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Tester Report: Media Campaign Fifth Women


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Tester Report: Media Campaign Fifth Women

I. Summary 2

II. Evaluation goals and questions 2

III. Project Context 3

political negotiations 4

IV. Evaluation Methodology 6

V. Data Summary 7

VI. Gender and ICT Analysis of Findings 15

VII. Putting evaluation results to work 18

APPENDIX 1: Tester profile 19

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APPENDIX 2: Outline of Interviews 22

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I.Summary



The Fifth Women Media Campaign was a joint effort of seven Slovakian women's organizations with an active history in working against violence against women. Their campaign was the first public campaign against violence against women carried out at national level in Slovakia.

The Evaluation of FIFTH WOMAN is not very standard. They had decided to apply for GEM testing just after the completation of their campaign. Since the impacts of the campaign had been already evaluated, they focused in their evalution on the use of ICTs in the campaign against violence against women and the gender differences in the discussion about the issue of violence against women.


They focused on the evaluation of:


  1. the public feedback on the campaign and on the issue of the domestic violence against women

  1. in the comments in the online discussion on the Fifth Women Campaign website (www.stopnasiliu.sk)

  2. in the comments on the articles published in the internet media during the campaign

  1. the communication among the organization associated in the Initiative Fifth Women and their perception about the campaign and use of ICTs in the campaign




II.Evaluation goals and questions



Fifth Women decided to focus on use of ICT in their media campaign against violence against women (VAW), especially they looked at communication with the public, and internal communication among organization associated in the Initiative Fifth women.



Gender and ICT evalaution objectives were:

  • To assess gender differencies in the reactions/comments of women and men in the discussions on the campaign website (www.stopnasiliu.cz) and on the articles published during the campaign in the internet media with special focus on the impacts and the relevance of the campaign

  • To indentify area for improvement in the campaign website with special focus on its efficienfy to promote information about VAW in Slovakia

  • To find about how effectively the different type of ICTs were used in the internal communication and proposed the area for improvement.

The strategic use of ICTs in the VAW campaighns was the main Gender & ICT issue addressed in the evaluation.


Evaluation questions:

  1. Public communication

  • What are the gender differencies in the way how women and men discuss the VAW topic

  • What are the topics most frequently discussed?

  • Is the topics and attitudes towards VAW change during the discussions, which acknowledge the possitive impacts of the campaign?




  1. Internal communication & effectivness of the used ICT in the communication with the public

  • How were the members of Fifth women satisfied with the communication and use of ICTs?

  • What kind of reservation they have concerning the internal communication?

  • Do they suggest some changes to improve the communnication in case of the future projects?

III.Project Context



The campaign Fifth Woman was first media campaign against violence against women carried out at the national level in Slovakia. The Campaign had two following goals:

1. To carry out the first nationwide campaign against gender violence in order to publicly inform on the phenomenon of violence against women as of a gender problem caused by the imbalance of power in the society. We will also inform broad (non-professional, but also professional) public on the causes and extent of violence against women in the Slovak Republic, as well as, on the possible solutions within the campaign how to solve it.

2. To enforce the negotiatory position of women NGOs in the relation to governmental institutions which would consequently lead to assertion of the precautions and activities beneficial for the victims of violence against women.

The Campaign was realized in two periods- from 23rd November to 10th December 2001, and from 14th January to 10th February 2002, due to Christmas period when to gain free space in media and attention of public is very diffucult. To reach its goals the number of activities were realized:




  • media coverage

To prepare massive presentation of the violence against women issue in media the.close cooperation with journalists, who finally prepared great part of media outputs, were developed. The part of media outputs was also composed by representatives of initiative. The Campaign media coverage was monitored, and also reactions were collected through the whole period of campaign. Total number of media outputs was 96 articles. The campaign organizators also assessed poisitivelly the fact, that generally when media were informing about the violence against women they used an entry „every fifth woman is battered“, and also public accepted this entry.


  • infoline fifth woman

On the basis of cooperation with Slovak Telecommunications, the infoline about campaign was launced. Via infoline the public could support the campaign as well as to learn more about violence against women. Infoline was operated every day from 8 am to 24 pm. The all calls were recorde. Before the launch the trainings for infoline workers were held, and background information for different types of calls were prepared. The infoline was active till February 28th, and totally 3 121 calls was recieved, and 672 people supported campaign.


