SURVEY OF NATURAL RESOURCES
[Botanical Survey of India, Zoological Survey of India, Forest Survey of India, The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Forests and Plantation Development Corporation Ltd; Port Blair]
Survey of Flora
Botanical Survey of India
Botanical Survey of India (BSI) was established in 1890 with the basic objectives of carrying out floristic surveys. It was revived and reorganised in 1954. During the successive plan periods, its functions have been gradually expanded. The objectives and perspectives of Botanical Survey of India were thoroughly reviewed in 2002 by the subcommittee constituted by Programme Advisory Committee (PAC) for Botanical Survey of India and Zoological Survey of India.
– Exploration, inventorisation and documentation of phytodiversity in general and protected areas, hotspots, fragile ecosystems and sacred groves in particular; publication of National, State and District Floras.
– Monitoring Phytodiversity to evaluate the qualitative changes in species rich and sensitive areas; ex-situ conservation of critically threatened taxa in botanical gardens.
– Identification of species with traditional economic uses and preparation of protocols for their conservation and sustainable utilization.
– To complete a national database of plant species, herbarium specimens, live specimens, illustrations, relatives of cultivated species and economically important species.
Fig 1. Epiphyllum oxypetalum - “The queen of the night” in full bloom
Survey, inventorisation and documentation of non-flowering plants, monographic studies on selected plant groups, qualitative and quantitative study of the diversity of selected economically useful species. User Manual for Plants & Plant Parts. Plants combating Global Warming - their selection, multiplication etc Capacity building in plant taxonomy through refresher courses and post M.Sc., certificate course, environment impact assessment of areas assigned to BSI for study, develop and maintain botanical gardens, musea and herbaria and Preparation of Pollen Atlas of Indian Plants.
The major activities of BSI during the year under different programmes
Botanical Exploration and Inventorisation of Phytodiversity
Field Tours and Herbarium consultation tours : Eighty one field / exploration / collection tours were undertaken by circle officers and units of BSI covering different districts, regions, four wetlands, nine wildlife sanctuaries, one alpine sanctuary, one marine sanctuary, two reserve forest, two national parks and one biosphere reserve of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal : Collected 9,500 field nos including lower groups of plants viz. algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes and pteridophytes. About 3,900 specimens belonging to 1,350 species were identified by different circles / units of BSI
Fig 2. Corydalis crassifolia Royle - a rare plant of Cold Desert, Ladakh
Fifteen herbarium consultation tours were undertaken to BSD, DD, CAL, ARUN, ASSAM, MH, BSI, BSISHC, BLATT and herbaria of National Botanical Research Institute, Central Drug Research Institute, State Forest Research Institute in connection with the various revisionary and floristic studies under National flora and State / Region / District flora. Determinative slips attached to 95 herbarium sheets.
Fig 3. A closeup of Abutilon ranadei Woodrow and Stapf.
Documentation of Phytodiversity
– Manuscripts of family Aspleniaceae, Cactaceae, Combretaceae, Podostomaceae, Ulmaceae, Ebenaceae and Cannabinaceae have been completed. Work on family Ceratophyllaceae, Orchidaceae, Lauraceae, Polygonaceae, Casuarinaceae, Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Carpinaceae, Urticaceae, Ebenaceae, Smilacaceae, Acanthaceae (Genus : Strobilanthes & Tribe : Justiceae), Leguminosae (Tribe : Galegae), Buddlejaceae and Thymelaeaceae are in different stages of progress. Completed description of 97 species and prepared a State-of-Art report under Gymnosperms of India.
– Nomenclature and taxonomic description of 57 species belonging to Asteraceae, Ehretiaceae, Meynanthaceae, Hydrophyllaceae, Boraiginaceae & Convolvulaceae have been completed under Flora of Assam, Vol II.
– Manuscript of 200 species under Flora of Assam (Orchidaceae) is under finalisation.
– Description of 50 species under Flora of Mizoram, Vol. II has been completed. Final computer typing of Flora of Nagaland, Vol. 1, (Families Ranunculaceae to Mimosaceae) completed and ready for submission and started final computer typing of Flora of Nagaland, Vol. 2 & completed 14 families.
– Studied and prepared manuscript of 41 species of Orchidaceae and 40 species of Euphorbiaceae under Flora of Sikkim.
– Work on flora of Uttar Pradesh is in progress and a revised checklist of 83 families from Ranunculaceae to Apiaceae containing 340 genera, 807 species and 107 cultivated species is prepared and completed 194 species.
– Sixty eight species have been completed for Flora of Cold Desert of Western Himalayas, Vol. II. Key to species of Asteraceae and 21 species of Rubiaceae under Flora of Jammu & Kashmir Vol. II is completed.
– Description of 50 species under flora of Haryana is completed.
– The species reference cards for all the families except 40 families are finalized for flora of Uttaranchal.
Fig 4. Vanda coerulea Lindl. ‘Blue Vanda’
– Seven hundred and fifty nine species have been finalised for flora of Karnataka, Vol.1. Completed the preparation of generic keys for 98 genera and proof of 208 species has been corrected and final manuscript of 70 pages have been written for flora of Karnataka, Vol. I (Monocot) – Poaceae. One hundred forty seven families out of 158 families under flora of Karnataka, Vol. II (Dicot) have been completed.
– The manuscript of flora of Kerala, Vol. I consisting of 500 species, starting from Ranunculaceae to Cornaceae, with about 100 photographs is ready for publication and the manuscripts for flora of Kerala, Vol. II are taken up for editing.
