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appendix 1: literature review

Review of literature and relevant reports

Ref No.

Author/ Date/Source

Title

Regions

Species

Data lists used

Capability

Suitability

Economic analysis

Maps used

Envelopes

Notes

1

ABARE

Forest plantations on cleared agricultural land in Australia

National Plantation Inventory Regions

Pinus radiata, P. pinaster,

E. globulus,

E. nitens,

E. regnans,

E. grandis,

E. pilularis,

Corymbia variegata,

P. caribaea,

P. elliottii,

A. cunninghamii

Acacia mangium

BRS rainfall data, Margules Groome Pöyry plantation yield, costs, final market prices and timber processing data, AUSLIG road coverages, ABARE farm surveys

Rainfall

Cleared agr land, agr land value

Plantation costs, timber processing costs (fixed & variable, recovery rates & capacity), transport costs, market prices, value of agr land

Maps of each region of:

Current agr land use and value, plantation productivity, potential land use



Varied depending on region and species

A national study looking only at rainfall for capability. Doesn’t cover all the mills

2

Allen, R & Assoc. 1982. Prepared for Vic LCC

An investigation of private land suitable for softwood production in SW District 1

Green Triangle

P. radiata

Land sales

Cleared freehold land, rainfall, temperature, soils, topography

Land use

Land sales

N/A

N/A

Area statements by productivity zones

3

Beckhouse J.A. ,1996,

SFNSW


South East Eucalypt Plantation Program

SE NSW

Tablelands:

E. nitens

Coastal:

E. botryoides

E. saligna

Covers MAI quoted in literature. Rough yield schedules.

Gives most promising species for Coastal & Tablelands

Assesses other reports.

Market discussion. Summarises previous market assessments & opportunities Presents IRRs.

None

N/A

Review of south coast plantation prospects, including species lists, MAIs, site preparation requirements & management. Also lists further research requirements.

4

Bonny, L., 1991, FCNSW, Research Paper No. 12

Growth of a E. grandis plantation following intensive silvicultural treatments applied in the first 6 years.

Northern NSW

E.grandis

Growth rates as MAI to 6 years

Site preparation methods to obtain MAIs.

N/A

N/A

N/A

33oS-25oS, grows best on lower slopes, deep soils of at least moderate fertility, 1500mm rainfall

Possible use in determining growth rates.

5

Booth, T.H and Jovanovic, T., 1991, CSIRO Division of Forestry,

Report to the National Plantations Advisory Committee.



Integrating farming and forestry. Commercial wood production on cleared agricultural land. Appendix B. B1 “Identification of land capable of private plantation development. ”B4 “Environmental costs and benefits of establishing plantations on cleared agricultural land.”

All Australia

E.diversicolor

E.globulus

E.grandis

E.nitens

E.pilularis

E.regnans

E.saligna

A.mangium

A.mearnsii

A.melanoxylon

P.radiata

P.elliottii

P.caribaea

Araucaria cunninghamii

SPANS GIS ESOCLIM AUSLIG

Climate, rainfall, temperature Soil: physical, chemical Topography: Pests: Diseases: Potential for irrigated plantations. Potential for hardwood on cleared land.

Discusses environ-mental costs/
benefits. Discusses constraints of: seed availability, frost, pests, pathogens, salinity, water-logging

Tas, Vic, WA case studies. Costs and returns for farming and forestry.

Soil 1:5 million

Vegn 1:5 million

Climate 1:5 million


Rainfall

>600mm/yr

Cleared Vegetation

Dry season<=6 months



Comprehensive analysis of plantation capability. Includes environmental, harvesting and research constraints. Environmental benefits of hydrological, soil, biodiversity, climatological,

Economic studies. National scale study



6

Borschmann R. 1998. Prepared for Plantation Development Services for Plantations North East

DRAFT Plantation productivity potential of Blue Gum and Radiata Pine for NE Victoria

Victoria

E. globulus,

P. radiata

Growth data derived from research trials and demo plantings

Cleared freehold land, rainfall, altitude, geology x rainfall classes

Distance from town centres

N/A

Plantation productivity potential for P. radiata & E. globulus

N/A

Area statements by productivity classes

7

Prepared by BRS under the Eden RFA process 1998

Identification of plantation expansion opportunities in NSW – Eden CRA region

Eden

E. nitens,

P. radiata




Cleared private land. Climate ( rainfall, temp, radiation & evaporation)

