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Report for typhoon committee 40th session macao, china 21 – 26 november 2007 by malaysia contents


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REPORT

FOR

TYPHOON COMMITTEE
40th SESSION

MACAO, CHINA
21 – 26 NOVEMBER 2007
by
MALAYSIA

CONTENTS

I. Overview of Meteorological and Hydrological Conditions 1
1. Meteorological Assessment 1

2. Hydrological Assessment 1

3. Socio-economic Assessment 2

II. Meteorology 2
Progress in Member’s Regional Cooperation, Important, High-Priority Goals and Objectives

a. Hardware and/or Software Progress 2


JMA-MMD Storm Surge Model



PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate for Impacts Studies)

Station Network System



Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Fixed line alert system (FLAS) or disaster alert system (DAS)

Satellite Ground Station



b. Implications to Operational Progress 5
c. Interaction with users, other Members, and/or other components 6
d. Training Progress 7


PRECIS Workshop

Typhoon Committee Roving Seminar



Integrated Workshop on Social-economic Impacts of Extreme Typhoon-related Event

Others



e. Research Progress 8

III. Hydrology 9
Progress in Member’s Regional Cooperation, Important, High-Priority Goals and Objectives
a. Hardware and/or Software Progress 9

Improvement of Facilities




Technical Advancement



Flood Forecasting and Warning (basin in operation)
b. Implications to Operational Progress 11
c. Interaction with users, other Members, and/or other components 11
d. Training Progress 12
e. Research Progress 12

IV. Disaster Prevention and Preparedness (DPP) 13
Progress in Member’s Regional Cooperation, Important, High-Priority Goals and Objectives
a. Hardware and/or Software Progress 13


Structural Designs for Floods Mitigation


Government Integrated Radio Network (GIRN)
Fixed Line Alert System (FLAS)
b. Implications to Operational Progress 14
Directive No.20 of the National Security Council (NSC)

LUPar Programme


c. Interaction with users, other Members, and/or other components 15


National Disaster Management Strategy



Enhancement of Public Education and Awareness




d. Training Progress 16


Disaster Management Exercise




V. Typhoon that Impacted TC Members 17

VI. Resource Mobilization Activities 25

I. Overview of Meteorological and Hydrological Conditions

1. Meteorological Assessment

From October 2006 to September 2007 there are six tropical cyclones that tracked quite close to Malaysia, within a distance of less than 700 km. These cyclones had impacts on the weather in Malaysia, particularly on the rainfall and the coastal water conditions. Generally, the convergence of northwesterly and southwesterly winds over the Malaysian region caused by these tropical cyclones enhanced the afternoon convective activities. These winds convergence caused heavy and sometimes widespread rains over Malaysian region. Strong southwesterly winds of 40-60 km/h and rough seas with waves up to 3.5 m were experienced over the coastal waters of northwest and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah. However the tropical cyclones that located far away from Malaysia generally had no significant impacts on Malaysia.



2. Hydrological Assessment

During the 2006/2007 northeast or winter monsoon, the southern region of Peninsular Malaysia namely Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Johor and southern Pahang experienced severe flood due to a couple of abnormally heavy rainfall events. Abnormally high rainfall records of 400 mm to 800 mm were recorded in some districts and these amounts were exceeding the long term mean monthly rainfall of the region. The worst affected areas were areas along major rivers such as Sg. Johor, Sg. Batu Pahat, Sg. Segamat and Sg. Muar. Many areas in Malaysia, especially the urban areas, were also hit by flash floods due to severe thunderstorms and heavy rains in the year 2006/2007. The Kuala Lumpur City Centre was hit by massive floods in many areas, especially at the confluence of Sg. Klang and Sg. Gombak, on 10 June 2007 due to severe thunderstorms and heavy rains.



3. Socio-economic Assessment

Although Malaysia is spared from the threats of severe natural disasters and calamities, it nonetheless experienced some form of disaster from flooding, man-made disaster, landslides and occurrences of haze pollutions. Malaysia experienced annual northeast monsoonal floods that vary in term of severity and locations.