– Completed the manuscript writing for two families (Thunbergiaceae and Symplocaceae) and also completed the computerization of the data of flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands – Vol. II for 25 families, 85 genera and 190 species including 13 cultigens. Indexing and description writing of genera & species of families Acanthaceae, Verbenanceae, Amaranthaceae, Polygonaceae and Saptotaceae under flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Voll II has been carried out. Nomenclature of 126 species with flowering & fruiting, distribution, ecologies, comments and the key of species of family Poaceae under flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Vol. III has been updated.
– Under flora of West Bengal, completed 126 species belonging to 40 genera under family Acanthaceae and final typing of the manuscript is in progress. Also completed the taxonomic study of nine species of Asclepiadeceae, 10 species of Convolvulaceae, 27 species of Commenlinaceae, three species of Lemnaceae, one species of Burmanniaceae, one species of Taccaceae, two species of Agavaceae, one species of Hypoxidaceae, seven species of Smilacaceae, four genera of Papilionanaceae, 38 species of Panicoidceae, 20 species of Solanaceae and two species of Musaceae.
– Ninety species have been completed under flora of Ganjam district, Orissa. Prepared a list of 450 species under plants of Sangli district, Maharashtra.
– Description of twelve species completed under Pteridophytic flora of Western Himalayas. Description, ecology and distribution of twenty four species of Caryophyllaceae have been completed under flora of Cold Desert, Vol II (Dicot). Description of eight species completed under Aphyllophorales of North West Himalayas. Manuscript of 127 species in fifty genera belonging to three families completed under Flora of Maredumilli range, East Godawari district. A check list of 100 species prepared under flora of Kumbh Mela Area, Haridwar, ca. 450 species described under the flora of Kumbh Mela Area, Nasik. Description of 300 species has been completed under flora of Kumbh Mela Area, Allahabad and Ujjain.
Germplasm of twenty five rare, endangered and wild relatives of ornamentals and medicinally important plant species conserved, multiplied and maintained. Seventeen rare and threatened plants, 264 medicinal and economic important plants, 362 ornamental plants have been collected, introduced and maintained in different experimental gardens of BSI.
– The fluorescence of powdered pitcher of Nepenthes khasiana under ultraviolet radiation was studied after treatment with several reagents. The characteristic fluorescence with each reagent was observed and the data pertaining to colour was recorded under the work of Pharmacognostic Studies on the selected plants of Negative List of Export.
– Recasted the manuscript of 170 species of Wild Economic Plants of Tamil Nadu.
– Documented traditional knowledge of twenty eight plants collected from Sambalpur, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts and accumulated information on fifty six ethnobotanical uses.
Fig 5. Lilium mackliniae Sealy ‘Siroi lily’ - endemic to Manipur
– Forty four specimens belonging to sixteen species of the tribe Antirrhinideae of the family Scrophulariaceae have been studied palynologically. Nineteen photographs have been taken under scanning electron microscope for study. Scanning electron microscope studies have also been carried out in the seed coat of Rauvolfia sp.
– Isolation and identification of secondary metabolites of Bauhinia galpini and B. malabarica completed. Partial chemical screening of one medicinal plant species (Randia sp.) of family Rubiaceae completed.
– Completed the modernization job of Match Industry Bay and Lack Bay under the project of Modernisation of Botanical Gallery of Industrial Section-Indian Museum, Kolkata. Modernisation job of Silk Bay has been partially completed.
– Scientists of BSI published 75 research papers in Indian journals and five research papers in foreign journals. Eighty five research papers in Indian journals and eight research papers in foreign journals have also been communicated. During the year BSI published six books (Pteridophytic Flora of Eastern India – Vol. 2, Flora of Jammu & Kashmir, Floristic Diversity and Conservation Strategies in India – Vol 4 & Vol. five, Flora of Palamau District and Flora of Mizoram), one journal in Hindi (Vanaspati Vani – Vol. 12) and two bulletins (Bulletin of BSI – Vol. 44 and Vol. 45). Three books are under final stage of printing. Officials of Publication unit of BSI-Hqrs., Kolkata attended Delhi Book Fair and earned Rs.2, 49,481/- by selling publications of BSI. ENVIS centre – BSI published two news letter (ENVIS NEWS LETTER – Vol. 8 and Vol. 9) and two books entitled ‘Diversity of Coastal Plant Communities of India’ and ‘Red List of Threatened Vascular Plants in India’.
Fig 6. Paphiopedilum fairieanum in its natural habitat at Rupa, West Kameng district (Arunachal Pradesh)
– Seven VIPs, 115 scientists and 2, 25,364 visitors have visited different gardens (including the famous Indian Botanic Garden – Howrah), museums (including the famous Industrial Section of Indian Museum – Kolkata) and herbaria (including the famous Central National Herbarium – Howrah) of BSI. 248 specimens have been identified and 2136 pages photocopies supplied on request by research scholars, scientists and corporate bodies and ca Rs. 16,000/- has been collected as revenue.
– Prepared 3750 herbarium data sheets of the family Orchidaceae. Completed herbarium data sheet preparation of 67 genera belonging to seven families. Completed the digitization of the database of the family Dilleniaceae and is available in the form of CD. Prepared database for 70 herbarium specimens belonging to Ranunculaceae and Magnoliaceae of ARUN herbarium (BSI-AFS, Itanagar) in the BRAHMS format. Data field for description, distribution, vernacular names, phonological data, known cultivation procedures and common uses, if any, of 30 species that are procured from Uttaranchal have been filled up towards the development of data base of introduced plants of Botanic Garden of Indian Republic, NOIDA. Database on 55 plants from the catalogue of Thomas Wardle, their vernacular names, occurrence and part of plants by which fabrics are dyed have been completed. Prepared database on 217 medicinal plants, 100 gum and resin yielding plants, oil & oil seeds, food, fodder and beverages displayed in different bay in Botanical Gallery of Industrial Section of Indian Museum, Kolkata. Database of 279 pages under family Ebenaceae & Cactaceae of Indian Flora has also been prepared. ENVIS Centre – BSI entered five hundred data with photographs/illustration for rare, endangered, threatened and indigenous medicinal plant species. Database preparation of Pictorial Identification Manual of Indian Plants in CITES is in progress. The design brief for the landscape design competition for the development of master plan of Botanic Garden of Indian Republic, NOIDA has been prepared and published.