  • website www.stopnasiliu.sk

After some delay we prepared new version of where are The basic information about campaign, the documents about violence against women, media monitoring, discussion forum and list of the campaign’s partners were published on the website www.stopnasiliu.sk. For the period from 23rd November 2001 to 10th February 2002, 5672 people visited the site, mostly from Slovakia, but also from other countries (Czech republic, Austria, Germany, USA, Great Britain, Croatia, Canada, Switzerland, Sweden, Spain, Australia, Denmark, Norway, Poland, Belgium, Hungary, Russia, Ireland, France, Rumenia, Israel, Netherland, Japan, Finland, Italy, Island, Hongkong, Mexiko, American Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Cyprus).

The information about campaign and the issue of violence against women were also placed on the websites of NGOs, for example Moznost volby and Aspekt.



  • political negotiations


Some NGOs from the initiative Fifth Women (Aliancia zien Slovenska, Fenestra, Pro Familia) were active in preparation of drafts of legislation changes of civil and criminal codes. In Slovak parliament two meetings with MPs and Ministry of Justice representatives took place. All political parties declared support to these drafts, what can lead to great progress for victims of domestic violence.



Public discussions about violence against women and gender aspects of this issue, the campaign was presented, were organized across Slovakia.


  • TV and radio clips, internet banner

In cooperation with advertising agency iSTEP Communication the advertising campaign were prepared with slogan „Every fifth woman is battered. Do we care about?“. Agency produced TV and radio clip based on children rhyme. Reputable actor and actress acted in the clips. Strategy of clips was to attract recepients, to draw their attention to problem and emotionally disturb them and make them to interest about the issue.

On the basis of the negotiations with media the orgainzators gained free space in many media.. Campaign was run on 3 national TVs (Markiza, Slovak television, Global) and 1 local TV (Nasa Bratislava) in total amount of broadcasts about 300, on 6 national radios (Fun, Twist, Slovak radio, Expres, Okey, RockFM) and 10 local radios in total amount of broadcasts about 1000.

Members of Fifth Women prepared also internet banner based on the campaign slogan and 8 providers provide them with a free space on their websites. Total views of banner were over 1 million.



  • billboards

The billboard with the same slogan was designed and placed on 100 boards across Slovakia. Graphic design and printing realized iSTEP Communication, Akzent media gave us the boards. As it was first campaign on violence against women in Slovakia, we decided for text form of the billboard, not controversial one, even if agency prepared 3 graphic designs with image. On the billboard we presented infoline number and website as well as NGOs involved in initiative, donors and media partners.



  • publication Fifth Woman: Aspects of Violence Against Women

Aspekt published collection of texts Fifth Woman: Aspects of Violence Against Women, which sums up all relevant documents and information about violence against women and contains also interviews and articles. This activity was not funded from campaign’s budget.


  • presentation of publications Fifth Woman: Aspects of Violence Against Women and I Will Make You Hell

Aspekt prepared public presentation of its books Fifth Woman and I Will Make You Hell. Also discussion about violence against women and campaign fifth woman was held. About 60 people, mostly women, came. This activity was not funded from campaign’s budget.


  • public lecture by Renate Egger: Establishment and development of movement against gender violence in Austria

Well-known Austrian psychologist and expert on violence against women Renate Egger presented on public discussion establishment and development of Austrian movement for women human rights and against gender violence. About 80 people came to this lecture. This activity was not funded from campaign’s budget.


  • theatre performence Don‘t cry, Anna

Theatre from Banska Bystrica performed in theatre Arena in Bratislava its play Don’t cry, Anna, which thematically ended campaign.

The campaign impacts could be assessed positively from different aspects:



  • nationwide level of the campaign using multimedia measures

  • cooperation of seven women NGOs working in the field of violence against women in the initiative fifth woman

  • joint support of most relevant donors long-termly supporting women issues

  • attracting attention of media and political parties

  • braeking taboo issue and starting public discussion

  • presenting the extent of violence against women

  • designation of phenomenon of violence against women as gender-based problem, which springs from asymetry of power in society and challenging myths related with this problem

  • preparation of situation in society for adopting needful legislation changes

  • participation on preparation of legislation drafts

  • realization of first representative public opinions research on violence against women


IV.Evaluation Methodology



Fifth Women Initiative evaluation was very non-standard, since they had decided for additional evaluation of the project after its completion. In contrary with common evaluation, the indicators and evaluation goals were not set in the planning stage of the project, but more than year after it finalization. When developing evaluation goals and questions, they were of course limited by the type of data, which were already collected, or which are still accessible one year after the end of project (like comments in the online discussions).
Evaluation Team

For evaluation was responsible only one person. But there had been two additional consultants, who were involved in the specific phases of evaluation. One of them was a consultant with sociology background, who assisted mainly with the development of methodologies, and the formulation of evaluation question. The second consultant participated in data collection.

