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Selected names and/or terms brinkley, chapters 1-5


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SELECTED NAMES AND/OR TERMS

BRINKLEY, CHAPTERS 1-5

The following are some of the important names and terms taken from Brinkley, Alan, American History: A Survey. They are intended as a study aid, but this is by no means an exhaustive list. This is not an exhaustive list, however, and the instructor reserves the right the select other terms for the examination. Other items in the chapters are important, too. For each term, be prepared to discuss in class and on examinations what is its significance for American development and its approximate time of action.




Aztecs

Mayas


Incas

Woodland Indians

Chaco Canyon

Cahokia


Algonquin

Iroquois

Muskogean

Leif Eriksson

Prince Henry the Navigator

Bartholomeu Dias

Vasco da Gama

Pedro Cabral

Christopher Columbus

Vasco de Balboa

Ferdinand Magellan

conquistador

Hernando Cortés

Francisco Pizarro

Hernando de Soto

Francisco Coronado

encomienda

St. Augustine

Santa Fe

Juan de Oňate

Pueblo Indians

mercantilism

Richard Hakluyt

Calvinism

Church of England

Puritan


Sir Humphrey Gilbert

Sir Walter Raleigh



coureurs de bois

Samuel de Champlain

Dutch West India Company

Henry Hudson

New Netherland

Jamestown

Sir Francis Drake

Spanish Armada

Roanoke “Lost Colony”

Plymouth Company

London (Virginia) Company

Capt. John Smith

Lord De La Warr

Virginia


“starving time”

John Rolfe

headright system

House of Burgesses

Pocahontas

Lord Baltimore

Maryland

proprietorship

“Act Concerning Religion” (Toleration Act)

Sir William Berkeley

Bacon’s Rebellion

Caribbean Colonies

Plymouth Plantation

William Bradford

Massachusetts Bay

John Winthrop

Connecticut

New Haven

Roger Williams

Rhode Island

Anne Hutchinson

New Hampshire

Pequot War

King Philip’s War

The Carolinas

Anthony Ashley Cooper (Lord Shaftesbury)

John Locke

New York


New Jersey

Sir John Berkeley

Sir George Carteret

Quakers


William Penn

“holy experiment”

Pennsylvania

Delaware


Georgia

James Oglethorpe

Navigation Acts

Dominion of New England

“Glorious Revolution of 1688”

indentured servants

Royal African Company

Salem witchcraft trial

Halfway Covenant

Great Awakening

Congregationalists

Presbyterians

George Whitefield
John and Charles Wesley

The Enlightenment

Harvard

Cotton Mather



John Peter Zenger

Marquette and Joliet

Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle

Pierre Varennes, Sieur de La Verendrye

Louisbourg

Iroquois Confederacy

King William’s War

Queen Anne’s War

George’s War

Albany Plan (of Union)

French and Indian War

Great War for Empire

George Washington

Fort Duquesne

William Pitt (Lord Chatham)

Wolfe and Montcalm

Peace of Paris, 1763

Acadians (Cajuns)

George III

Pontiac


Proclamation of 1763

Sugar (Revenue) Act of 1764

Mutiny (Quartering) Act of 1765

Regulator Movement

Paxton Boys

Stamp Act Crisis

Patrick Henry

Declaratory Act

Townshend Program

Boston Massacre

Samuel Adams

John Adams

Lord North

Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer


“Virtual” representation

Gaspee affair

British East India Company

Tea Act

Boston Tea Party



Mercy Otis Warren

Sons of Liberty

Coercive (Intolerable) Acts

First Continental Congress

Lexington and Concord

“Olive Branch Petition”

Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms

Thomas Paine, Common Sense

Hessians

Second Continental Congress

Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson

Benjamin Franklin

Loyalists (Tories)

Patriots

Valley Forge

Marquis de Lafayette

Bunker Hill

Gen. Thomas Gage

Moore’s Creek

Battle of Long Island

Trenton


Gen. William Howe

Brandywine Creek

Germantown

Gen. John Burgoyne

Saratoga

French alliance

Benedict Arnold

Sir Henry Clinton

Lord Cornwallis

Nathanael Greene

Yorktown

Peace of Paris, 1783

Articles of Confederation

(Land) Ordinance of 1784, 1785

Northwest Ordinance

Treaty of Greenville



Shay’s Rebellion


ESSAY QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER



  1. As a historian, what specific types of information, especially primary sources, would you use to learn about Native Americans? What were the strengths and weakness of each type? (Consider what types of information you would use to learn about the English colonial period, too.)




  1. Discuss the effect of the discovery and colonization of the New World on Europe and Africa and its people. How, in turn, was the New World itself affected?




  1. Discuss the circumstances that encouraged Spanish voyages of exploration and discovery. Explain why the Spanish explored and established an American empire well in advance of the English.




  1. Compare and contrast the motives of each of the different European nations that colonized the New World. How do you explain the difference in approach? Cite examples to support your argument.




  1. Who were the most important peoples and nations involved in the development of what would become today the United States of America? What were the major contributions that each made to the development of the area?




  1. How did the religious background of the colonies of all nations affect their development? Does this condition change over time? Explain thoroughly, citing examples.




  1. Discuss the three different types of English colonies, citing at least one example of each. In what ways did these three types different from each other? How were they alike? By the time of the Revolution, which type of colony outnumbered the others? Why?




  1. If you were potential colonist would colony would you pick and why? Be specific and explain your answer fully. Consider the time period you would arrive and situation in each colony in that time.




  1. Compare the economic and social structures of the New England and the Southern colonies. How were they alike? How were they different? How do you account for the differences?




  1. What is meant by “salutary neglect,” and what were the political and economic consequences for the English colonies? Why was the same policy not followed by the other European powers?




  1. Discuss the mistakes made by England in administering its American colonies between 1763 and 1770. Could colonial complaints have been avoided? If so, how? If not, why not?



  1. How did the colonial background affect and shape the political, economic, social, and cultural development of the independent United States? Explain fully.




  1. Imagine yourself a patriot in 1776. What arguments would you make to convince your neighbors of the necessity for rebellion and independence? In contrast, if you were opposed to the rebellion, what arguments would you make against independence?




  1. How did the American patriots manage to win the Revolutionary War against what seemed like overwhelming odds? Explain your answer thoroughly and thoughtfully, citing examples to support your reasoning.


Consider also the information and questions in the McClellan text.


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