Fig 7. Chamaedorea elegans Mart. - a rare plam in the Indian Botanical Garden, Howrah, West Bengal
– Central Library, BSI-Hqrs. and other libraries of BSI – Circle offices incorporated 295 Indian journals, 140 foreign journals, 380 books, 110 reports, newsletters and brochures of the department and other institutes.
Fig 8. Armodorum senapatianum - a new species of orchid
– Under herbarium maintenance 10877 specimens were mounted, 1847 specimens were remounted, 5034 specimens were incorporated, 1043 specimens were sent on loan, 180 specimens were received in exchange, 61 specimens received in gift, 3927 specimens identified in the different herbaria of BSI.
– Director, BSI has been awarded 1st Dr. G. Panigrahi Commemoration Award by Botanical Society of Bengal for his outstanding contribution in plant taxonomy. Scientist of BSI has successfully completed training on DNA fingerprinting (from September 2003 to March 2004) at Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad.
Fig 9. Dendrobium crepidatum Lindl
– Ten new species and one new variety [Armodorum senapatianum S. Phukan and A. A. Mao (Orchidaceae) Hypogymnia sikkimensis G.P. Sinha & J.A. Elix (Permiliaceae – Lichens), Trichodesma mudgalli A. Kumar & K. K. Khanna (Boraginaceae), Lactarius dafianus K. Das, J.R. Sharma & A. Verbekan (Russulaceae – Fungi), Lactarius abbotanus K. Das & J.R. Sharma (Russulaceae – Fungi), Cryptocarya balakrishnanii M. Gangopadhyay & T. Chakraborty (Lauraceae), Cryptocarya cavei M. Gangopadhyay & T. Chakraborty (Lauraceae), Eugenia seithurensis Gopalan & S. R. Srinivasan (Myrtaceae), Glochidion jarawae Chakrab. & N. P. Balakr. (Euphorbiaceae) Arthromeris repandula Ching var. nainitalensis P.C. Pande, H.C. Pande & P. Joshi (Polypodioceae), Eriocaulon balakrishnanii, S. A. Punekar, P. Lakshinarasimhan & M. K. V. Rao (Eriocaulaceae)] have been described during the year. Eighteen species have been reported as new record for India. One species from Sikkim, four species from Madhya Pradesh, eight species from Himachal Pradesh, one species from Jammu and Kashmir, fourspecies from Uttaranchal and one species from West Bengal are recorded as new to the state. Two species have been collected after a lapse 50 years.
Fig 10. Sapindus emarginatus Vahl (Sapindaceae)
– Indian Botanical Liaison Officer (IBLO)-Kew, undertook herbarium consultation tours to Liverpool Museum, Liverpool (LIV), Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh (E), Museum Nation D’Histoire Naturelle, Paris (P), and studied 212 specimens from India and put determinavit slip on them under flora of India project of Loganiaceae. Sent 72 cibachromes of the types and literatures, 350 pages of literature and identified 4 specimens for scholars from India. Also replied 6 queries and arranged translation of key and description of specimens of chinese to english.
– Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies have been completed for Subansiri Lower Project, Lower Kopili Hydroelectric (HE) Project, Kulsi Jadukata Hydroelectric Project, Doimuk Storage Scheme on Dikron River, HE Scheme in Subansiri Basin and Jihe Kathapur Lift Irrigation Scheme.
Under funded projects, 21 programmes are in progress in protected areas funded by Ministry of Environment and Forests and for which six field tours and one herbarium consultation tour were undertaken and collected 2465 specimens of which 592 specimens were identified and 218 described. Published one paper and communicated two papers. Under AICOPTAX, nine programmes are in progress and undertaken one field tour where 750 specimens were collected, 588 identified, 11 described, 13 new records reported and one paper published. Eight programmes are in progress under collaborative projects funded by different agencies where eight field tours and four herbarium consultation tours were done. Collected 557 specimens and 1079 species identified. Communicated one paper and attended one seminar under collaborative projects. Prepared one electronic book under Coordinating Project of Sunderban and Nokrek Biosphere Reserves.
Survey of Fauna
Zoological Survey of India
The Zoological Survey of India, (ZSI), a premier institute under the Ministry has been undertaking survey, exploration and research leading to the advancement of our knowledge on the exceptionally rich faunal diversity of the country since its inception in 1916. With its headquarters at Kolkata and sixteen Regional Stations located in different parts of the country, ZSI in recent years, has reoriented its plan of work by grouping the survey and studies under five major programmes, viz 1) Fauna of States, 2) Fauna of Conservation Areas, 3) Fauna of important Ecosystems, 4) Status Survey of endangered species and 5) Ecological studies. Besides these, the ongoing Fauna of India programme was also continued. Eighty two extensive faunal surveys were undertaken to different States / Union Territories including important ecosystems and some selected conservation / protected areas. One survey was undertaken for the determination of the status of some endangered species. Besides, several short duration intensive surveys for ecological studies were also undertaken.
Detailed taxonomic studies were carried out on the material collected during these as well as earlier surveys. Ecological studies including status survey of endangered animals were continued. Besides, studies on some other projects like documentation of some important faunal groups were also continued.
