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Shtaya et al., J. Anim. Plant Sci. 25(5): 2015


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Shtaya et al., J. Anim. Plant Sci. 25(5):2015

DETECTING GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG BARLEY LANDRACES GROWN IN THE WEST-BANK, PALESTINE IN 2010-2011

M. J. Y. Shtaya1,*, J. Abdallah2, H. Al-Fares1, H. Abu-Qaoud1, O. A. Baker1, M. V. Korf3 and M. Haddad4



1 Department of Plant Production and Protection, 2 Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, An-Najah National University, P.O.Box 7, Nablus, Palestine

3 Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl von Linné Weg 10, D50829, Cologne, Germany

4 Water and Environmental Studies Institute (WESI), An-Najah National University, P.O.Box 7, Nablus, Palestine

1* Corresponding author E-mail: Email: mshtaya@najah.edu

ABSTRACT

Fifteen barley landraces were collected from different localities in the West-Bank,-Palestine during 2009. A field experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture-An Najah National University to evaluate several agronomical traits of these landraces in 2010-2011 growing season. Cluster analysis was performed using the complete-linkage method, genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV), broad sense heritability (H2), and genetic advance (GA) were calculated for the quantitative traits. Significant diversity was exhibited among the landraces regarding days to 90% heading, 100- grain weight, number of grains per spike, spike length, and awns length. The Cluster analysis showed high genetic diversity among the collected landraces with dissimilarity ranging from 0.26 to 0.75. The fifteen landraces were grouped into four clusters. Genotypic coefficient of variation ranged from 6.1 to 22.9, whereas phenotypic coefficient of variation ranged from 6.6 to 41.8 with maximum phenotypic and genotypic variability observed for number of fertile tellers, number of grains per spike and spike length. Moderate to high heritability (broad sense) estimates (70-87%) were found for most of the characters. The genetic advance was highest for number of grains per spike (39.4%), followed by spike length (37.2%). High positive significant correlations were found among the different studied traits with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.395 to 0.536. The results of this study indicated high genetic diversity among barley landraces in Palestine, which make them potential sources for selection and hybridization programmes.



Key words: Barley landraces, Genetic diversity, Heritability, Hordeum vulgare.


INTRODUCTION

The evaluation of genetic variability is among the main issues in the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Another important issue is where to find genetic variability. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the main cereal crops worldwide (Dakir et al. 2002). Large germplasm collections of cultivated (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) and wild (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) barleys are available in several gene banks, e.g. ICARDA (Syria) and IPK-Gatersleben (Germany) that encompass enormous genetic diversity. However, it is worth to evaluate the level of genetic variability maintained in small scale farming systems in developing countries, like Palestine. Cultivated barley was domesticated from its wild relative, Hordeum spontaneum around 7,000 BC. This crop originated in the ‘Fertile Crescent’ (Badr et al. 2000; Azhaguvel and Komatsuda 2007). The Fertile Crescent includes parts of Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, South-eastern Turkey, Iraq and Western Iran. The wild progenitor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) is still widely distributed along the Fertile Crescent, particularly in the driest areas (Harlan and Zohary 1966). The domestication of barley is assumed to have taken place from two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. spontaneum in the Near East (Harlan and Zohary 1966). The genetic diversity among and within landraces makes them a valuable resource as potential donors of genes for the development and maintenance of modern crop varieties and for direct use by farmers (Soleri et al. 1995). The knowledge and understanding of this genetic diversity serve as a basis for making decisions related to the conservation and the use of the germplasm collection in genetic improvement. The study of the genetic diversity within barley germplasm has long been based mainly on morphological and physiological traits (Massood et al. 2003). However, morphological variability is limited to some stages of plant growth and might be affected by environment. Other studies of the genetic diversity of barley germplasms were based on isozymes (Liu et al. 2000) and seed storage proteins (Yin et al. 2003). The present study was undertaken with the objective to evaluate genetic diversity of cultivated Palestinian barley germplasm based on agro-morphological traits





MATERIALS AND METHODS

Plant collection: Grains of fifteen barley landraces collected from farmers in different regions in the West Bank-Palestine during 2009 (Table 1) were used in this study. Grain samples were collected as a mixture from farmers who used to grow the same landrace from generation to generation. These landraces are well adapted to local conditions. Farmers were chosen based on geographical distribution across the governorates of the West-Bank.

