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Supplementary Table 2

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Supplementary Table 2. Characteristics of population isolates. External evidence for the cultural, linguistic, demographic, or genetic distinctiveness of the populations considered as isolates in some analyses. Abbreviations: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y (Y chromosome), Haemoglobin (Hb), Single Nucletide Polymorphisms (SNPs), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP), Short Tandem Repeats (STRs).






Sub-Saharan Africa

Biaka and Mbuti Pygmies

[1-3](mtDNA); [4-6] (Y-chromosome)

Biaka: Aka (Bantu)

Mbuti: Lese (Nilo-Saharan)


Small groups of hunter-gatherers in the rainforest of Central Africa

Middle East-North Africa


[8](mt DNA) ; [9](Y); [10](Hb)

Tumzabt dialect (Berber)

Islam sect known as Kharejites; in oases of the Algerian Sahara


[11](mtDNA); [12](Y)

Arabic dialect


Semi-nomadic pastoralists; strong tribal structure based on kinship


[14](mtDNA); [15](mtDNA, Y)


Strictly endogamous religious sect, not considered Muslims by other Muslims



[16](mtDNA); [17](Y); [18, 19](mtDNA, Y)

Dialect of Scots


Island population, north of Scotland; originally inhabited by Neolithic tribes


[21, 22] (mtDNA); [23](Y); [24](mtDNA, Y); [25, 26](autosomal SNPs)

Romance language


Island population setled in old prehistory, Neolithic times


[27](mtDNA); [28](Y); [29](autosomal classical markers);[30] (review of autosomal disease mutations)

Language isolate

Westernmost part of the Pyrenees, both in France and Spain

South Asia


[31](STRs);[32](autosomal SNPs) [33](mtDNA); [34](Y)

Kalash language, Dardic group, Indo-Iranian subfamily

Non-muslim religious isolate in Pakistan; reduced population size (~6,000)

East Asia


[35](mtDNA, Y chr)

Yakut or Sakha language, of the Northern branch of the Turkic subfamily

Former hunters and reindeer herders in Yakutia (Rusia)



[36](RFLPs), [37](STRs)

Tupi language

Pará region of Brazil; very small population

References for Supplementary Table 2
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