The National Zoological collection was further enriched by the addition of 21,392 specimens belonging to 1,302 species. In addition to above major activities, Identification and Advisory services were rendered to 203 individuals or institutions in India and abroad. Three training courses were organised under Training and Extension programme. The ZSI Scientists also participated in three training courses / meetings abroad.
Publication brought out during the year includes two volumes of Fauna of India, one-volume (4 parts) of the periodical Records of Zoological Survey of India, Sixteen Occasional Papers, two volumes of the Memoirs of ZSI, one document on the Fauna of Conservation Areas, one document on Fauna of Important Ecosystem, four issues of State Fauna and seven special publications.
Highlights of the activities during the year are as follows :
Faunal Exploration and Surveys
Tropical Rainforest : Three extensive surveys were conducted to Western Ghats in Kerala State.
Himalayan : Shivalik Hills – One extensive surveys was conducted in Shivalik Hills of Punjab.
Wetlands : Three extensive surveys were conducted in Nalsarovar, Gujarat; Gobind Sagar, Punjab and Pocharam Lake and other wetlands of Nizamabad and Medak Districts of Andhra Pradesh.
Mangroves : Four faunal explorations were carried out in different districts of Kerala State.
Estuarine : Two extensive surveys were conducted in Vamsadhara Nagavali, Andhra Pradesh; and backwaters of Kerala State.
Marine / Coastal : Eight surveys, one to Andaman and Nicobar Islands, three to Tamil Nadu coast and two to West Bengal coast, one to Kerala coast and one to Orissa coast were carried out.
Freshwater : Two surveys in Crater Lake of Maharashtra state were carried out.
Fig 11. The Grasshopper (Aluarches miliaris) - pest of some crops of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
National Parks : A total of eight surveys, one each in Corbett (Uttaranchal) and Van Vihar, Lunar Crater Lake and Kanha (M.P.) and two each in Ranthambore (Rajasthan) and Bannerghata (Karnataka) were carried out.
Biosphere Reserves : Four surveys to Pachmarhi (M.P.) and one to Gulf of Mannar were carried out.
Wildlife Sanctuaries : Ballavpur (West Bengal) and Lonar (Maharashtra) were surveyed.
Tiger Reserve : One survey was conducted in Pench (Maharashtra) for its faunal diversity.
Reserve Forest : Three surveys to Baghmara (Meghalaya) and one to Saipung (Meghalaya) were carried out.
States and Union Territories
Under this programme thirty seven surveys were conducted in several districts of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattishgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
One survey for the determination of the status of Rhesus macaque and Hanuman langur in Southern West Bengal and another survey for the status of wild buffalo in Western Orissa were undertaken.
Identification of new taxa
During the year following taxa which includes one genus and 13 species were discovered as new to the science :
Phylum : Nematoda
Order : Dorylaimida
Family : Dorylaimidae
– Prothornenema genus nov.
– Prothornenema captatum sp. nov
– Calaodorylaimus capitatum sp. nov
– Lactocephalus conicaudatus sp. nov
– Poronemella shamimi sp. nov.
Phylum : Anthropoda
Order : Acarina
Family : Haplochthoniidae
1. Haplochthonius antarcticus sp. nov
2. H. maitri sp. nov.
3. H. longisetosus sp. nov.
Family : Chaunoproctidae
4. Chaunoproctus orientalis sp. nov.
5. C. sisiri Sanyal sp. nov.
6. C. amarpurensis sp. nov.
Family : Tegeocranellidae
7. Tegocranellus punctatus sp. nov.
Family : Oribatulidae...
8. Zygoribatula beloniensis sp. nov.
Family : Ascidae
9. Antennoseius orientalis sp. nov.
The research works carried out on the fauna collected from different states, conservation areas and other ecosystem are as follows :
Fauna of India
The following two volumes were published during the period under report
Dermaptera (Part II)
Hymenoptera : Scoliidae
Beside these, two volumes on Scolytidae and Reptilia are under processing for publication.
Fauna of States
Details of the number of specimens collected and species identified (in parantheses), based on the collections made from different states are given in Table-1.
Table - 1
Major Groups of Animals Collected
(Total number of specimens and species in parenthesis)
States surveyed Rotifera Nematoda Annelida Mollusca Odonata Isoptera Hemiptera Orthoptera Dictyoptera Lepidoptera
Andaman & Nicobar Is. — 14(5) — — — — — — 2(2) —
Andhra Pradesh — — — — — — 315(24) — — —
Gujarat — 4(4) — — — 147(3) 13(5) — — —
Karnataka — — — 65(8) — — — — — —
Kerala — — — — 239(21) — — — — —
Madhya Pradesh — — — — — — — 167(13) — 2(2)
Maharashtra — — — — 6(3) — 176(9) — — —
Meghalaya 7(2) — — 403(10) — — — — — —
Rajasthan — — — — — 192(7) — — — —
Tamil Nadu — — — — — — — — — 6(6)
Uttaranchal — — — — 137(10) — 215(15) 20(20) — —
West Bengal — — 402(24) — — — — — — —
States surveyed Coleoptera Diptera Hymenoptera Crustacea Acarina Arachnida Centepedes Pisces Amphibia Reptile
Assam — — — — — — — — — 10(9)
Andhra Pradesh 24(17) — — 50(7) 457(18) — — 7860(27) — 6(6)
Arunachal Pradesh — — — — 498(19) — — — — —
Goa — — — 24(5) — — — — — —
Karnataka — — 2(2) 51(5) — — — 171(18) — —
Kerala — — — — — 80(4) 4(3) 460(18) 30(2) —
Madhya Pradesh 32(5) — — — — — — — — 49(12)
Maharashtra — — 36(2) — — 8(5) — 11(3) 31(11) —
Meghalaya — — — 5(2) — — — — — —
Mizoram 21(6) — — — — — — — — —
Tamil Nadu — 138(13) — — — 64(6) — 1234(8) — 6(6)
Uttaranchal 30(30) — 6(1) 394(8) — — — 4(4) — —
WestBengal — — — — 75(10) — — — — —
Fauna of Conservation Areas
Pachmarhi, Madhya Pradesh : Fourteen specimens belonging to six species of Odonata, 262 specimens pertaining to 23 species of Lepidoptera, 121 specimens comprising three species of Acarina and 33 specimens consisting of three species of Coleoptera were studied and recognised.
Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu : One hundred and nine specimens comprising seven species of Coelenterata and three specimens belonging to three species of Porifera were studied and determined.
Three specimens of Amphibia belonging to three species were studied and identified.
Pench, Maharashtra : Thirty one specimens pertaining to 25 species of Cladocera, eight specimens belonging to five species of Chilopoda, 126 specimens comprising three species of Thysanoptera, 16 specimens belonging to nine species of Mantodea, 103 specimens consisting of nine species of Arachnida and 51 specimens pertaining to seven species of Pisces were studied and identified.
Fig 12. Double Hump Camel of Nubra Valley in Ladakh
Tadoba, Maharashtra : Forty specimens belonging to four species of Thysanoptera, 20 specimens pertaining to nine species of Mantodea.
Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh : Specimens consisting of two species of Cladocera, 56 specimens comprising six species of Arachnida, 60 specimens consisting of six species of Acarina and 19 specimens belong to four species of Pisces were studied and determined.
Sanjay Gandhi, Maharashtra : Fifty three specimens belonging to 11 species of Mollusca, 17 specimens consisting of three species of Mantodea, 87 specimens comprising four species of Scorpionida, 94 specimens belonging to 32 species of Arachnida were studied and identified.
Bannerghata, Karnataka : Twenty one specimens belonging to two species of Cladocera and 222 specimens comprising 14 species of Pisces were studied and determined.
Panna, Madhya Pradesh : Eighty nine specimens belonging to 18 species of Lepidoptera and four specimens pertaining to four species of Coleoptera were studied and identified.
Pin Valley, Himachal Pradesh : Six specimens consisting of six species of Orthoptera, 17 specimens consisting of four species of Lepidoptera and four specimens pertaining to four species of Pisces were studied and recognised.
Corbett, Uttar Pradesh : Fifteen specimens belonging to three species of Pisces were studied and determined.
Bandhavgarh, Madhya Pradesh : Eleven specimens belonging to four species of Odonata, 226 specimens pertaining to 13 species of Lepidoptera, 36 specimens comprising 18 species of Coleoptera and 10 species belonging to two species of Arachinda were studied and determined.
Melghat, Maharashtra : Forty eight specimens belonging to 10 species of Cladocera were studied and determined.
Fig 13. Painted stork resting on tree top
Tadoba, Maharashtra : Thirtysix specimens consisting of four species of Thysanoptera, 12 specimens pertaining to six species of Odonata, 21 specimens comprising 10 species of Mantodea and 34 specimens belonging to 18 species of Cladocera were studied and identified.
Ballavpur, West Bengal : Ninety two specimens pertaining to four species of Oligochaeta were studied and recognised.
Twenty six specimens belonging to two species of Hymenoptera and five specimens pertaining to two species of Mantodea were studied and recognised.
Parambikulam, Kerala : Sixty four specimens belonging to six species of Scorpionida were studied and determined.
Kakayam, Kerala : Twenty two specimens consisting of 12 species of Orthoptera were studied and identified.
Biligiri Rangaswamy, Karnataka : One thousand two hundred and fifty one specimens comprising 48 species of Hemiptera and 72 specimens belonging to three species of Crustacea and 145 specimens consisting of 15 species of Mollusca were studied and recognised.
Baghmara, Meghalaya : Seven specimens pertaining to five species of Rotifera, two specimens belonging to one species of Mollusca, six specimens comprising four species of Cladocera, 259 specimens belonging to 19 species of Pisces, 165 specimens consisting of eight species of Amphibia and 21 specimens belonging to eight species of Reptilia were studied and determined.
Saipung, Meghalaya : Forty two specimens belonging to three species of Caldocera and 397 specimens comprising 27 species of Pisces were studied and identified.
Fauna of important Ecosystems
Tropical rainforest / Western Ghat
Kerala : Twenty three specimens belonging to 16 species of Odonata and 486 specimens pertaining to 106 species of Pisces were studied and determined.
Freshwater / Riverine
Nalsarovar, Gujarat : Four specimens pertaining to four species of Diptera were studied and determined.
Nathsagar, Maharashtra : One hundred and fifty six specimens consisting of 13 species of Cladocera, five specimens belonging to thre species of Decapoda; Crustacea and eight specimens pertaining to three species of freshwater Potamonid crabs and 18 specimens belonging to five species of Pisces were studied and recognised.
Subernrekha River, Jharkhand : A total of 259 specimens belonging to eight species of Pisces were studied and identified.
Korapuzha, Kerala : Sixteen specimens pertaining to eight species of Pisces were studied and recognised.
Nayar river, Uttaranchal : Five specimens belonging to five species of Pisces were studied and identified.
Pocharam Lake, Andhra Pradesh : Two specimens belonging to two species of Mollusca, one species each of Copepoda and Ostracoda and 10 specimens of Rotifera were studied and identified.
Krishna Estuary, Andhra Pradesh : Nineteen specimens belonging to seven species of Crustacea, 15 specimens pertaining to 15 species of Mollusca and 49 specimens consisting of 27 species of Pisces were studied and determined.