The evaluation goals and objectives were discussed with the members of Initiative Fifth Women. Since it was their join project, the all member had to give a consent with the evaluation framework.
Content Analysis

Since the object of the evaluation were the public comments in the online discussion on the Fifth Women Campaign website (www.stopnasiliu.sk) and comments on the articles about campaign published on the internet, the content analysis of each comment was used as evaluation methodology.


Based on the review of sample of comments the following categories were proposed for content analysis:


  • Sex of the author

  • Personal experience with violence

  • Personal experience with violence in the close environment

  • Denouncement of violence against women (VAW)

  • Expression of support to the campaign

  • Questioning the reliability of the statistical figures of maltreated women

  • Rejection of feminism

  • Questioning the effectiveness of the use of financial resources for the campaign

  • Refer to violence against men

  • Causes of violence mentioned:

      • Education and upbringing

      • Aggressor’s own violence

      • Victim of violence herself

      • Both of them

      • Alcohol

  • Attitudes towards institution

      • Attitude toward policy

      • Attitude toward government

      • Attitude toward state

  • Attitude toward law

In this case the indicator was explicit expression of the authors in relation to each category.


Interview

Data about internal communication in Fifth Women Initiative were collected via the interviews with the five representatives of Initiative Fifth Women involved in the realization of the first campaign. The interviews focused on three topics: their motivation to take part in the campaign, ICTs usage during the campaign, and satisfaction with the campaign (for the reason of this report only the part related to ICTs usage is documented below1).



V.Data Summary



  1. Content Analysis






Discussion on the campaign website


Comments on the articles

Number of discussion participants

49

74

Number of comments

66

114

Number of women

28

27

Number of men

38

38

Sex was not able to determinate

0

9

Number of positive rea-

ction on the campaign



women

15

8

men

6

4 (+ 2 without sex determination)

Number of negative rea-ction on the campaign

women

2

0

men

3

0

Most frequent topics

  • The name of the campaign

  • Financing of the campaign

  • Feminism and feminist organization

  • Approach of state institution

  • The possible causes of the violence against women

  • Activities of state institutions and insufficiency of legislation

  • Perception of Gender stereotypes as the underlying causes of the VAW



General facts
Online discussion

The online discussion was active during the whole campaign. It is important to highlight that the discussion on the website was very emotive. There were also three people who tried to disturb it. But these ‘extreme’ opinions were obviously ignored by the rest of participants.


Comments on the articles

74 people made comments on the articles published during the campaign in the different internet media. In case of 9 people, it was not possible to indicate their sex. The commentators discussed the issue in wide perspective, and context, but the articles themselves were barely reflected in their comments. The articles had mainly motivation role.


Personal experience with the VAW
Online discussion

It was possible to conclude that, from the reaction of 28 women and 21 men, there were five women who have experienced violence in their lives. Few other participants mentioned that they encountered violence in their close environment.


Comments on the articles

In the 9 cases, the comments described direct experience with VAW, personal or in the close environment.


Denouncement of the VAW
Comments on the articles
The VAW was denounced in majority of comments. 23 people (11 men, 9 women, 3 not indicated their sex) denounced it explicitly in their comments. One man defended the violence. Nobody has reacted on his comment.
Expression of the support to the campaign
Online discussion
More than half of discussion participants expressed their support to the campaign, or rejected the violence against women (very often the violence against human being generally). The majority from them were women (15 women, and 6 men).
During the whole discussion, some negative feedbacks on the campaign appeared several times, but it was not more than one quarter of all comments. With exception of one or two comments, the reactions did not express doubts about the sense of whole campaign, but they tried to reduce its meaning by pointing out other important social problems: “There is more serious problem, about which nobody cares, in this state. Everybody has to solve his/her family problem him/herself, and this campaign can not change anything on it.” Also the issue of violence against children, men and animals was mentioned quite often:” I am the fifth men, I am maltreated, and do you care about?”
Comments on the articles

The campaign was supported in 14 comments (8 from women, 4 from men, and 2 have not indicated their sex).

Nobody expressed doubts about the campaign, but again, there were several negative comments on feminist background of campaign organizers.

But as in case of discussion on the website, the number of men (12), but also two women, mentioned the problem of violence against men. 4 people have also emphasized the seriousness of the violence against children, which they considered to be far more important.


Questioning the effectiveness of the use of financial resources for the campaign
Online discussion

Those who reacted negatively on the campaign explained it by distrust of feminism and feminist organizations, or by possibility to use the money more effectively for example on the construction of Safe House for victims.

