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Slide 1 scandentia and primates slide 2 Order scandentia a. Oriental


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Slide 1 SCANDENTIA AND PRIMATES
Slide 2 Order SCANDENTIA

A. Oriental



  1. Family TUPAIIDAE

    1. 5 genera, 19 species

  2. Fig. 11.16

  3. terrestrial to arboreal

  4. diurnal

  5. omnivorous, four species are mainly frugivorous

Slide 3 Family Tupaiidae



  1. Primates-like characters

    1. postorbital bar




    1. scrotal testes




    1. relatively large brain




  1. Lack a petrosal bulla, unlike the primates

Slide 4. tree shrew illustrations


Slide 5 Unusual Maternal Behavior
Slide 6 Order PRIMATES

Slide 7 Primate overview

A. 233 living species in 13 families
Slide 8 Primate Characteristics



  1. Petrosal bulla




  1. nail present on hallux (big toe), usually on other digits as well




  1. pollex (thumb) and/or hallux opposable




  1. postorbital bar or postorbital plate [fig. 13.2]




  1. large braincase with large orbits




  1. reduced snout and overlapping visual fields

Slide 9 Primate Characteristics





  1. Development of color, stereoscopic vision.

    1. large vision centers of brain




    1. eyes face forward

Slide 10 Traditional Classification





  1. PROSIMIANS

    1. Taxa

      1. Lemurs

      2. Lorises

      3. Tarsiers

    2. Charateristics

      1. Face




      1. orbit




      1. cerebral hemispheres




  1. ANTHROPOIDEA

    1. Taxa

      1. Monkeys

      2. apes and humans.

Slide 11 Primate Phylogeny [Fig. 13.11]


Slide 12 Cladistic Classification





  1. Strepsirhines [lemuroids and lorisoids]

    1. moist, wet, hairless nose (rhinarium)




    1. nostrils are crescentic slits




    1. postorbital bar




    1. lower incisors form tooth combs




  1. Haplorhines [tarsiers and anthropoids]

    1. eye sockets at least partially enclosed at the rear




    1. skin covered nose (loss of rhinarium)




    1. spatulate incisors




    1. nostrils partially to completely ringed

Slide 13 Snout variation [Fig. 13.8]





  1. Strepsirhines




  1. Haplorhines

Slide 14 Primate skulls





  1. Strepsirhines




  1. Haplorhines

Slide 15 Fig. 13.7, Primate Phylogeny and Characteristics


Slide 16 Orientation of nostrils in New World (Platyrhine) versus Old World (Catarhine) anthropoids

Slide 17 Primate Distribution

Slide 18 Superfamily LEMUROIDEA

A. Five families that inhabit Madagascar


Slide 19 Family LEMURIDAE
Slide 20 Lemuridae Characteristics

Slide 21 More Lemur Characteristics





  1. vertical clingers and leapers




  1. ring-tailed lemurs [fig. 13.12]

Slide 22 Vertical Clinging and Leaping


Slide 23 Vertical Clinging and Leaping

Slide 24 More Lemur Characteristics

A. tooth comb
Slide 25 Hibernation in the Madagascan fat-tailed dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus medius,
Slide 26 Indriidae



  1. closely related to lemurs




  1. leaf eaters

Slide 27 Family DAUBENTONIIDAE



  1. nocturnal, large eyes

  2. evergrowing, chisel-like incisors

  3. hand with extremely long middle finger with wire-like claw

  4. mainly insectivorous; also eat pulp of coconuts and mangoes

Slide 28 Daubentonia


Slide 29 Daubentonia skull
Slide 30 Daubentonia face and hands

Slide 31 Superfamily Loroidea

A. Families Loridae (lorises) and Galagidae (bushbabies).



  1. Characters

Slide 32 Family LORIDAE



  1. Ethiopian, Oriental

  2. Slow climbers

  3. tails very short to absent in most

  4. mainly insectivorous and/or frugivorous

Slide 33 Lorid pictures


Slide 34 Family GALAGIDAe



  1. Ethiopian




  1. Vertical clingers and leapers




  1. well-developed hind limb and long tail




  1. insectivorous, frugivorous, to omnivorous

Slide 35 Galago


Slide 36 Family TARSIIDAE



  1. Tarsier

  2. five species

  3. Oriental (Indonesia, Philippines)

  4. arboreal, nocturnal, insectivorous and carnivorous (lizards)

