overthrown by a new steppe empire.

(879 words)
Notes to the Text

1. Caspian Sea: The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world’s largest lake or a full-fledged sea. It has a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18,761 cu mi).

2. Under their Kaghan Bumin and his successors, the Gokturks expanded rapidly to encompass all of greater Mongolia, the lands westward to the Caspian Sea and the lands eastward to Korea. 在土门可汗及其后人统治时期,突厥人快速地扩张,包围了整个蒙古地区,向西延伸至里海,向东延伸至朝鲜。

3. Göktürks: The Göktürks (“Sky Turks”) were a powerful nomadic confederation of medieval Inner Asia. Known in Chinese sources as 突厥(Tūjué/T’u küe), the Göktürks under the leadership of Bumin Khan (d. 552) and his sons succeeded the Rouran as the main power in the region and took hold of the lucrative Silk Road trade.

4. The silk road is an extensive interconnected network of trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean world, including North Africa and Europe.

5. Following the collapse of the Uyghur Kaghanate, many smaller kingdoms appeared in the area, but no extensive empire would rule the Eastern Steppes until the Mongols of the 13th century. 随着维吾尔王朝统治的瓦解,很多小王国在该地区不断出现,但直到13世纪蒙古人的出现后,才出现了统治东部草原的广大帝国。

6. Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns. The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes, in the main probably speaking a Turkic language, but likely with elements of other linguistic groups, from the steppes of Central Asia.

7. Avar power continued in Pannonia, where it dwindled in influence until the Avar state was annexed by Charlemagne. Incursions from the steppes resumed in 896, when the Magyars entered the Hungarian plains, from where they launched expeditions into other parts of Europe. 从草原的入侵在896年再次燃起,就在此时马札尔人侵入了匈牙利大平原,从这里他们开始了对欧洲其他地区的远征。

8. The Ghaznavids were an Islamic and Persianate dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin which existed from 975 to 1187 and ruled much of Persia, Transoxania, and the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Ghaznavid state was centered in Ghazni, a city in present Afghanistan.

9. The Seljuks continued into Iran, captured Baghdad, and expanded outward to encompass vast territories from Central Asia, to Egypt and the Mediterranean. 塞尔柱王朝继续挺进伊朗,占据了巴格达,向外扩张至大片领域,从中亚,到埃及,直至地中海。此处通过continue 和expand两个动词来强调塞尔柱王朝的入侵路径。

10. New kingdoms appeared in the region and surrounding areas. 如前所述,随着维吾尔王向东部大草原入侵的失败,没有大的游牧帝国能统治整个地区。“as noted earlier”译为“如前所述”,起到承上启下的作用,以引出新王朝建立的条件。

11. In the far eastern regions of the Mongolia steppes, the Khitans rose to prominence with their establishment of the Liao Dynasty in 907 in Eastern Mongolia and parts of Northern China. 在蒙古大草原的远东地区,随着907年在蒙古东部和中国北部建立了辽朝,契丹族发展壮大起来。


Exercises

. Match the following words and expressions in Column A with their Chinese versions in Column B.



Column A Column B

a. Gokturks 1. 装甲兵

b. Silk Road 2. 游牧征服

c. disunity 3. 可汗

d. Kaghan 4. 分裂

e. nomadic conquest 5. 丝绸之路

f. steppe 6. 突厥

g. annex 7. 大平原

h. cavalry 8. 吞并
. Mark the following statements true (T) or false (F).

1. Under the expansion of Kaghan Bumin and his successors, the vast empire maintained its stability.

2. As the second Gokturk Empire declined, the Uyghurs seized power in the region. However, the Uyghur had remained most of the former power of the Gokturks until it collapsed.

3. As the successors of the Gokturks in the west, The Khazarians kingdom became dominant over the Bulgars and became the major power of the region.

4. Because nomadic conquests were rather frequent in outer Asia and Eastern Europe, Western Europe also gradually conquered the steppes for sustained nomadic incursions.

5. After the Uyghur Kaghanate in the eastern steppes collapsed, no large nomadic empire could dominate the entire region.


Text C Central Asia after the Mongol Conquests

Imperator Invictus
The Mongol Conquests: Central Asia from 1200-1500

In 1206, an ambitious warlord named Temujin united the Mongolian steppes under his command. He became Chinggis (Genghis) Khan. Chinggis launched campaigns against the Jin Empire, subjugated the Xixia west of the Jin and conquered the Khwarezmian Empire, which ruled the western territory of the former Seljuk Empire. His successor continued this line of spectacular conquests. The Jin Empire finally fell in 1234 and the Mongols extended their empire westward, incorporating the Sultanate of Rum, all of the western steppes and most of Russia by the 1240s. Further conquests annexed Southwest Asia, cumulating in the capture of Baghdad and the destruction of the Abassid Caliphate. Chinggis’ grandson Kublai completed the conquest of China with the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty in 1271 and the final destruction of the Song Dynasty in 1279. By 1280s, the Mongol Empires had ruled nearly all of Asia, from the Pacific Ocean to Asia Minor.