Vamsadhra Nagavali, Andhra Pradesh : Two hundred and thirty seven examples belonging to five species of Crustacea were studied and identified.
Cold Desert Ladakh : Twenty two specimens pertaining to three species of Annelida were studied and recognised.
Uttaranchal : A total of 18 specimens belonging to 18 species of Lepidoptera and 34 examples pertaining to four species of Pisces were studied and determined.
Punjab : Seventy six specimens belonging to two species of Arachnida were studied and identified.
Thar Desert, Rajasthan : Seventeen specimens belonging to three species of Nemathelminthes were studied and identified.
Marine / Coastal
Andhra Pradesh Coast : Sixty three specimens comprising three species of Porifera were studied and determined.
Tamil Nadu Coast : Nine specimens pertaining to nine species of Porifera, 92 specimens comprising seven species of Crustacea and 103 specimens consisting of three species of Pisces were studied and identified.
Orissa coast : Seventy one examples pertaining to nine species of Pisces were studied and identified.
Kerala coast : Two hundred and sixty nine specimens comprising five species of Mollusca and 56 specimens pertaining to two species of Polychaeta were studied and recognised.
Gulf of Kutchh : Three examples belonging to three species of Porifera were studied and determined.
Fig 14. Nilgiri langur - needs protection
– The Ecology and Faunal Diversity of two flood plain wetlands of West Bengal
– Faunal Diversity and ecology of Aquatic Insects in freshwater wetlands of West Bengal.
– Ecology and biogeography of Odonata
– Biological monitoring of West Bengal Coast
– Faunal Diversity of Zooplankton in freshwater wetlands of West Bengal
– Diversity and distribution of fauna insecta of Greater Kolkata
– Comparative limnology of few man-made lakes of Hyderabad
– Fish Faunal Resources of Sunderban Estuarine system w.s.r to the biology of some important species.
– Faunal succession in a newly emerged Nayachar Island at Sunderban delta
– Impact of some heavy metal on the soil micro-fauna in reclaimed wetlands embankments of Koltaka
– Ecology of East Calcutta Wetlands
– Faunal diversity of Zooplankton and Benthos in Kerala backwaters
– Ecology and Behaviour of Rhesus Macaque and langur in Southern East Bengal
– Endemic Land Molluscs of India
– Endemic Birds of India
– Endemic Mammals of India
– Checklist of Mammals of India
– Endemic freshwater fishes of India
– Tricho-taxomomic studies on Indian mammals-families Ursidae, and Vivernidae
– Upgrading of the list of rare, threatened and endangered birds of India.
Research Paper Published
During the period, a total of 344 research papers were either published or sent for publication by the scientists of ZSI.
Identification and Advisory Services
The ZSI continued to render identification and advisory services free of cost to research and teaching institutes in India and abroad, Central and State Government Agencies, Non governmental organisations, industries and individuals on zoological matters. During this period 203 enquiries pertaining to different groups of fauna were attended to.
Development of national Zoological Collection
The ZSI, which is a national repository of Zoological specimens, maintains the collection of a large number of identified examples of species belonging to almost all groups of animals of the country. The National Zoological Collection was further enriched by 21,392 specimens pertaining to 1,302 species.
Fig 15. Blue bull at Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, Delhi
Training and Extension
Three training courses on :
– Environmental Awareness and Wildlife Preservation,
– Collection, Preservation and Identification of insects and mites of economic importance and
– Refresher course in Collection and Preservation Techniques were organized.
The following publications were released during the period under report :
Fauna of India
– Dermaptera Part II
– Hymenoptera; Scoliidae
Records of Zoological Survey of India
– Vol. 101 Part 1- part 4
– Comparative limnology of new man-made lakes of Hyderabad.
– Faunal diversity of zooplankton in freshwater wetlands.
– Pteromalinae (Pteromalidae : Chalcidoidea : Hymenoptera) of Indian subcontinant.
– Studies on the soft corals of Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
– A taxonomic revision of the fishes of the genus Mystus scopoli.
– A catalogue of New Taxa described by the Scientists of the ZSI.
– Fish Faunal Resources of Sunderban Estuarine w.s.r to the biology of some important species.
– Studies on Oriental Dermaptera.
– Poisonous and Venomous Fishes of A&N Island.
– Studies on the Trombiculid Mite Fauna of India.
– Studies on inter-tidal macro-zoobenthos of Hugli river.
– Studies on Coffembola from Agriculture fields.
– Ichthyofauna of Northern part of Western Ghats.
– Marine fishes of Pondichery & Karaikal.
– Studies on some Indian Chiroptera from W.B.
Memoirs of Zoological Survey of India
– Diversity and distribution fauna Insecta of Greater Kolkata.
– Morphology, Morphometry and Ecology of Moss-Dwelling Testate-Amoeba.
Fauna of Conservation Areas
– Some selected fauna of Asola-Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary.
Fauna of Ecosystems
– Fauna of Asan Wetland (Dehra Dun).
– Fauna of Sikkim Part II - Part V.
– Handbook on Sharks of Indian Waters.
– A field Guide to Marine food fishes of A&N. Island.
– Status Survey of Endangered Species Wroughton’s bat.
– Manual on Identification of Schedule Mollusces from India.
– Hand book on Indian Snakes.
– A field Guide to the fishes & Acanthuridoe and Signanidae.
– Handbook on Hard Corals of India.
Sales of departmental publications : Rs. 4.5 Lakh (approx.).
Fig 16. Whitenecked stork
Computerisation / Database Development
The database on National Zoological Collection encompassing all groups (Protozoa to Mammalia) are entered in the computers of headquarters. During the period, the data entry on the insects, lower invertebrates and Pisces were under process. A total of 33,100 entries were made.