The finance issue was mentioned several times in discussion by different participants. From their opinions, it was possible to determine that the participants did not have information, who is involved in this campaign, from which resource it is financed, and what are the responsibilities and goals of its organizers. There were opinions as: ‘Money allocated to such projects can be better used to construct safe houses for victims.’
Comments on the articles

There were few comments about the bad usage of financial resources. And when they had appeared, there were ignored by other readers.


Rejection of feminism
Online discussion

It was mainly men who mentioned the feminism, but in two cases also women. They characterized the feminist movement as movement which is trying to gain power: You, feminists, are smartly trying to get support from other emancipate women via ‘innocent’ campaign fighting for right of ‘innocents’. You enforce your interests also in Slovakia…You boys, who are supporters of emancipation, you need to know, that feminists want only to use us for the achievement of their interests, and then they will start to fight also against you, in case you will not subordinate them...” More important than reaction on the term feminism (from reaction it was evident, that they react more on the term, than on movement itself, and that they do not know any more relevant information about it), that some of the discussion participants, approximately five participants, understood the gender background of the violence against women:” I do not like the opinions that only woman role is giving the birth to children, she is only good for satisfaction of men sexual desire, or to keep house clean…according what right women subordinate men?”


I think that there are no women in the world, who had not at least one experience with man showing his superiority over her. It does not matter, if it happens in work or home. Almost all my colleagues are men. I do not need to say, how it was difficult to assert myself. What is for man self-evident, women need to gain by hard work. And even then they look on you as on some anomaly, and they had in mouth never expressed remark: What are you doing here, you have to take care of your family and children, and do not occupy the place of our men, the creators of the life.”
Comments on the articles
15 entrees commented negatively on the feminism (11 men, 3 women). The positive reaction was written in majority by women (6 women and 2 men). In contrary to discussion on the campaign website, the feminism was not linked with power ambitions here. The negative reactions reflected bad portrayal of feminism in the Slovak society:”… feminists themselves are not normal. Nobody take them right to fight for women rights. But they remind me about communists, who were also “only fighting for the rights of workers”. I am not saying that women do not have difficult life, but it is not reason to legitimate feminism.”
There was also reaction focusing on stereotypes in the men roles: “I do not know if I have to laugh or cry. I do not think, that I subordinate my wife, neither my wife suffer. Sometime I am realized that we are living too fast, and I admire my wife, that she is able manage these everyday things, like children….

It is not easy to materially and spiritually care about family. You need money for it. I do not understand why there are so many articles concerning these issues in last few years. I do not know, what the feminists want to achieve? – get as much as one can out of him?

    1. It is a man who secures family materially

    2. Women secure herself better than man

    3. Women live longer than men

    4. The law is on the side of women (in divorce, in issues of care about children, I have never heard about the case when men take a legal action against woman for .. violence (for example psychical)

Woman always knows how to get the man to do what she wants…”

Doubts about the statistical figures of maltreated women
Online discussion

Most of the discussions focus on the name of the campaign “Fifth Women”. Four men asked about the number itself (number of women, who have personal experience with violence). According to their opinions, the number is too high. There were 7 participants (3 men and 4 women), who defended the figures. The whole discussion about percentage of women victims of violence against women in Slovakia was quite emotional. The official and more exact figures about the situation in Slovakia could help to convince those, who have tendency to make this problem smaller.2

In my opinion, this high number is not realistic, and I have expected, that you will base it on some serious survey… My suspicion was right – this initiative is not undertaken by professional social worker, but feminists. And those numbers quoted in their propaganda are not real. I think that men, who strike their women, are idiots. I care about my family, and could not imagine beating my wife, or children. I do not support violence against women, but you can not make the idiots from people in such sensitive issue, by presenting exorbitant data.”
Comments on the articles

The figures of maltreat women was not so ‘hot topic’ in comments on the articles, as in discussions on the website. Only 4 people query about the figures, and 1 woman defended those figures.


Attitudes towards institutions and law
Online discussion

Other very frequent topic was approach of various state institutions to issues of domestic violence against women. The participants mentioned such institutions as police, government, or state generally. Almost in all cases these institutions were referred in negative context. Most critical comments were made about police. The police was criticised mainly because of its incapability to take an action against bully.

And policy…sorry for laughing. When my biologic father was striking my mum, and he even had a knife, we were hidden in next room and hold the handle, so he could not open the door. We had called to police, but when they arrived they told they could not to break to the flat without reason. That they can break in only in the case, when something has already happened... Oh, my dear, that is real problem! The bully can kill you with the policy behind the doors!” The other 7 comments expressed very similar views.

