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Table S1. Lineages included mean species age (crown node age/species number) and time for speciation comparisons. Seasonally dry tropical forest ranges from 0-2,500 m, mid-elevation montane forest from 2,300-3,400 m, and high-altitude grassland from 3,000-4,800 m. Elevations are in meters, ages are shown in millions of years, and the following abbreviations are used: NA = not available, PL = penalized likelihood, NPRS = non-parametric rate smoothing.



Lineage

Family

Growth form

Estimated total Andean species

Andean species sampled

% Andean species sampled

Crown age/no. of species

Elevational range of maximum species diversity (m)

Sequencing regions used

Crown age (mean)

Crown age (min)

Crown age (max)

References

Dating method used

MIDELEVATION MONTANE FOREST:








































Amicia

Leguminosae

Shrubs or herbs

6

6

100

1.6

1500-3000

ITS,

rpL32-trnL, trnQ-5rps16



9.5

7.6

11.6

44

BEAST

Burmeistera

Campanulaceae

Shrubs

102

2

2

0.2

1500-2000

rbcL, ndhF, trnLF

17.5

10.0

24.5

26-29, 45

BEAST

Cinchona

Rubiaceae

Trees or shrubs

23

6

26

0.4

1500-2000

ITS, trnLF, rps16, matK, rbcL

9.0

6.1

12.9

8-9

PL

Coursetia 3

(C.gracilis-C.grandiflora)



Leguminosae

Shrubs

3

3

100

2.5

2000-3000

ITS, trnLF, matK

7.4

5.2

9.6

3-5

PL

Fuchsia

(Fuchsia clade)



Onagraceae

Shrubs

77

12

16

0.3

2500-3000

ITS, trnLF, rpl16

22.7

22.3

23.2

20-21

PL

Fuchsia

(Hemsleylla clade)



Onagraceae

Shrubs

15

3

20

0.7

2000-3500

ITS, trnLF, rpl16

10.0

NA

NA

20-21

PL

Hedyosmum 1 (H.dombeyanum-H.racemosum)

Chloranthaceae

Shrubs

11

9

82

0.8

2000-2500

rbcL, rps16, ITS

8.8

NA

NA

6-7

PL

Hedyosmum 2 (H.mexicanum-H.cuatrecazanum)

Chloranthaceae

Shrubs

6

5

83

2.3

2500-3000

rbcL, rps16, ITS

14.0

NA

NA

6-7

PL

Indigofera

(I.tephrosioides)



Leguminosae

Herbs, shrubs, treelets

1

1

100

1.5

1000-3000

ITS

1.5

NA

NA

19

PL

Joosia

Rubiaceae

Trees or shrubs

10

2

20

1.4

0-1000

ITS, trnLF, rps16, matK, rbcL

13.7

8.9

18.3

8-9

PL

Ladenbergia

Rubiaceae

Trees or shrubs

27

6

22

0.4

500-1500

ITS, trnLF, rps16, matK, rbcL

11.8

8.5

16.3

8-9

PL

Stilpnophyllum

Rubiaceae

Shrubs

4

2

50

1.5

500-2000

ITS, trnLF, rps16, matK, rbcL

6.1

3.7

9.8

8, 9

PL

HIGH-ALTITUDE GRASSLAND:








































Astragalus

(A.uniflorus-A.garbancillo)



Leguminosae

Herbs or shrubs

40

2

5

0.04

3000-4000

trnD, trnfM, ITS

1.4

NA

NA

39-40

PL

Chaetantera 1

(C.dioica-C.revoluta)



Asteraceae

Herbs

2

2

100

0.5

3000-5000

ITS

0.9

NA

NA

10-11

PL

Chaetantera 2 (C.chiquianensis-C.peruviana)

Asteraceae

Herbs

2

2

100

0.4

2500-4000

ITS

0.7

NA

NA

10-11

PL

Chaetantera 3 (C.cochlearifolia-C.stuebelii)

Asteraceae

Herbs

5

5

100

0.4

4500-5000

ITS

2.2

NA

NA

10-11

PL

Gentianella s.s.