– World environment day and Wildlife week were celebrated at ZSI Hq., Kolkata.
– Laboratory facilities and guidance were provided to a number of scientists, both from the country as well as from abroad in the laboratories of headquarters and Regional Stations.
– Participation in Training Courses : Scientists and staff of ZSI participated in Several Training courses in different parts of the country.
– The Director ZSI attended several high level meetings / conferences in different parts of the country and delivered lectures / keynote addresses or presided over technical sections. A large number of ZSI scientists also attended various conferences / symposia / Workshops in the country and presented their papers or acted as faculty members.
Forest Survey of India
Forest Survey of India (FSI), an organization of Ministry is engaged in generating information and database on forest cover and forest resources in the country besides providing training, research and extension. Forest Survey of India was created with effect from June 1, 1981 as a successor to “Pre-investment Survey of Forest Resources” (PISFR), a project initiated in 1965 by Government of India and sponsored by FAO and UNDP. The main objective of PISFR was to ascertain the availability of raw material for establishment of wood based industries in selected areas of the country. Further, the National Commission on Agriculture (NCA), in its report in 1976, recommended the creation of a National Forest Survey Organisation for collection of data on scientific lines through country-wide comprehensive forest resources survey at regular intervals. Consequently, PISFR was reorganized into FSI. After a critical review of activities undertaken by FSI, Government of India, in 1986, redefined its mandate in order to make it more purposeful and relevant to the needs of the country. The present mandate of FSI is as follows :-
– To prepare a comprehensive State of Forest Report (SFR) including National Vegetation Map (NVM) once every two years. FSI will also prepare thematic maps through use of remote sensing data with minimum essential ground truth verification (most ground-truth verification would be done by the respective state governments) on a ten-year cycle.
– To collect, store and retrieve necessary forestry and forestry-related data for national and state level planning and to create a computer based National Basic Forestry Inventory System (NBFIS).
– To design methodologies relating to forest surveys and subsequent updating. This would include methodologies for
– Vegetation mapping including thematic maps through use of satellite imageries / aerial photographs
– Ground-truth verification
– Growing stock and volume assessment.
– To undertake work in regard to preparation of forest inventory in selected States / UTs on agency basis till the establishment of their own resources survey units.
Fig 17. Seed production area of Chire pine
– To impart training in modern forest survey techniques to foresters at various levels of responsibilities in the States / UTs / Government of India
– To advise the States / UTs on design and development of regional NBFIS.
– To support and oversee techniques / inventory work under taken by State /UT Forest Departments.
Director heads the Forest Survey of India (Fig 18). The headquarters of the organisation is at Dehradun. The activities of the headquarters include (i) Forest cover mapping (ii) Inventory data processing (iii) Training (iv) Creation of National Basic Forest Inventory System (NBFIS) (v) Special studies and (vi) Consultancy
Fig 18. Organization structure of FSI
The organisation has four zones, each headed by a Regional Director, located at Shimla, Kolkata, Nagpur and Bangalore. The activities of the zones include (i) Forest Inventory (ii) Thematic Mapping (iii) Special studies and (iv) Consultancy. The jurisdiction of each zone is given in Table-2 and Fig 19.
Table - 2
Jurisdiction of Zonal Offices
Sl. No Name of Zone Jurisdiction
States Union Territories
1. Northern Zone, Shimla Jammu & Kashmir, Chandigarh
Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal,
Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan &
2. Eastern Zone, Calcutta Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Sikkim, Meghalaya, Tripura,
Manipur, Nagaland, Assam,
Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh &
3. Central Zone Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Daman & Diu, Dadara and
Maharashtra, Gujarat & Goa Nagar Haveli
4. Southern Zone, Bangalore Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Lakshadweep, Pondicherry
Kerala and Tamil Nadu
Fig 19. Jurisdiction of different zones of FSI
Forest Cover Assessment
The most important mandate of FSI is to assess forest cover of the country on a two-year cycle and to publish the information in the form of “State of Forest Report” (SFR). Its first assessment was published as SFR 1987. The latest assessment eighth in the series was published as SFR 2001. While in the first assessment, resolution of data used was 80m x 80m and scale of interpretation was 1:1 million the same in the eighth assessment was 23.5 x 23.5 and 1:50,000, respectively.
Taking advantage of advancements in remote sensing technology and wealth of data accumulated by Forest Survey of India, the SFR 2001 provides much more comprehensive status of forest and tree cover in the country than the previous seven reports. FSI has taken several initiatives to accomplish this. These new features, introduced for the first time in SFR 2001, are highlighted below :
– Assessment of forest cover for the entire country using digital method;
– Assessment of tree cover at the national level using field inventory data;
– Estimation of accuracy of forest cover classification;
– Mangrove cover classified into dense and open mangrove and merged with forest cover;
– New baseline information on forest and tree cover;
The depiction of forest cover is described in Fig. 20. The State /UT wise forest cover in the country is depicted in bar chart in Figure 21 and assessment of forest cover among different cycles is represented in Fig. 22.
Fig 20. The Forest Cover Map of India
Fig 21. Forest Cover in States and UTs
Fig 22. Assessment of Forest Cover in different cycles
The forest cover map of India as per assessment of 2001 is shown in Fig. 23. The present methodology of forest cover mapping from satellite data using Digital Image Processing software on 1:50,000 scale involves acquisition of satellite data, importing of the data into system, geometric rectification of raw data, mosaicing of rectified scenes, classification of forest mapping using NDVI.