The state, the government and law were mentioned by 5 participants. They usually criticised acts and government, who is not able to change the legislation, and make it more effective to eliminate the violence against women. In total the state institution received 14 negative comments, approximately the same number from women as from men. And only two reactions tried to defend the police in the sense that not all policeman are the same.


Comments on the articles

As in the case of discussion on the campaign website, the effort of state institution to eliminate the VAW was the second most frequented topic in the comments on the articles. 24 people made comments about this topic, some of them several times. The lack of activity undertaken by police criticised 7 women and 2 men, again two reactions defended the police. 4 critical comments on the policy ware coming directly from the victims of domestic violence, or from people who had personal experience with VAW in their close environment. “Let me know, whose mother beat the father. I know a lot of cases from my environment, when man beats woman. In one case he even threatened his wife that he will kill her in case she will divorce him. And how did police respond? “Until he kills you, there is nothing what we can do.” What you think, how is it to live in such a household”.


9 women and 2 men commented the lack of effort of government, while 2 men were satisfied with actual situation. It was possible to indicate also the satisfaction with actual legislation in those two comments. However 10 women and 1 man disagreed with their opinions.
Causes of violence mentioned
Online discussion

The participants discussed also the causes of the violence against women. Among the causes they mentioned the character of the bully, his education, his upbringing, the social environment, the law, family and the institutions.


Comments on the articles

The underlying causes of violence against women were main topic discussed by readers in comments. The character of offender (man) was indicated as the causes of violence in 11 comments (8 women, 3 men).


But in nine reactions the violence was caused by victim (women) herself, who provoked the violence by her behaviour. Another comments pointed out that it is her fault, since she married the person, who has already behaved violently before the marriage:” According to the nongovernmental organization, every fifth women is maltreated by her husband. Ok, I am sorry. But nobody forced you to marry those men. Where were your eyes before the marriage?” In all cases, those comments were written by men. Two men also supposed that both partners (woman and man) are quietly. One man also had opinion that the violence in family is caused mainly by alcoholism and difficult financial situation in family.
The opinion that the education and upbringing can lead to maltreatment of women in relationship was expressed by 11 people. However only few of them saw the cause in low education, majority thought that upbringing is responsible for the violent behaviour of men: “In majority women take care and upbringing children in our society. We (women) are responsible, that our sons are spoiled and incapable individuals, who are solving their incapability in partner’s relationships by physical power.”

In total the 35 comments were made about this topic, and 75% percent of them were written by men.




  1. Interviews with representatives of the organizations involved in the Initiative Fifth Women

(for the purposes of this report, only the part concerning the use ICT during the campaign is documented).

The respondents assessed differently the use of ICT’s for internal communication, and communication with public during the campaign. In case of the communication among organization associated in the Initiative Fifth Women, the most important objective was to secure/support cooperation and coordination of all seven organizations. The frequency of e-mail exchange was high; “There were a lot of e-mails exchanged, since we wanted to assure that those seven organizations will be participated really actively. We had to be also very operative and flexible… since very often the decisions needed to be done from day to day...”

But also personal meetings played very important role: “I think, it was really crucial, that we decided for regular face-to–face meetings. It is not possible to explain everything via e-mail. There is not possibility to use intonation and other non-verbal communication. Due to that, the misunderstandings are often. It was really good, that we can explain some things face-to-dace, even it was time-consuming…”

We had to use also other ICTs as phone and fax for internal communication. But the e-mail was used the most frequently as communication tool.

In the communication with public there were used different kinds of tools:

Phone – we established the infoline for public, and also the webpage was created with the open space for discussion. As a component of the campaign we used also TV and radio spots, billboards, and we took a part in TV and radio programs. We published the number of articles in print and internet media. Also in the communication with public the live contacts in form of the public discussions or the culture events were very important. The low interest of the official state TV channel to cooperate was assessed negatively by the number of respondents.




impact assessment criteria







quantitative

estimated amount

real amount

media campaign recipients

at least 2 million

*

TV clip recipients

1.8 million

*

radio jingle recipients

250 thousands

*

billboard recipients

350 thousands

*

media outputs




93

discussions in TVs and radios

10

35 media outputs in TVs and radios

12 TV and radio programs



articles and documents for printed media

18

25

calls to infoline

5000

3121

website visits

500

5672

TV clip broadcasts

at least 50

300

radio jingle broadcasts




1000

billboards




100

* We have not realized either poll or analysis of media market share to assess the exact amount, but we suppose that we have addressed at least 2 million people (the amount of people that we aimed to at least target) as campaign had strong media support and we had free advertising space in many media, also in the most popular ones.