Soil ( geology, lithology, landscapes, depths, nutrient index). Topography. Site index



Land values, land tenure and use, productivity classes & buffer exclusions

NPV and productivity classes

Plantation potential maps for P. radiata & E. nitens

Land tenure & use, NPV of Ag, NPV of plantations (baseline, high & low scenario)



N/A

Area statements

8

Bush et al 1998 Central Highlands(Vic)Prepared by BRS for Central Highlands RFA process

Plantation potential analysis

Murray Valley Victoria

E. nitens,

E. regnans

P. radiata,

A. melanoxylon

Topographic models, soil suitability classes

Temperature, soil types and slope

Relationship between land property size and land price

Relationship between land property size and land price. Socio-economic analysis

Rainfall, soil capab.

Land cover & tenure, land suitab by parcel size. Potential for E. globulus, E. nitens, E. regnans, P. radiata, A. melanoxylon



N/A

A report with area statements by suitability classes

9

Bruskin S., SFNSW, research division, Coffs Harbour

Rainforest Plantings, material prepared for the joint venture plantation manager in response to a submission from the Big Scrub Landcare group

NSW North Coast

various rainforest species

Hoop pine log prices to 1994/95, NSW rainforest growth data, eucalyptus growth data, economic analysis,, climate/rainfall data

rainfall statistics, optimal growth rates for eucalypt and rainforest species, soil types for hoop and bunya pine, climate data

Market discussions, wood production schedules,

eucalypt, hoop pine, mixed rainforest plantations and cash flow summaries associated with varying ventures.

basic geology

N/A

detailed discussion of economics of rainforest species in plantations,

10

Bureau of Transport & Commun-ication, 1996, Economics Working Paper 23.

Costs of carbon sequestration through afforestation: greenhouse gas emissions Australian Transport.

National

P. radiata

Carbon sequestration rates for plantations.

Uses CSIRO 1991 study. Ref 1.

N/A

Costs

N/A

N/A

Utilised work from Booth and Jovanovic 1991.

11

Centre for International Economics, 1994,

Prepared for SFNSW.



Community and social benefits of eucalypt plantations

NSW

not-specified

Descriptive costs and benefits

N/A

N/A

N/A

None

None

Descriptive summary of costs and benefits to community of eucalypt plantations.

12

Chandler, Fraser, Keating, Forest Industry consultants New Zealand, 1994, for

SFNSW.


A eucalypt plantation programme for NSW

All NSW

Unspecified eucalypt

Approx royalty

N/A

N/A

Australian markets and international demand.

None

None

A market discussion

13

Clark, R.V., 1995, SFNSW

Growing radiata pine sawlogs on farms in NSW. Plantations and agroforestry for profit.

NSW

P.radiata

Management regime

N/A

N/A

Costs of establishment, approximate returns, present values.

None

Soil depth 40-50 cm, < 18o , most soils suitable except poorly drained or soils with poor water holding capacity

Guide to planning, assessment, maintenance and harvesting

14

Clark, J., 1995,
Environment Victoria. A report to the State Conservation Councils.

Australia’s Plantations: industry, employment, environment.

Australia

P.radiata

MAI for softwood plantation regions. Projected softwood timber production. National area of plantation by region

None

None

Overall industry overview, markets, current volumes, employment, growth potential.

None

None

An overview of the plantation based industry inc.: employment, industry potential, and resource.

15

Cornish, P., 1989, Technical Paper No. 49, FCNSW.

The effects of radiata pine plantation establishment and management on water yields and water quality - a review

Australia, New Zealand, South Africa

P.radiata, and mentioned eucalypt usage.

Changes in streamflow with plantation age, downstream impacts.

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Review of plantation effect on water quantity and quality.

16

Crevatin et al 1996. Undertaken by DPI forestry for Queensland Commodity Exports

South – east Queensland hardwood plantation land suitability study

SEQ

No particular hardwood species

Annual precip ANUCLIM, slope AUSLIG

Land cover Landsat, statigraphic units, cadastral



Freehold cleared land, rainfall, slopes, soil type classes

Land use (not used for cropping), land size, distance from Brisbane

N/A

N/A

N/A

Assessing feasibility of amount of land suitably available for plantations around the Port of Brisbane

17

Dwyer Leslie Pty Ltd, in association with Corporate Impacts P/L and Dr R.A Powell, 1990-1991/Dwyer Leslie Pty Ltd, in association with Dr R.A Powell, 1993-1995/, FCNSW/
SFNSW

Oberon: Rural Community Development Study, Years 1 to 5 and Final Report.