Experimental Site: Field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, An-Najah National University, Tulkarm (Khadouri), Palestine (32.31519º N, 35.02033º W and altitude of 75 m) during the 2010/2011 growing season in a heavy clay soil. The climate of the region is hot humid during summer and warm in winter with an average annual rainfall of 600 mm. All landraces were sown at the 1st of November 2010 in three complete randomized blocks. Each accession was represented by three rows (10–15 seeds per row), 1 m long per replicate.

Data collection: During the growing season, days to heading (number of days from planting the seeds until 90% of the plants per accession gave flowering) was recorded for each landrace. At maturity, five randomly selected plants from the central rows of each landrace were harvested and the following measurements were taken: plant height, number of fertile tillers per plant, spike length (for five random spikes), awns length (for five random spikes), number of grains per spike (average of five plants), and 100-grain weight.

Statistical analysis: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted using PROC GLM procedure of SAS/STAT software, version 9.0 for Windows (SAS institute 2002). Multiple comparisons among pairs of lines were performed using the REGWQ-test. Cluster analysis was performed using the complete-linkage method. Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV), broad sense heritability (H2), and potential genetic advance (PGA) were estimated for quantitative traits based on partitioning the total variance into between-landraces (MSB) and within-landraces (MSW) components of variance as follows:







Where,

Vg is the genetic variance = (MSB- MSW)/r

Vp is the phenotypic variance = [(MSB- MSW)/r] + MSW

M = mean value of the trait

r = number of replications per treatment

i = 2.06 (selection intensity at 5%)



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Yield and yield related traits: Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were observed among the different accessions for all studied traits except for number of fertile tillers (P > 0.05); (Table 2). These results are in agreement with those of Talebi et al. (2009) who found significant differences among genotypes in spike length and number of grains per spike.

Means of morphological and production characters for studied genotypes are in Table 3. Mean plant height ranged from 80.38 cm (HV-15) to 109.80 cm (HV-3), mean spike length ranged from 4.93 cm (HV-8) to 9.10 cm (HV-9) and mean awn length ranged from 9.0 cm (HV-11) to 15.15 cm (HV-13). Awn length is alleged to have a positive contribution for drought tolerance. Martin et al., (1976) reported that awns function in transpiration and photosynthesis.

Accessions HV-11 and HV-15 showed significantly the lowest number of days to 90% heading (88 and 89 days, respectively; Table 3), indicating that these are early producing genotypes. On the other hand, HV-5 could be considered as late producing accession (mean of 112 days). Mean number of fertile tillers ranged from 3.10 (HV-15) to 8.73 (HV-6). Accession HV-12 showed the lowest 100-grain weight (mean of 4.13 g) while HV-11, HV-7, and HV-13 (HV-7 and HV-11 are two-row accessions while HV-13 is six-row) showed the highest 100-grain weights (means of 6.04, 6.14, and 6.16 g, respectively) These same three accessions showed low number of grains per spike (25.67, 26.80 and 35.2 grains) but HV-7 and HV-11 had long spikes (means of 9.03 and 8.67 cm, respectively) while HV-13 had the shortest spikes (mean of 5.17 cm). In selection for high yield it is preferred to have genotypes with large number of fertile tillers, long spikes, large grains and high number of grains per spike. Ram and Singh (1989) found that spike length, number of grains per spike and grain weight, were the main characters contributing to yield in barley, while Nessa et al. (1998) observed that tiller number, spike length and plant height were the main characters contributing to yield in barley. These traits could be utilized efficiently for tailoring a new plant variety and assist in conservation of desirable gene pool, and its utilization in breeding program for specific plant traits (Yahyaoui et al. 1997; Babu and Hanchinal 1998).

Genetic similarities among genotypes: The cluster analysis confirmed the high genetic diversity in the collected landraces with dissimilarity ranging from a minimum of 0.26 between landraces HV-1 and HV-4 to maximum of 1.75 between HV-1 and HV-11. The clustering dendrogram (Figure 1) proposed three groups. The first group (cluster-I) included two accessions (HV-7 and HV-11) which was most likely grouped based mainly on row number (both are two-row) and also on high 100-grain weight, small number of grains per spike and high spike length. The second group (cluster-II) consisted of four landraces (HV-8, HV-10, HV-13 and HV-15) grouped mainly based on similarities in plant height, 100-grain weight, and number of grains per spike. The third group (cluster-III) can be divided into two sub-clusters, the first one consisted of three landraces (HV-5, HV-9 and HV-12) grouped together based on the highest number of grains per spike and high spike length and the second consisted of four landraces (HV-8, HV-10, HV-13 and HV-15) grouped for low number of grains per spike and low number of fertile tillers.