Considering the topic of communication during the campaign, the most respondents took exception to internal e-mail communication. According to them, the late feedback, and the misunderstanding were quite often: “...how ICTs were used among ourselves – it was a little bit more problematic issue, but is not about technologies, is about mutual relationships. “ The issue of the lack of reactions on received e-mails were mentioned several times in the interviews. There was also mentioned a problem that not all organizations responded in time, when some decision needed to be urgently done.

But in overall picture, the communication were valuated as good:“...there were a lot of misunderstandings and some responses provoked small fights/argumentations among us, but thanks to the flexibility of e-mail communication and the face-to-face meetings there were also a lot of work well done. Mainly thanks to the internet, the decision-making process was very democratic, since everybody could participate in the discussions and express her/his opinions. “

The proposed changes concerned mainly the internal communication among NGOs associated in the Initiative Fifth Women. Some of the proposals were already implemented in the second phase of the campaign:” Since the responses on the e-mails were very often late, and the number of working team members very often did not respond at all, it was agreed to confirm each received e-mail. Also to prevent conflicts, the face-to-face meeting started to be facilitated. “

There was also proposal to organize the psycho-social training in the communication skills for involved stakeholders: “The communication rules should be better defined, especially concerning the timely feedback. In case there will be again involved more subjects in the preparation of the next campaign, I think, it could be really useful for them to go through communication, and maybe also conflict-solving training...“

VI.Gender and ICT Analysis of Findings



Gender differences in perception of VAW
The evaluation findings acknowledge that they exists significant difference in perception of the VAW by women and men. Generally the women react more positively on the campaign than men. The men felt to be directly accused of the violence behaviour against women. They often emphasized that men are victims of violence too.

Also more men than women were questioning the effectiveness of the use of financial resources for the campaign. The interesting finding is that when men had attacked the feminism, the comments of women appeared which were questioning the worthiness of feminist’s organization by highlighting the issue of the money misused in NGO sector. In the total the men perceived feminism more negatively than men (11 men and 3 women refused feminism, while 6 women and only 2 men made positive statement about it.)


The personal experience (directly, or in close environment) with VAW had 8 women, but only 1 man, which indicates the women are more sensitive to this issue.
The significant differences among women and men were in the perceptions of the possible causes of the VAW. In majority (with one exception) the men considered “the consume style life” as a main cause of the VAW. This phrase is describing the men related gender stereotypes, assigning them orientation on success, and the responsibility to generate enough income to satisfied material needs of their family. Also only men admitted the opinion that women themselves are responsible for the violence against them, since they provoke it by their behaviour, or by the selection of the partner with the inclination to violence.
Most emerging topics concerning the issue of violence against women
The most discussed topics were the possible causes of VAW, the lack of activity undertaken by state institution, the weak law, the incapability of the policy, and the perception of gender differences in social and economical roles. Especially the gender stereotypes in education and upbringing of girls and boys were highlights several times by different discussions participants as the causes of the VAW.

Also several ‘myth’ about VAW appeared in the discussions. It show, that the focus on the ‘myth’ elimination as one of the campaign specific objectives was successful strategy to raise public awareness about the causes and extent of violence against women in the Slovak Republic.


Changes in the public attitudes towards VAW as the positive impact of the campaign
In the contrary to discussion on the campaign website, there was possible to find the positive change in the attitudes towards VAW and the campaign in the comments on the articles. The reason, why the change was tracked only in the comments on the articles, is probably in regular submission of new impuls and information to this discussion in the form of the published articles. Also discussion facilitation can have the same positive impact on the changes in the perception of the VAW.

Strategic use of online discussions in the media campaign against VAW
The use of website discussions and infoline enabled Fifth Women team to collect the feedback on the campaign and to track the changes in the perception of this issue by the public. Even it is possible to presume, that there will be not big differences in the opinions and the way communication in the relevance to the used media (for example the differences in the expressed opinions in the public and the online discussions). It is clear, that the anonymity of virtual discussions lead to more personal, open and also critical expressions. On the other hand, the negative comments are very often made without additional explanation of why’s. Also it is not such easy to change the topic of the discussion to less relevant in the TV or radio.
The number of comments did not concentrate on the VAW issue, and also several times the attacks among participants appeared. The discussion participants also often asked the questions in their comments, which were usually not responded.