Although the Mongols had already begun to lose unity by 1260 when individual Khanates gradually became increasingly dependent, the unprecedented magnitude of the Mongol conquests had far-reaching consequences. While earlier nomadic powers had either built vast empires on the steppes of Inner Asia or powerful empires in agriculture lands of outer Asia, the Mongols were the first to hold both Inner and Outer Asia. As a result, the boundary between the regions of Persia and the Western steppes, and the boundary between China and the Eastern Steppes, as well as the regions of Asian Central all disappeared under the overreaching dominion of the Mongols. Trade was able to flourish between the east and the west, and for the first time since the fall of the Tang Empire, the Silk Road was reopened. On the newly opened trade route, ideas and even diseases were able to be exchanged from one side of Eurasia to another. The massive political realignment also had dramatic consequences on the civilizations of Asia. The conquest of China brought about a reunification of the region under a single dynasty, although a foreign one. The establishment of Mongol power in Russia drastically changed the political situation of the former disunited states in the region. The establishment of rule in Persia and the Middle East brought Islam rule in the region to brief halt.

The extent of the Mongol conquest was limited by the Mongols’ growing disunity due to the geographic overextension of the empire. As disunity increases, the Mongols increasingly lost the resources for further conquest. When Kublai died in 1294, no Great Khan was recognized as at least the nominal overlord of the Mongol Dominions. The western divisions of the Mongol Empire, the Ⅱ-Khanate and the Blue Horde, fought for power only to dilute each other’s strength. The Ⅱ-Khanate waged war with the Mameluks, who had grown into a powerful force, but were not successful. Despite failures to further expand into the Middle East, the Ⅱ-Khanate remained as a formidable state until its collapse in 1335, after which the region fell into a state of Chaos. Power was restored later by the Turkic conqueror Timur Lenk (Tamerlane). Timur ruthlessly defeated all his adversaries. The Mongol Khans in Russia, the Ottoman Turks, the Mameluks, the Delhi sultanate were all defeated. With the Central Asian city of Samarkand as capital, Timur’s empire is sometimes considered to be the last great “nomadic” power of the western steppes. However, the empire was short lived and disintegrated a century after he died in 1405. After the fall of Timur’s Empire, the Safavid dynasty rose in Iran. Native rule and Islam were restored and never again would a power derived from the steppes hold power in the region.



The 16th Century and Onwards

Shortly after the collapse of the Il-Khanate, the Mongols also lost hold of China when the Yuan Dynasty was overthrown in 1368 in favor of the Ming Dynasty. The the Ruling line of the Yuan Dynasty retreated back to Mongolia. Despite being expelled, the Mongols were still a formidable power in war. In 1449, the Mongols were able to capture the Ming Emperor in an exceedingly disastrous campaign for the Ming. Continuing threats from the Mongols had already encouraged the rebuilding of the Great Wall of China by the Ming, whose version of the wall is well-known today. Nonetheless, the Mongols were no longer able to stage any permanent conquests of China.

In Russia, the Mongol Khans of the Blue Horde and the later Golden Horde had established themselves as overlords as a result of their successful conquests. The Russian principalities became tributary states to the Mongol Khanates. However, by the 15th century, Mongol grip on Russia had gradually weakened, while the Russian states became increasingly more powerful. In 1380, the Russians defeated the Golden Horde, which afterward, fragmented to a collection of states. By 1503, the Russian principality of Muscovy under Ivan the Great had definitively thrown off Mongol rule. Muscovy began its own campaigns of expansion into Central Asia. One fragment of the Golden Horde, the Khanate of Crimea, survived until 1789.

In the 17th the semi-nomadic Manchus swept down from the steppes east of Mongolia and conquered the Ming. Led by Nurrhacci and his successors, the Manchu conquered Ming China. Manchu conquests represented the last major conquest by a nomadic horseman. Like all foreign conquerors of China, the Manchus became a Chinese Empire, taking the dynastic title of Qing. The Manchus then launched aggressive campaigns against their neighbors. In 1634, the last Mongol Great Khan surrendered to the Manchu. Meanwhile, the Russians continued their impressive expansion into Central Asia. On the eastern steppes, the lands not conquered by the Qing were taken by the Russians. By the 19th century, the Russians had annexed almost of the western steppes.

While Central Asia was still Central Asia, the world has dramatically changed as time moved into the “Modern” period. Though successful for thousands years, nomadic cavalry warfare could no longer maintain its edge against firearms. The rising global presence of “agricultural” states became too difficult for nomadic armies to “sweep and conquer.” Power became more of a matter of economical prowess rather than the skill of individual warriors. Into the modern era, nomadic civilization ceased to be a driving force in history.

(1,033 words)


Exercise

Choose the best answer to each question.

1. Why was trade able to flourish between the east and the west since the fall of Tang Empire?

A. Because Tang Empire encouraged the trade.

B. Because the people hoped to trade with each other and did it secretly.

C. Because all the people united to develop the economy.

D. Because Mongols held both the east and the west.

2. How was the nomadic civilization going on into the modern period?

A. It was still a promoting factor.

B. It was not an important force in history any more.

C. It didn’t matter whether it was still there.

D. There was no longer nomadic civilization.

3. Which one is the last major conquest by a nomadic horseman?

A. Timur.

B. Khwarezmian.

C. Manchus.

D. Mameluks

4. Why had the Mongol Khans of the Blue Horde and the later Golden Horde established themselves as overlords in Russia?

A. Because of the successful conquests.

B. Because of kindness to other people.

C. Because of the help from Russian government.

D. Because of their great property.

5. Why was the extent of the Mongol conquest limited?

A. Mongols were content with their territory.

B. For the Mongols’ growing disunity due to the geographic overextension of the empire.

C. The emperor was short of the ability to lead them to further conquest.

D. Mongols had no money to support their conquest.








Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©kagiz.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət