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Supplementary Table 2


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Supplementary Table 2. Characteristics of population isolates. External evidence for the cultural, linguistic, demographic, or genetic distinctiveness of the populations considered as isolates in some analyses. Abbreviations: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y (Y chromosome), Haemoglobin (Hb), Single Nucletide Polymorphisms (SNPs), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP), Short Tandem Repeats (STRs).


Population

Genetic

Linguistic

Demographic

Notes

Sub-Saharan Africa










Biaka and Mbuti Pygmies

[1-3](mtDNA); [4-6] (Y-chromosome)

Biaka: Aka (Bantu)

http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=axk

Mbuti: Lese (Nilo-Saharan)

http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=les



[7]

Small groups of hunter-gatherers in the rainforest of Central Africa

Middle East-North Africa










Mozabites

[8](mt DNA) ; [9](Y); [10](Hb)

Tumzabt dialect (Berber) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mzb




Islam sect known as Kharejites; in oases of the Algerian Sahara

Bedouins

[11](mtDNA); [12](Y)

Arabic dialect

http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ars



[13]

Semi-nomadic pastoralists; strong tribal structure based on kinship

Druzes

[14](mtDNA); [15](mtDNA, Y)

Arabic




Strictly endogamous religious sect, not considered Muslims by other Muslims

Europe










Orcadians

[16](mtDNA); [17](Y); [18, 19](mtDNA, Y)

Dialect of Scots

http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sco



[20]

Island population, north of Scotland; originally inhabited by Neolithic tribes

Sardinians

[21, 22] (mtDNA); [23](Y); [24](mtDNA, Y); [25, 26](autosomal SNPs)

Romance language

http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=src



[24]

Island population setled in old prehistory, Neolithic times

Basques

[27](mtDNA); [28](Y); [29](autosomal classical markers);[30] (review of autosomal disease mutations)

Language isolate

http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eus






Westernmost part of the Pyrenees, both in France and Spain

South Asia










Kalash

[31](STRs);[32](autosomal SNPs) [33](mtDNA); [34](Y)

Kalash language, Dardic group, Indo-Iranian subfamily

http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kls






Non-muslim religious isolate in Pakistan; reduced population size (~6,000)

East Asia










Yakut

[35](mtDNA, Y chr)

Yakut or Sakha language, of the Northern branch of the Turkic subfamily

http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sah






Former hunters and reindeer herders in Yakutia (Rusia)

America










Surui

[36](RFLPs), [37](STRs)

Tupi language

http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sru






Pará region of Brazil; very small population



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