The landraces have been grouped in a particular cluster on the basis of greater morphological trait similarities, thus representative landraces from a cluster of particular group could be chosen for hybridization programs. Some potentially important traits have been identified and these can be exploited for specific trait improvement and assembly of core collection from a bulk genetic stock.



Coefficients of variation, heritability and potential genetic advance: There were significant differences among genotypes for all the traits under study (Table 2). Genetic and phenotypic measures of variation, heritability (broad sense) and potential genetic advance as percentage of trait means are in Table 4. Genotypic coefficients of variation ranged from 6.1 to 22.9 whereas phenotypic coefficients of variation ranged from 6.6 to 41.8. The maximum phenotypic and genotypic variability were observed for number of fertile tillers, number of grains per spike and spike length (Table 3). Similar findings were reported for wheat (Waqar et al. 2008), rice (Akhtar et al. 2011) and field pea (Singh and Singh 2006).

Table 1. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces collected from different regions in Palestine.

Accession

Collection site

Province

Latitude

Longitude

Altitude

HV-1

Ras Atya

Qalqilya

32º9´33.35´´N

34º59´30.20´´E

70

HV-2

Imatin

Qalqilya

32º11´34.53´´N

53º9´34.25´´E

390

HV-3

Bayt Iba

Nablus

32º14´24.10´´N

35º12´43.66´´E

350

HV-4

Beta

Nablus

32º8´17.54´´N

35º17´1.09´´E

520

HV-5

Tayasir

Tubas

32º20´33.24´´N

35º23´47.42´´E

250

HV-6

Jayus

Qalqilya

32º12´2.29´´N

35º2´2.71´´E

240

HV-7

Sinjil

Ramallah

32º2´7.02´´N

35º15´52.19´´E

690

HV-8

Qabatiya

Jenin

32º24´42.83´´N

35º16´48.41´´E

260

HV-9

Silat Al-Dahr

Jenin

32º19´1.32´´N

35º11´21.53´´E

340

HV-10

Shuweka

Tulkarm

32º20´8.52´´N

35º2´6.19´´E

150

HV-11

Tubas

Tubas

32º19´21.30’’N

35º22´6.44´´E

400

HV-12

Azun

Qalqilua

32º10’38.25´´N

35º3´19.96´´E

220

HV-13

Anabta

Tulkarm

32º18´29.01´´N

35º7´11.44´´E

160

HV-14

Tel Albeida

Tubas

32º22´53.33´´N

35º30´22.71´´E

-20

HV-15

Ni'lin

Ramallah

31º56´57.36´´N

35º1´16.37´´E

260


Table 2. Analysis of variance of agro-morphological characters in barley accessions.


Sources

df

Mean square

DH

(days)

100GW

(g)

PH

(cm)

NFT

(number)

SL

(cm)

AL

(cm)

NGS (number)

Block

2

21.07**

0.006

117.44

11.64ns

0.439

0.939

22.14

Genotypes

14

110.32***

1.127***

313.96**

8.59ns

6.77***

8.42***

414.80***

Error

28

5.45

0.177

137.88

4.21

0.73

0.594

52.64

DH: Days to heading; 100GW: 100-grain weight; PH: Plant height; NFT: Number of fertile tellers; SL: Spike length; AL: Awn length; NSS = number of grains per spike

*** and ** significant at p ≤ 0.01and p ≤ 0.05, respectively.


Heritability estimate is an important parameter which helps the breeder to select a plant trait that is high heritable as compared to a trait which is less heritable. High heritability (broad sense) estimates (70-87%) were found for all the characters, except number of fertile tillers and plant height (26% and 30% respectively). These results are in agreement with the results obtained by Eid (2009). Potential genetic advance (as a percentage of trait means) ranged from 8.8% for plant height to 39.4% for number of grains per spike. Waqar et al. (2008) reported high heritability values coupled with high genetic advance for number of grains per spike.

The moderate to high estimates of heritability and potential genetic advance found for spike length, 100-grain weight and number of grains per spike suggest that selection based on phenotype would be effective for these traits (Masood and Chaudhry 1987; Sharma et al. 1986; Firouzian et al. 2003). Low potential genetic advance as for plant height indicates slight chances of improvement of this trait in subsequent generations as discussed by Firouzian et al. (2003).