Gentianaceae

Herbs or subshrubs

170

16

9

0.02

3500-4000

matK, ITS

3.0

NA

NA

42-43

strict clock

Halenia

(H.weddelliana group)



Gentianaceae

Herbs or subshrubs

16

6

38

0.05

3500-4000

ITS, rpL16

0.8

0.4

1.1

41-43

strict clock

Loliinae 1

(American I clade)



Poaceae

Herbs

15

5

33

0.3

4000-4500

ITS, trnTF

3.8

2.3

5.3

37-38

MULDIVTIME

Loliinae 2

(American II clade)



Poaceae

Herbs

31

14

45

0.1

3000-4000

ITS, trnTF

4.2

3.1

5.3

37-38

MULDIVTIME

Lupinus

(Andean radiation)



Leguminosae

Herbs

81

40

49

0.02

3000-3500

ITS, cycloidea

1.8

1.0

2.9

1, 2

BEAST

Lysipomia

Campanulaceae

Herbs

30

2

7

0.3

3000-4500

rbcL, ndhF, trnLF

10.3

4.5

18.3

26-29

BEAST

Oreobolus

Cyperaceae

Herbs

6

6

100

0.6

3000-3500

ITS, trnLF

3.7

3.0

4.2

12-13

NPRS

Puya

Bromeliaceae

Herbs

120

2

2

0.01

3000-3500

ndhF

1.0

NA

NA

34-36

PL

Valeriana

(Paramo clade)



Valerianaceae

Vines, shrubs, or herbs

55

19

35

0.2

3000-3500

ndhF, psbA, matK, rbcL, trnLF, ITS

10.6

6.2

14.9

30-33

MULDIVTIME

SEASONALLY DRY TROPICAL FOREST:








































Coursetia 1

(C.caribaea var. ochroleuca)



Leguminosae

Shrubs

1

1

100

1.3

0-1800

ITS, trnLF, matK

1.3

0.7

1.9

3-5

PL

Coursetia 2

(C.hassleri)



Leguminosae

Shrubs

2

2

100

3.7

100-2300

ITS, trnLF, matK

3.7

1.7

5.7

3-5

PL

Coursetia 4 (C.brachyrhachis-C.maraniona)

Leguminosae

Shrubs

4

4

100

3.0

500-3000

ITS, trnLF, matK

11.9

8.5

15.3

3-5

PL

Fosterella

Bromeliaceae

Herbs

28

2

7

0.3

500-1000

ndhF

8.8

NA

NA

34-36

PL

Gliricidia

(G.brenningii)



Leguminosae

Trees and shrubs

1

1

100

0.2

0-500

ITS, trnLF, matK

0.2

0.0

1.8

3-5

PL

Indigofera

(I.truxillensis)



Leguminosae

Herbs or shrubs

1

1

100

1.9

200-2000

ITS

1.9

1.8

2.0

19

PL

Loxopterygium

(Dry forest clade)



Anacardiaceae

Trees

2

2

100

1.3

500-1000

ITS

2.6

2.1

3.1

14-17

PL

Mimosa 1

(M.revoluta-M.nothacacia)



Leguminosae

Shrubs

3

3

100

2.2

1500-2000

trnDT

6.7

3.0

11.3

18

BEAST

Mimosa 2

(M.woodii-M.pectinatipinna)



Leguminosae

Shrubs

12

11

92

0.4

2000-2500

trnDT

5.0

2.7

7.4

18

BEAST

Mimosa 3

(M.weberbaueri-M.caduca)



Leguminosae

Shrubs

7

7

100

1.1

2000-2500

trnDT

7.6

4.3

11.1

18

BEAST

Mimosa 4

(M. lepidota)



Leguminosae

Shrubs

1

1

100

2.9

1700-2350

trnDT

2.9

0.7

5.4

18

BEAST

Poissonia

Leguminosae

Herbs

5

5

100

3.6

1500-2500

ITS, trnLF, matK

18.0

14.6

21.4

3-5

PL

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