Oberon, Central Highlands

P.radiata

Employment industry economics, multipliers

N/A

N/A

Economic benefit to community and government

Road haulage network

None

Social and economic impacts of Forest Plantation establishment in Oberon.

18

Eucalypt and Forestry Services, 1995, Armidale.

An economic appraisal of the environmental and social effects of eucalypt plantations establishment under the joint venture program of State Forests of NSW.

All NSW

Unspecified eucalypts




N/A

N/A

Economic benefits on state scale

N/A

N/A

Covers range of social, environmental, economic costs/benefits, inc., hydrological, edaphic.

19

Furrer, B., 1993, Forest Planning and Environment Series, Vol. 3, SFNSW.

Eucalypt plantations in NSW

All NSW

Unspecified eucalypts

Approximate yield tables

N/A

N/A

IRR’s

None

N/A

Outlines assistance measures, benefits, IRR’s, and opportunities in NSW.

20

Geddes Management 1998

Mt Lofty Ranges Farm Forestry Industry Plan

Mt Lofty SA

P. radiata

E. globulus,

E. saligna

C. maculata

N/A

Cleared freehold land, rainfall, soils (fertility, water holding capacity), Slopes

Land use, property size

Market potential, landholder attitudes



Socio-economic issues

N/A

N/A

A report of area statements and maps. Growth rate estimation

21

James, R.N, Florence, R.G, Mahendra-rajah, S and Turner, B.T, 1995, report to the Standing Committee on Forestry, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Department of Forestry, ANU, Canberra.

Forest Plantations of Australia - Their role in providing current and future wood supplies.

Australia wide

Unspecified

Production and consump-tion figures for hardwood and softwood

Not considered

Not considered

N/A

None

Not discussed

Discusses area reported to replace native forests

22

Johnson, I.G. & Stanton, R.R., 1993

FCNSW Research Division, Research Paper No. 20.



Thirty years of eucalypt species & provenance trials in NSW. Survival & growth in trials established from 1961-1990.

All NSW

Various

Show growth rates

N/A

N/A

N/A

Location of trials

NA

Useful for growth data

23

Jurskis, V., 1996, SFNSW, Southern Research.

Plantation land suitability assessment - Southern Region

Southern region, South of Bowral

P.radiata, discussion of eucalypts

State Forest GIS

Rainfall, slope, cleared land.

Secondary criteria of soil and site quality.



Some field checking of soil depth, and native vegetation.

No economic analysis attempted.

GIS maps produced showing potentially suitable land for softwood.

1:600 000



Annual mean rainfall INXS of 700mm pine

900mm eucalypts

slopes<18o

Land essentially cleared

secondary criteria, soil>1000mm, native vegn >25m


Areas suitable for pine and eucalypt.

Limitations include geology, detailed soil analysis, economics, species potential, and the coarse scale.



24

Keenan, R. 1998. Undertaken by Queensland Forest Research Institute

Farm forestry in the tropics: potential and pitfalls (prelim on plantation potential)

Northern Queensland, above 1000 mm only

P. caribaea var. hondurensis,

A. cunninghamii and various Euc and rainforest sp.

BIOCLIM

Cleared land, rainfall, slopes, climate

Distance from Cairns, land use (not used for high value agriculture or farming)

Distance from Cairns

Map of capable land for a number of species

N/A

Map of capable land for a number of species

25

Lancefield Consultants, 1995

Farm Forestry Strategy Task Force Consultancy Report

SW WA

P. radiata,

E. globulus,

P. pinaster

MAIs,

Cleared freehold land, rainfall, soils, growth rates

Distance to centre

IRRs

Blue gum potential map

Rainfall >450mm/yr for pinaster, >600mm/yr for other sp.

Area statements by regional groups

26

Landsberg, J.J., Jones, P.M. and Pryor, L.D., 1990,

Report on a study undertaken for the Common-wealth Minister for Resources.



Development of a plantation strategy for the south-east forests of NSW.

SE NSW

E.nitens

E.grandis

E.saligna

E.globulus

others discussed



MAI for various eucalypts in varying areas

economic analysis, inc RoR.



Lithography, rainfall

Doesn’t account for land costs.