Phenotypic correlations among characters: Simple correlation coefficients between the studied characters are presented in Table (4). Significant positive correlations were found for number of grains per spike with plant height (0.536), and days to heading (0.45), and for spike length with number of fertile tellers (0.426). Eid (2009) reported that there is a high correlation between days to heading and number of grains per spike. Spike length was negatively correlated with awns length (-0.602). Significant negative correlations were also found for 100-grain weight with number of grains per spike (-0.734), with days to heading (-0.378) and with plant height (-0.384). These correlations should be taken into consideration in selection programs to avoid any antagonistic effects.

Table 3. Production and morphological characters of 15 barley accessions.


Accession

Production characters

Morphological traits

DH

100GW

NGS

NFT

PH

SL

AL

HV-1

96.33cde

5.03cde

54.80ab

6.60

113.02

5.93cd

14.01ab

HV-2

99.67 bcd

4.72cde

54.20ab

4.67

107.93

7.02abcd

12.91b

HV-3

96.33cde

4.63de

49.60ab

7.00

109.80

5.87cd

13.34ab

HV-4

95.00cdef

5.33abcd

50.13ab

5.87

109.67

5.41d

13.68ab

HV-5

112.33a

5.07cde

64.90a

4.43

99.62

8.07abc

12.19bc

HV-6

93.00defg

5.10bcde

53.40ab

8.73

99.67

6.25bcd

12.27bc

HV-7

96.33cde

6.14a

26.80c

8.33

95.13

9.03a

10.40cd

HV-8

98.67bcd

5.01cde

44.00abc

4.33

94.33

4.93d

13.21ab

HV-9

101.00bc

4.51de

60.25a

4.67

103.27

9.10a

12.13bc

HV-10

91.00efg

5.72abc

44.42abc

4.20

87.77

5.17d

11.98bc

HV-11

88.00g

6.04ab

25.67c

8.00

87.80

8.67ab

9.00d

HV-12

95.33cdef

4.13e

62.80a

5.33

91.47

7.92abc

9.60d

HV-13

93.33defg

6.16a

35.20bc

4.53

82.87

5.17d

15.15a

HV-14

102.00b

5.32abcd

49.40ab

5.73

102.93

7.20abcd

13.81ab

HV-15

89.00fg

5.64abc

43.85abc

3.10

80.38

5.28d

12.39bc

DH = days to heading. 100GW = 100-grain weight. NGS = number of grains per spike. NFT = number of fertile tellers. PH = plant height. SL = spike length. AL = Awn length.

Means in the same column with different superscripts are significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) using REGWQ test for multiple comparisons.


Table 4. Estimates of genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV), broad sense heritability (H2), and potential genetic advance (PGA) for different characters of 15 barley accessions


Character

PCV (%)

GCV (%)

H2

PGA (%)

DH

6.6

6.1

0.87

11.7

100GW

12.9

11.1

0.74

19.7

PH

14.4

7.9

0.30

8.8

NFT

41.8

21.2

0.26

22.2

SL

24.6

21.1

0.73

37.2

AL

14.4

13.0

0.81

24.2

NGS

27.5

22.9

0.70

39.4

DH = days to heading. 100GW = 100-grain weight. PH = plant height. NFT = number of fertile tellers. SL = spike length. AL = Awn length. NGS = number of grains per spike.

Table 5. Correlation coefficients for six agronomic characters of fifteen barley genotypes grown in 2010/2011.





DH

100GW

PH

NFT

SL

AL

100GW

-0.378**
















PH

0.143ns

-0.384***













NFT

-0.259ns

0.053 ns

0.395***










SL

0.239ns

-0.145 ns

0.275ns

0.426***







AL

0.229 ns

0.038 ns

0.169 ns

-0.236 ns

-0.602***




NGS

0.45***

-0.734***

0.536***

-0.020 ns

0.178 ns

0.152 ns

DH: Days to heading; 100GW: 100-grain weight; PH: Plant height; NFT: Number of fertile tellers; SL: Spike length; AL: Awn length, NGS = number of grains per spike

*** and ** significant at p ≤ 0.01 and p ≤ 0.05, respectively.


Figure 1. Dendrogram of 15 barley landraces.


Acknowledgments: The authors gratefully acknowledges the excellent technical assistance by the technical team of the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, An-Najah National University. This work was supported by the grant from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

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