Those findings show that the facilitation can increase the efficiency of the online discussions to promote the information about VAW, and to positively affect the public perception and sensitiveness towards this issue. The facilitator should be responsible for providing expert answers to raised questions, and to keep the discussed topics relevant to the issue of VAW.

The findings also demonstrate that it is crucial to submit regularly new information and stimulus to sustain effectively of the online discussion. But the high frequency of the articles exhausted the discussion. It was possible to map out the relation between the discussion length and the depth of the discussion about the particular topic. To sustain discussion it is better to submit only one new article in every two week.
Since several people with personal experience of VAW visited the webpage, it is important to highlighted the contacts, and provide more information about the assistance services offered by different stakeholders.
There were also a lot of comments which refer to violence against animal and other kind of non-gender related type violence. The URL name of the campaign's webpage („stop violence”) probably evocated that the webpage is focused on the violence in general. The change in the website title can assist to eliminate the number of non-relevant comments.
The evaluation demonstrates that the public must be provided with the more detailed information about the campaign concerning mainly the financial resources and their use, as well as about the other activities of organizers targeting women.

To target men it is important to focus also on the stereotypes perceptions of the men’s roles, which affect negatively men and their behaviour.


Effectiveness of different ICTs in the campaigns combating VAW
For internal communication the various kind of ICT were used – e-mail, phone, fax. The e-mail communication was most frequent. The several problems experienced via virtual communication were mentioned by respondents, as the frequent misunderstanding, and late or even missing feedbacks, which often hindered the decision-making process. On the other hand participatory aspect of e-mail communication was emphasized, which enable to involve all stakeholders to decision-making process.

The combination of regularly face-to-face meetings with e-mail communication helps to eliminate misunderstanding. To overcome these disadvantages of online communication the respondents also suggested to organize the psycho-social training in communication and conflict solving for the all partners involved in the project in the future.


Even there were the reservations against ICTs, and importance of personal meetings was highlighted by several respondents, the ICTs, and especially internet, play crucial role in successful implementation of the campaign. As show the differences between estimated and real amount of targeted people by the campaign (see table above), the potential of internet was much bigger than was originally estimated in the design of the campaign. 11 times more people visited the website, than was estimated, and the number of visitors was even bigger than the number of people who called on the information phone line (3121 calls on infoline, 5672 website visits). It is difficult to identify the underlying causes in the preferences of the various ICTs, but probably the low awareness about the opportunities and possible applications of the internet tools in the combating VAW, as also lack of ICTs skills and equipment in the local women NGOs, played significant role in their decisions.
Considering the still increasing number of the internet users the effectiveness of internet and phone to provide background information about the media campaign against VAW must be assessed in the case of the next campaign.


VII.Putting evaluation results to work


Findings disseminations

The evaluation results were shared with the members of the Initiative Fifth Women. They plan to share the findings from the first part of the evaluation concerning the gender differences in the comments of women and men on the campaign and the issue of VAW generally also with other women working in women NGOs and dealing with the violence against women.


Next steps
As part of the evaluation the several recommendations were proposed in relation to the Fifth Women website and the internal and external communication during the VAW media campaign projects. The findings will be incorporated in the design of the new webpage of EsFem (the member organization of the Fifth women). The evaluation results provide also very useful information for the organization of the next VAW campaigns, but they can be applied in the all activities involving the communication with public.


APPENDIX 1: Tester profile

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GEM Testing Profile

Name of Initiative:

Media Campaign Fifth Women




Project Holder/s OR Lead Organisation:

Initiative Fifth Women


(joined initiative of seven Slovak feminist’s organization:Alliance of women of Slovakia, Altera, Aspekt, Eset (EsFem), Fenestra, Possibility of choice, ProFamilia)


GEM Testing Contact Person(s) Details:

Monika Bosa (director of EsFem)

Osuského 36

851 03 Bratislava

Slovakia


esetka@yahoo.com
00421 2 6252 5054

Objectives of the Project:

- Overall Objectives

- Specific Objectives


Overal Objectives

  • To address at least 2 milion people

  • To achieve a light change in victimization of violence against women

  • To raise the level of public awereness to violence against women and situation of victims


Specific Objectives

  • Legislative change

  • Strengthening of feminist NGOs

Expected Outputs:




  • successful realization of the first nationwide compaign against violence against women

  • starting and preserving the public discussion on the issue of violence against women

  • informing public on the extent of violence against women

  • the issue of violence against women to become political issue (legislative changes)

  • the strenghtening position of feminist NGO’s




Project Components / Activities:




  • PR activities

  • Supportive public activities (publications, public lectures and promotional activities, infoline, theater performance)

  • Media advertising campaign (tv spot, radio spot, billboards, info line, web page, public oppinion research)

Target Audience:

  • public

  • politicians

  • media

Duration of the Project:

Completed

(November 2001 – End of February 2002)

General Evaluation Goals

The use of various ICTs in the media campaign against violence against women (VAW), especially they looked at communication with the public, and internal communication among organization associated in the Initiative Fifth women.




Specific Gender Goals

•To assess gender differencies in the reactions/comments of women and men in the discussions on the campaign website (www.stopnasiliu.cz) and on the articles published during the campaign in the internet media with special focus on the impacts and the relevance of the campaign


•To indentify area for improvement in the campaign website with special focus on its efficienfy to promote information about VAW in Slovakia
•To find about how effectively the different type of ICTs were used in the internal communication of women’s organization and proposed the area for improvement.


Gender and ICT Issues to be Addressed in the Evaluation

strategic use of ICTs in the VAW campaighns




Evaluation Questions


Public communication

  • What are the gender differencies in the way how women and men discuss the VAW topic

  • What are the topics most frequently discussed?

  • Is the topics and attitudes towards VAW change during the discussions, which acknowledge the possitive impacts of the campaign?


Internal communication & effectivness of the used ICT in the communication with the public

  • How were the members of Fifth women satisfied with the communication and use of ICTs?

  • What kind of reservation they have concerning the internal communication?

  • Do they suggest some changes to improve the communnication in case of the future projects?




Indicators Used for the Evaluation:

Comments on the Internet:

-sex of the comment’s author

-explicit expression made by the comment’s author in relation to each define category

Interview with the representants of the Initiative Fifth Women:

-perception of the respondent

-proposal made by respondent


- number of outputs according to each ICT (number of website visitors, number of cals to info line)


Methodology/ies used in Evaluation:




  • Content analysis of the public comments on the internet

  • Interview (with the representants of Initiative Fifth Women, who was active in first campaign)

Project stakeholders:

  • women working in fith woman organizations

  • women working in women NGOs dealing with violence against women issue




Using results (Initial dissemination ideas for evaluation results):

Dissemination of the findings:

  • evaluation report: to members of Fifth Women

  • findings about gender difference in communication about VAW: to women activists dealing with violence against women issue

Using Results:



  • the suggestions from respondent and evaluation findings will be implemented to the design of EsFem website

  • the evaluation results will be used for internal and external communication in case of the next media campaign against VAW

  • the conclusion provide usefull information for the all activities concerning communication with the public


Members of evaluation team:



1 member of Initiative Fifth Women, responsible for the evaluation



2 external consultant, who participated in the data collection and indicator&methodologies development


Timeline of the Evaluation Process

period

activity

6 / 2003

Creation of questionaire, structure of interview, information seminar for ancestry

7-8 / 2003

Text analysis, finishing creation of questionnaires

9-10 / 2003

Text analysis, collecting questionnaires

10 / 2003

Interpretation of results

11 / 2003

Final report and translation to English



APPENDIX 2: Outline of Interviews

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  1. Motivation to take part in the campaign3

    1. Why do you dedicate to the issue of the violence against women?

    2. Why do you decide to participate in the campaign?

    3. Why do you select the partner NGOs for the campaign?

    4. How do you select the name of the campaign?




  1. ICTs usage during the campaign

    1. How do you work with the ICTs during the campaign? What kind of communication tools do you used during the campaign? (TV, radio, prints, conference, workshops, culture events, web page, e-mail, phone, face-to-face meeting, lobbying..)

    2. Are you satisfied how the ICTs were used in commucication with the target groups (what you like, and dislike about about them)?

    3. What do you recomend to change in relation to ICTs use and communication concerning this kind of media campaign?

    4. What kind of ICTs do you use for internal communication among members of Fifth Women?

    5. Are you satisfied how the ICTs were used in the internal communication?

    6. What do you recommend to change concerning the internal communication?




  1. Satisfaction with the campaign

    1. Do you think that there were difference between first and second the campaign? – If yes, what kind of difference

    2. What were the achievments? – can you list them

    3. What were the failurs? – can you list them

    4. How do you see the future of the campaign?

1 The information concerning the two other parts are available in Slovak Language, for more info please contact gem-cee@apcwomen.org

2 Actually there are available figures from representative statistical survey, which reaaffirm that the real numbers are even higher.

3 *for the reason of this report only the part related to ICTs usage is documented


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