RoR’s for varying yields and rotations based on establishment and maintenance costs.

None published

Rainfall 850-900mm

rainfall 650-850mm

rainfall>900mm

slopes <15o

rateable land


Provides area based on capability, includes approx MAI’s, doesn’t include land value

27

Bonny, L, 1991,

FCNSW, Research Paper No. 12.



Growth of an E. grandis plantation following intensive silvicultural treatments applied in the first six years.

Coffs Harbour

E. grandis

Provides MAI & CAI curves

N/A

N/A

None

None

N/A

Provides idea of growth rates with differing treatments.

28

Lewis, N. B and Ferguson, I.S., 1993.

Management of radiata pine.

Australia, New Zealand, Chile, South Africa

P.radiata

Growth and yield curves

N/A

N/A

Descriptive not specific

None

General requirements of radiata pine

Comprehensive book covering all aspects of radiata pine management

29

Lindenmeyer, Mackay, Nix, 1996, Aust For. 59 p74-89.

The bioclimatic domains of four species of commercially important eucalypts from South-Eastern Australia.

SE Aust

E.regnans

E.delegatensis

E.fastigata

E.nitens

Bioclim Analysis for each species EUCALIST used for data source.

Elevation, rainfall, distribution, temp range and seasonal changes.

N/A

None

Very small scale potential maps

Elevation, rainfall, temperature.

Uses natural ranges of species and climatic requirements, matching them with bioclim analysis.

30

Maclaren, J.P., 1993, FRI bulletin No. 184 NZ Forest Research Institute.

Radiata pine growers manual.

New Zealand

P.radiata

N/A

N/A

N/A

Basic analysis

None

Site selection requirements

An excellent non-technical practitioners guide on all aspects of radiata pine

31

Margules Groome Pöyry and Macquarie

Corporate Finance, 1996, prepared for SFNSW.



Investor participation mechanisms in hardwood plantations in NSW

NSW

Unspecified hardwood

Investor mechanism

N/A

N/A

Capacity to pay calculations for pulpwood

None

None

Discusses potential investment in plantations and impediments

32

Margules Groome Pöyry Ltd Australia, DIST, DPIE, 1995.

Australian plantation bench-marking study.

National

N/A

Economic costs

N/A

None

Investor types, supply & demand factors, markets, government constraints. Minimum required IRR. Sources of information relating to forestry investment. International Land costs, prices, harvest & transport

None

None

Describes Australia’s plantations industry, economics & industry locations.

33

Margules Groome Pöyry Ltd, 1993, prepared for Softwoods Working Party.

State softwoods strategic plan for NSW (draft)

All NSW

P.radiata

Markets, and potential, general management regime

N/A

N/A

Markets, and supply commitments

N/A

N/A

Discusses supply/demand, markets, constraints, environmental issues and proposes strategy.

34

Margules Pöyry 1998. Prepared for Plantations North East

Regional Profile of North East Victoria

NE Vic

P. radiata,

E. globulus

Large variety

Climate, soils, slope, growth rates

Tenure, land prices, infrastructure industry location,

Infrastructure, industry location, financial returns

Location of LGA, infrastructure, rainfall, tenure, current plantations radiata suitable land, blue gum suitable land, opp zones, wood vol, industry locations

N/A

It identifies areas within NE Vic that are physically suitable for plantation expansion using a combination of industrial and market information, and physical conditions

35

Margules Pöyry 1997. Prepared for Greening Australia & NT Forestry and Timber Products Network

Feasibility study – Farm forestry in the top end of the NT

Northern Territory

Various

Using existing information and GIS data

Temperature, rainfall, soils

Land size, land use, utilities, port infrastructure market demand

Financial analysis




N/A

Feasibility report for farm forestry in NT

36

Meynink, R., 1990, prepared for Harris-Daishowa (Australia) Pty.Ltd.

An analysis of the Landsberg, Jones, Pryor 1990 “Develop-ment of a plantation strategy for the South-East Forests of NSW” report.

SE NSW

Not specified

Looks at haul distances, harvest costs, mill costs, MAI, land costs establish-ment and maintenance costs to determine IRR for plantations.

N/A

N/A

Detailed look at costs and IRR for varying land costs

None

Parameters for IRR

Reviews Landsberg report and provides economic analysis including land costs.