Fig. 23. Forest Cover Assessment
Activities involved in the forest cover assessment are spread over two years. The country is covered by about 315 scenes of satellite IRS – IC/D, LISS-III data, scenes are procured for the period, when cloud free scenes are available and the deciduous trees still have leaves. Then, in the first year, procurement of satellite data (315 scenes of ) is completed in the third quarter, rectification of scenes (imageries) gets started and work relating to classification (interpretation) commences. Interpretations of scenes continue in 3rd and 4th quarter and are completed by the fourth quarter. Ground verification of interpreted data starts in the 2nd year.
In the 2nd year, ground verification is completed in the first quarter. Incorporation of correction, area calculation is done in first and 2nd quarter of the Second year. Report writing and map generation is done in the 2nd and 3rd quarter. Procurement of satellite data for the next cycle is done in the 3rd and 4th quarters of 2nd year.
Inventory of Forest / Tree Resources
An accurate assessment of forest and tree resources in the country is essential for formulating sound strategy for forestry sector. Precise data and latest information on forest cover and volume of growing stock of forests / trees and trends of changes therein are basic ingredients for policy and planning purposes. FSI has been conducting field inventory for estimating the growing stock (volume) and other parameters of the forests by laying out systematic sample plots since PISFR project began in 1965. So far about 80% of the country’s forest areas have been inventoried including some areas more than once and about 130 reports have been published. However, under Xth Five Year Plan during 2002-2007, FSI is conducting field inventory of forest resources inside and outside forest including vegetation survey and estimation of soil carbon in forest.
A methodology has been developed for a comprehensive assessment of forest resources inside and outside forest areas at national level by stratifying the country into physiographic zones (Fig. 24) and to take a sample of 10 percent districts for detailed inventory during a cycle of two years. This information, thus generated, will form a part of the biennial State of Forest Report. These estimates will be further improved in the subsequent reports as another set of 10 per cent districts are sampled and surveyed, and so on. Together with forest inventory assessment of herbs and shrubs (vegetation survey) is being carried out. In addition, assessment of regeneration status, bio-diversity indices and soil carbon in forest areas are being carried out. During assessment of trees outside forests in rural and urban areas, estimation of wood consumption in selected villages and urban centres are being carried out.
Fig 24. Physiographic zones of Forest Cover in India
The country is stratified into 14 physiographic zones as depicted in the figure above according to tree species composition and other physiographic and ecological parameters. In strata, districts are considered first sampling units and grids of size 1¼’ X 1¼’ as secondary sampling units. Ten percent of districts are being inventoried every year.
Trees Outside Forests (Rural)
Extensive tree wealth exists outside continuous forested areas in every country. Termed as “Trees Outside Forests (TOF)”, these are in the form of small woodlots and block plantations, trees along linear features, such as roads, canals bunds, etc. and scattered trees on farmlands, homesteads, community lands and urban areas. Inventory of trees outside forest areas is of great importance in planning as this, together with the forest inventory, provides a complete picture of wood/forest resources. FSI has been carrying out TOF assessments since early 1990s. However, an accurate estimate at the national level at a specific time frame is still not available.
The study area for this survey is considered as rural areas outside forest areas of the district. For any survey, an investigator requires a sampling frame. Sampling frame for rural areas has been prepared by headquarter with the help of remote sensing technique and Digital Image Processing (DIP), Protected Area Network (PAN) data for the respective districts taken up for assessment of TOF (Rural) is procured from NRSA, Hyderabad. Toposheets for the same district are identified and geo-referenced. These toposheets are then used to rectify panchromatic data. After rectification, these PAN data are used to rectify the multi-spectral data (LISS). The panchromatic and multi-spectral data are then fused together and classified into various classes to obtain the three stratum of TOF i.e. block, linear and scattered (Fig. 25).
Fig 25. Generated Map of Trees outside Forestsusing Liss-III and PAN Data
Trees Outside Forests (urban)
The study area for this survey is considered as urban centres defined in district census book. Sampling frame for urban areas has been prepared by an agency called National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India. This organization conducts surveys by the name of Urban Frame Survey (UFS). They divide the whole urban centres of a district in blocks called UFS. These blocks are having clear-cut well defined natural boundaries. These blocks are formed on the basis of 600-800 population or 120-160 households and cover the whole area within the geographical boundary of town including vacant lands.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Forests and Plantation Development Corporation Ltd., Port Blair
The Andaman & Nicobar Islands Forest and Plantation Development Corporation Ltd. (ANFIDCL) a Government of India undertaking has an authorized capital of Rs. 600 lakhs. The paid up share capital is Rs. 359.18 lakhs, all the share capital being held by the Central Government. The Company started functioning in 1977 and is a category ‘C’ Central Public Sector Undertaking. The Corporation has also financed its capital from the resources generated internally.
Fig 26. Roadside plantation under trees outside forests
The main activities of the Corporation are timber logging and regeneration, oil palm cultivation and processing and commercial management of rubber plantation. The Corporation is also in the process to diversify its activities wherever possible within the ambit of its objectives.
On October 10, 2001, Hon’ble Supreme Court has issued an order in Civil Writ No. 202/1995 putting complete ban on felling of all naturally grown trees except plantation in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which has resulted in complete standstill of activities in the Corporation.
Subsequently, after the receipt of Shri Shekhar Singh Report, the Apex Court vide its order dated May 7, 2002, directed to ban on the felling of trees, eviction of encroachment from forest lands, ban on removal of saw mill licenses and other wood based industries etc. These two aforesaid orders have made the corporations functioning stand still. Now, the Central Empowered Committee has approved the Working Plan of a Division and this Ministry has given a direction to the Forest Department of Andman to hand over the logging activity to the corporation.
The Corporation is under severe financial constraints, because the other two activities (rubber and red palm oil extraction) are loss making. The Ministry has provided a loan for Rs. 5 crore to the corporation to ease out the financial constraints.