Slide 37 Family Tarsiidae





  1. partial post-orbital closure

  2. eyes larger than brain and fixed

  3. can rotate head almost 360 degrees

Slide 38 Tarsiidae

Specializations for vertical clinging and leaping


  1. 1

  2. 2

  3. 3

Slide 39 ANTHROPOIDEA


Slide 40 Superfamily Ceboidea

  1. New World monkeys [fig 13.18] and marmosets

  2. Neotropical [16 genera, 51 species]

  3. auditory meatus lacking bony tube

  4. three premolars

  5. nostrils directed laterally (platyrhine)

Slide 41 Family CEBIDAE



  1. 11 genera, 58 species of New World monkeys

  2. pollex slightly opposable to absent

  3. tail prehensile in four genera

  4. semibrachiators

  5. diet mainly leaves, fruit, flowers

  6. diurnal except for Aotus

  7. squirrel, howler, wooly, and spider monkeys

Slide 42 Alouattus, howler monkeys


Slide 43 Family CALLITHRICIDAE

  1. Marmosets and tamarins

  2. all very tiny, little sexual dimorphism

  3. arboreal

Slide 44 Marmoset dentition and claws

Slide 45 Callithricid picture
Slide 46 Callithricid pictures
Slide 47 Family CERCOPITHECIDAE



  1. Old World Monkeys

  2. Ethiopian, Oriental, Palearctic

  3. largest family [12 genera, 70 species]

Slide 48 Family Cercopithecidae





  1. auditory meatus with bony tube

  2. two premolars

  3. ischial callosities present

  4. usually diurnal

Slide 49 Perineal swelling in sexually receptive females


Slide 50 Primate Teeth
Slide 51 Cercopithecinae
Slide 52 Cercopithecinae



  1. mainly African

  2. omnivorous: leaves, fruit, seeds, animals

  3. baboons kill opportunistically

Slide 53 Japanese snow monkeys


Slide 54 Colobinae



  1. mainly Asian

  2. tend to be follivores;

    1. sacculated stomachs with a portion for fermentation and large salivary glands

Slide 55 Pictures of Colobinae


Slide 56 HOMINOIDEA
Slide 57 Paraphyletic Phylogeny of the Hominoidea

Slide 58 Monophyletic Phylogeny of the Hominoidea


Slide 59 Distribution of Hominoidea

Slide 60 Family HYLOBATIDAE


  1. gibbons and siamangs

  2. Oriental--southeast Asia and Malay Archipelago

  3. diet mainly fruit , also leaves, flowers

  4. No sexual dimorphism

  5. Live in small, territorial family groups

  6. Loud vocalizations

Slide 61 Hylobatidae



  1. true brachiators




  1. can climb quadrupedally and walk bipedally

Slide 62 Brachiation or arm swinging

Slide 63 Hylobatidae
Slide 64 Hominidae dentition



  1. Y5 M3 in hominids

  2. Bilophodont cheek teeth in cercopithecids

Slide 65 Hominid cheek teeth


Slide 66 Family HOMINIDAE
Slide 67 Subfamily Ponginae


  1. Orangutans, Chimpanzees, Gorilla

    1. A paraphyletic grouping

  2. Ethiopian, Oriental

  3. forelimbs much longer than hindlimbs

  4. hallux is opposable

  5. orangs are highly arboreal; brachiate slowly

  6. gorillas and chimps are terrestrial knuckle walkers

Slide 68 Knuckle Walking in Gorillas


Slide 69 Subfamily Homininae

A. Bipedal hominids



Slide 70 Fossil record
Slide 70 Human and Ape Ontogeny
Slide 71 Chimpanzee ontogeny
Slide 72 Human Population Growth
Slide 73 Biology & Conservation of Primates

  1. Deforestation




  1. Golden lion tamarins, a success story for the role of zoos


Slide 74 Threats to Gorillas & other large mammals


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