37

Mousa, A, And Keady E. July 1996, Resources Branch Department of Primary Industries, Queensland

plantation volume growth summaries from growth plots in Queensland

QLD

Hoop pine, slash pine, radiata pine, Pinus taeda, Pinus patula, Pinus caribaea

growth rates

not specified

not specified

N/A

9

not specified

growth summaries

38

Northern NSW Forestry Services, 1994,

Study undertaken for the Mid North Coast Regional Development Board.



North Coast Forest and Plantation Resource Study.

North Coast NSW

E.pilularis

E.grandis

E.saligna

E.nitens

Limited approx MAI for flooded gum and Blackbutt.

Existing, and potential areas of hardwood plantations



Climatic and edaphic requirements

Includes some consideration of land value and survey of landowners

Develops IRR’s for varying land costs, including establishment costs, and annual costs

Identifies broad areas as having the best potential.

Temp, rainfall, soil types, dry season length

Comprehensive look at hardwood potential and existing resource in N NSW. Potential areas based on landowners surveys, not capability criteria.

39

Northern NSW Forestry Services, SFNSW, 1996, Study undertaken for the Mid North Coast Regional Development Board.

Mid-north Coast Forest and Plantation Resource study.

Mid North Coast NSW

E.pilularis

E.grandis

E.agglomerata

E.nitens

E.saligna

E.maculata

E.dunnii

E.laevopinea

E.cloeziana

Potentially suitable plantation area by local government area. Used (unspecified) GIS analysis

Existing plantations

Net Productive areas by forest type


Climate, soil, land tenure,

Excluded prime land for horticulture, steep slopes, uncleared land

Profitability based on costs, MAI and land costs.

1:600 000 maps. Includes existing and potential areas

>900mm,

cleared private land, non-prime ag land, <18o


10-20 hectares minimum size, well drained soils, access

Comprehensive analysis of region, including existing and potential, and covering economics. Does not cover exact CRA region, will be a good cross reference.

40

O’Hara,A.J., 1990, FCNSW, paper to Austis Conference, Tasmania.

Economics of growing eucalypt sawlogs in plantations.

NSW

Non-specific

Predominantly an economic analysis, includes basic yield tables

N/A

N/A

Detailed economic analysis based on establishment and management costs, returns, MAI, and sensitivity analysis.

None

N/A

Economic analysis looking at variables, and potential IRR. Not considering potential.

41

Private Forestry Tasmania farm forestry project

Tasmanian RFA background report Part D Social and Economic Report Vol II

Tasmania

P. radiata,

E. globulus

E. nitens

N/A

Cleared freehold land, rainfall, temperature, soils, productivity classes

Socio-economic study

Socio-economic study

N/A

N/A

Prepared as part of the CRA/RFA process

42

Prosser, M., 1989, Honours thesis ANU Canberra.

The economics of eucalypt plantations- a case study: Blackbutt plantations of the New South Wales north coast.

Northern NSW

E.pilularis

MAI Blackbutt

Climate, soil, very basic analysis.

Cleared land, <120km from major town but >10km

Costs and returns

Unscaled map used for areas available

Cleared land, <120km from major town but >10km

Basic look at available areas, more detail on costings and economics.

43

Queensland RFA S/C 1998

Commercial plantation land suitability analysis of SE Queensland

SEQ

Araucaria cunninghamii,

P. elliottii x P. caribaea,

E. argophloia, C. maculata

E. pilularis,

E. cloeziana

E. grandis

Climatic modelling

Cleared land

Slopes, soil capability classes, climate, rainfall



N/A

N/A

N/A

Slopes <30º

Area statement and maps

44

Regional Analysis and strategies

- prepared for SFNSW by Regional Analysis and Strategies, Armidale

1994


The impact of eucalypt forestry on the NSW economy

All NSW

Non-specific

Approximate prices for products

N/A

N/A.

State wide economic benefits.

None

None

Looks at economic benefits of a increase in NSW plantation estate

45

Reilly, J.J., Parkes, E.D., and Ferguson, I.S., 1975, Aust For. 37 p233-44.

The potential productivity of farmlands in the lower south coast region of NSW for radiata pine plantations.

Lower South coast NSW

P.radiata

Site index for P.radiata for various ages/areas.

Approx areas suitable by district.



Land category determined by: soils, topography, geology. Site index by rainfall.

Not considered

Not considered

N/A

N/A

A report looking at categorising farmland potential for P.radiata

46

Report of the National Plantations Advisory Committee. 1991

Integrating farming and forestry. Commercial wood production on cleared agricultural land. Appendix C.

“Economics on farm forestry enterprises: a study approach”



All Australia

E.diversicolor

E.globulus

E.grandis

E.nitens

E.pilularis

E.regnans

E.saligna

A.mangium

A.mearnsii

A.melanoxylon

P.radiata

P.elliottii

P.caribaea

Araucaria cunninghamii

N/A

Potential for hardwood on cleared land

Discusses economics


Tas, Vic, WA case studies.

Costs and returns for farming and forestry.



N/A

Discusses farm conditions.

Analysis of plantation economics based on a number of case studies.

47

Furrer, B, 1994, SFNSW.

Eucalypt plantation joint venture site selection.

NSW

Various eucalypts

None

Growth capacity to achieve 20m3/ha/yr aim over 20 years. Economic capability

N/A

Specifications for obtaining timber with growing costs <$20/m3 after 20 years

Small scale suitability class map and rainfall map.

<18o

1m soil


>100ppm total P

rainfall>900mm



<20% crown cover

>25m dominant height



Outlines requirements for selection for joint venture program.

48

Centre for International Economics, 1994, prepared for SFNSW.

Community and social benefits of eucalypt plantations.

NSW

None

None

N/A

Talks about competing requirements for water

None

None

None

A very brief coverage of social benefits

49

SFNSW 1996

SFNSW Northern Region Softwoods Strategy, 1996

N NSW

P.radiata

National/ international supply/demand status

MAI for varying areas



N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Predominantly a market analysis and outlining objectives and strategies for the Northern region softwoods

50

SFNSW, 1996

Land Potentially Suitable for Eucalypt Plantation - North Coast of NSW

North Coast NSW

E.pilularis, E.maculata, E.dunnii

Area statements, State Forest supply zones, management and harvesting schedules

Rainfall, soils, Land and Water Conservation capability classes

Looks at supply zones and distances to markets

Not analysed

SFNSW GIS produced map showing suitable areas

900 mm rainfall, cleared land, < 18o slope, exclude prime agricultural land, west of Pacific Hwy., < in 700 m except Dorrigo

A very brief outline of methods used to determine areas suitable.

51

SFNSW, 1997

hardwood plantation strategic plan 1997/98

NSW

E.pilularis, E.maculata, E.dunnii

E.grandis

area statements of current plantations, area summary by site class

area summary by site class,

area summary by supply zone,

financial overview, environmental and social benefits and costs

land potentially suitable for eucalypt plantations 1:700 000

900 mm rainfall, cleared land, < 18o slope, exclude prime agricultural land, west of Pacific Hwy., < in 700 m except Dorrigo

An analysis of plan of action to establish 10 000 hectares of eucalypt plantations in 1997/98. Also outlines plan to establish 10 000 ha in 1998/99 and 10 000 hectares in 1999/2000.

52

SFNSW 1997 Central Tablelands Farm Forestry Project

An evaluation of forestry land capability for Pinus radiata in the Central Tablelands, NSW

Central Tableland of NSW

P. radiata

ESOCLIM, soil landscape sheets

Private cleared land Rainfall classes

Distance to markets

Distance to markets

Rainfall, soils, capability, suitability

700-850 mm rainfall

Area statements and maps for Central Highlands (Bathurst/Oberon)

53

SFNSW & DLWC, 1997.

Erosion & sediment control strategy for eucalypt plantation establishment on the North Coast of NSW.

NE NSW

Eucalypts

Environ-mental constraints

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Covers legislation, and environmental controls

54

Shea & Hewett, 1997 undertaken by CALM

Pinus pinaster project

SW WA

P. pinaster

GIS analysis

Rainfall, non waterlogged & non-saline soils

N/A

Discussion of socio-economic issues

Land availability for P. pinaster

400-600 mm rainfall

Looks at potential of P. pinaster in the intermediate rainfall areas of the state

55

South East Forest Foundation 1996

Esperance regional development strategy for farm forestry

SW WA, Esperance

E. globulus,

P. pinaster




Cleared freehold land, soils, temperature

Distance to centres, land use, land acquisition strategies




Rainfall & soil types

Rainfall > 450mm

Area statements, Results of early growth plots

56

Spencer R.D. et al., 1999 undertaken by BRS & ABARE

Opportunities for hardwood plantation development in South East Queensland

SEQ

E. pilularis,

E. cloeziana,

Corymbia citriodora,

E. grandis

AAGIS, ADIS,

GRO


Soils, slope, rainfall

Land prices, private cleared land

Plantation yields, plantation costs & returns, land prices

Plantation capability, sawlog regimes (NPV), NPV as % of land value, highest economic suitability, sawmill allocation zones

Rainfall b/n 800-1000mm p/a for spotted gum.

Rainfall over 1000mm p.a. for blackbutt, Gympie messmate, and rose gum



Plantation capability modelling for SEQ region, producing area statements and maps of potential areas for each species

57

Stanton, R., 1992, Research Paper No. 15 FCNSW.

Eucalyptus plantations in NSW

All NSW

Varied

NSW plantation areas to 1992

N/A

N/A

Not considered

Location of management areas

N/A

Description of NSW plantation estate to 1992.

58

Stanton, R.R.J., 1990, Honours thesis, ANU, Canberra.

Land evaluations for eucalypt plantation purposes in the south-east region of NSW.

SE NSW

E.agglomerata

E.fastigata

E.globulus

E.nitens

E.sieberi


Basic species requirements.

Elevation, slope, total rain, seasonality, nutrient supply.

Divides into 4 classes

None

BIOCLIM

GETCLIM


SLPGRD (aspect)

GRDAREA (area calculation)



Rainfall>850mm where <600m elevation

rainfall >750mm where >600m elevation

slopes <15o

potential nutrient supply index >5 out of 10



Honours thesis using GIS and base environmental attributes to determine area available for plantations.

59

Stephens, N., Sun, D., and Tickle, P., 1998. Bureau of Rural Sciences

Plantation potential studies in Australia: an assessment of current status

All regions

16 Eucalyptus sp., 3 Corymbia sp

5 Pinus sp.

Acacia melanoxylon,

Casuarina cunninghamiana, Grevillea robusta,

Araucaria cunninghamii,

Toona ciliata,

Flindersia spp


Questionnaire survey, literature review.

Rainfall, soil, geology attributes, temperature, altitude, slope.

It varies depending which study was looked at.



Land size, land use, distance to mills, community attitudes. It varies depending which study was looked at.

socio-economic analysis, market potential, distance to mills, NPV, port infrastructure, market demand, financial analysis, impacts of legislation and scenario modelling. It varies depending which study was looked at.

N/A

N/A

A literature review undertaken on published studies relating to the identification of capable, suitable and available land for plantation development.

60

STFFN – Southern Tablelands Farm Forestry Network (1997) Kim Wells

Potential for commerical farm forestry on the NSW Southern Tablelands

Southern Tablelands NSW

P. radiata

Soil landscapes – topography & soils

Soil landscapes – topography & soils

N/A

Market potential based on a pers. Comm.

N/A

Excludes: <550mm rainfall, <50cm soil depth, >29 degrees slope

A very brief summary

61

Wareing K and Baker R. 1998. Prepared by BRS under the NE Vic RFA process

Opportunities for plantation expansion in the Victorian NE CRA/RFA region

NE Vic

E. globulus,

P. radiata




N/A

Land value, land use, parcel size, farmers perceptions to farm forestry, community concerns

Scenario modelling

N/A

N/A

A report of area statements and maps

62

Wilson, S.M. Whitlam, JAH Bhati, U.N. Horvath, D Tran, U.D., ABARE 1996 Research Report 95.7.

Trees on Farms. Survey of trees on Australian farms 1993-1994.

National

Various

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

An overall outlook on farmers perceptions, costs & benefits & reasons for planting.

appendix 2 – Summary statistics for climate surfaces by productivity classes





Appendix 3: Minutes of plantation potential workshop



TO:

Phil Tickle

BRS

02 6272 4689

Michael Ryan

BRS

02 6272 4937

Antti Roppola

BRS

02 6272 5980

Alison Pritchard

BRS

02 6272 4034

Mike Welch

SFNSW

02 6043 1007

Dave Cromarty

SFNSW

02 6043 1007

Tony O’Hara

SFNSW

02 9980 4164

Sally Arundell

SFNSW

02 9980 4525

Hugh Dunchue

SFNSW

02 6043 1007

Don Hobson

SFNSW

02 6947 3911

02 6947 2683 fax



Andy Sterling

SFNSW




Ross Dickson

SFNSW




Murray Brown

Murray Riverina Farm Forestry

02 6041 4808

John Scott

Murray Riverina Farm Forestry

03 5881 9340

03 5881 9305 fax



Rob Kuiper

Melissa Green



Softwoods Working Group

02 6921 6422

02 6921 0780 fax



Emmo Willink

P.O.Box 99 Holbrook 2644

02 6036 3183

Niel Cooper

ACT Forests

02 6207 2486

02 6207 2544 fax



Ian McArthur

ACT Forests

02 6207 2486

02 6207 2544 fax



Chris Adams

Tumut Shire Council

02 6947 0500

02 6947 2141 fax



Jim Grant

Department of State and Regional Development

02 6041 4808

02 6041 4818 fax



Sophie Clayton

Tablelands Farm Forestry Network

02 6207 2486

02 6207 2544 fax



Kenneth Epp

VISY Paper

02 6947 3714

02 6947 9008 fax



Robin Reid

CSR Sawmilling

02 6941 1900

02 6941 1909 fax



Chris Borough

Angela Robinson



Jaakko Pöyry Consulting

Jaakko Pöyry Consulting



02 6295 2777

02 6295 2803 fax



Mark Parsons

Fortech

02 6248 6900

02 6248 6999 fax



Phil Ryan

CSIRO

02 6281 8331

02 6281 8239 fax



Kevin Burns

ABARE

02 6272 2136

David Priem

DLWC

02-6947 0200

FROM: Michael Ryan Bureau of Rural Sciences 02- 6272 4937

02-6272 3882 fax



Date: 14 April, 1999

SUBJECT: NSW FARM FORESTRY WORKSHOP

AND

CRA PLANTATION POTENTIAL WORKSHOP 23 FEBRUARY 1999

CONVENORS: Phil Tickle Bureau of Rural Sciences 02 6272 4689 (plantation potential)

David Marston Dames and Moore consulting 02 9955 7286 (farm forestry)



MINUTES FOR PLANTATION POTENTIAL WORKSHOP and Farm Forestry workshop held at Tumut on 23 February 1999.

David Marston-introduction to workshop, definitions of farm forestry and introduction of participants. Outline;

  • why grow trees/history of Farm Forestry

  • definition of farm forestry


Michael Ryan


plantation potential project aims:

  • inform stakeholders

  • incorporate stakeholder ideas

  • determine species mix

  • determine capability criteria

  • establish site factors

  • determine data gaps

  • obtain input into market prospects

  • determine suitability criteria

  • agree to process


Phil Tickle


  • explanation of plantation and expansion opportunities

  • outline of project objectives

  • outline of workshop objectives

David Marston and Mark Parsons

Strengths of Farm Forestry in Region



  • government sponsored plantations

  • Australian newsprint Mills at Albury ( joint ventures )

  • Total Catchment Management

  • regional plantation committees

  • new markets e.g. Visy Board Mill

  • reopening of Junee rail line

  • State Forest move towards plantations

  • South West slope road study

  • export markets-Port Kembla 1998

  • privatisation plantations (+/-)

Weaknesses of farm Forestry in Region

  • consent required for clearing

  • taxation system

  • inability to thin private plantations commercially

  • Australian Newsprint Mills selling joint ventures

  • lack of corporate sector support for farm forestry

  • closure of rail lines

  • species/site selection ( 700 mm boundary )

  • and increased demand for road transport

  • anti-pine sentiment from Councils

  • Government domination of plantation sector

  • disincentives to sustainable use of native forests

Issues for farm forestry to gain a vision

  • balanced land use: water use, soil health, biodiversity, sustainable land use

  • forestry as a normal land use

  • reasonable incomes

  • market driven

  • regional co-ordination

  • effective/efficient infrastructure

  • healthy forests

  • profitable enterprises

  • integration of farm forestry within landscape

Policy goals for region

  • 30,000 hectare planted by 2009

  • 20 years CRA process targets

  • appropriate marketing strategy for industry

Plantation Potential Workshop

CAPABILITY MODELLING



Phil Tickle-

Introduction into study, outline of capability and suitability factors,

  • Eden as a case study-modelling of bio-physical factors, physical factors to establish growth relationships for Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus nitens.

  • Outline of process models for determining capability

Species mix (rated by preference) Species issues

1. Pinus radiata snow range

2. Pinus pinaster climate threshold

Psuedotsuga menziesii high altitude species ( Bob Eldridge CSIRO )

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