The estimated total cost of the monsoonal flood damages in southern region of Peninsular Malaysia in last December and January is around RM 1.5 billion and it is considered as the most costly flood event in Malaysian history. Around 65,000 families were affected with 110,000 people evacuated and given shelter in relief centres. The death toll during these floods was 19 persons.

II. Meteorology
Progress in Member’s Regional Cooperation, Important, High-Priority Goals and Objectives

a. Hardware and/or Software Progress
JMA-MMD Storm Surge Model
Malaysian Meteorological Department (MMD), with the consent from Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), runs a JMA Storm Surge Model on operational mode since July 2007. It is a numerical model developed by JMA to simulate and predict storm surges, especially those caused by tropical cyclones. The numerical scheme of the model is based on the shallow water equations and thus this model is two-dimensional. The model has features as listed below:


  1. It computes storm surges due to wind setup and inverted barometer effect;



  1. Accepts two types of meteorological forcing data:

    (i) GRIB format files containing surface wind and pressure fields, and



    1. Tropical Cyclone Best Track Data provided by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre Tokyo - Typhoon Center.

    (c) Writes the storm surge calculation results in a GRIB file using FORTRAN 77 and displays using Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS).


The model calculates the storm surges anomaly every hour. However the model output is displayed at 6-hourly interval together with wind field map up to 7 days forecast.




Example of JMA–MMD Storm Surge model output:




PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate for Impacts Studies)
PRECIS model is being run at the Malaysian Meteorological Department and the National University of Malaysia to understand the climate change projections for Malaysia. Further collaborative program is to run various greenhouse gas emission scenarios in order to capture the full spectrum of future climate change projections in our region using Grid Computing Facilities. This collaboration is one of the outcomes of the PRECIS workshop successful hosted by MMD from 7th-11th August 2006.
Station Network System
MMD had upgraded the telecommunication network line from dial-up line to broad band internet line called Streamyx for all the principal stations (except for Batu Embun station) throughout the country. However, the dial-up lines are still maintained as back up to the Streamyx. The upgrading allows the transmission of meteorological data from the stations to headquarter at a much faster speed of 1 Mbps.
The least line connecting the five regional forecast offices (Bayan Lepas, Butterworth, Kuantan, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching offices) have also been upgraded from 256 kbps to 512 kbps.
The upgrading of these telecommunication network lines help to deliver meteorological data at a much faster rate so that timely weather forecasts and severe weather as well as strong winds and rough sea warnings could be issued.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
MMD had installed video conferencing system to enable face-to-face communication among the weather forecasters working at five different regional meteorological offices throughout the country. Through this system, the duty forecasters are able to discuss and share their understandings and experience on the weather conditions and development of the whole country and region and thus contributing to a more consistent and improve forecasts.
MMD has started using SMS system to send warnings of severe weather as well as earthquake information and tsunami warnings to disaster management agencies.
Fixed line alert system (FLAS) or disaster alert system (DAS)
MMD, with the cooperation with Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM), had initiated Fixed Line Alert System (FLAS) or Disaster Alert System (DAS) that enable the government to disseminate early warning messages to selected community via fixed telecommunication line provided by TM. Although the system is initially developed for tsunami warning, it will be able to incorporate early warnings for other type of disasters, such as weather related hazards and disasters. The system provides short and precise messages timely to a large number of the targeted regional community.
Satellite Ground Station
MMD has established two (2) Medium Scale Data Utilization Station (MDUS) for the geostationary satellite to receive MTSAT-1R and FY-2C data downlink at half hourly interval. This space-based observation system, also known as GEO satellite, will basically optimize the equatorial location for efficient coverage. At the same time, MMD also receives and processes satellite data from polar orbiting satellites, which is from the NOAA Series (18, 17, 16 and 15 ) and FY-1D.
b. Implications to Operational Progress
The upgrading of observation facilities, forecast models and ICT systems has enhanced the MMD’s capacity and capability in providing timely and improved weather forecast services and weather warning services to the public as well as the disaster management agencies, necessary for the protection of life and property and reduction of the economic loss due to weather related disasters
MMD had also made available its operational intranet web site to a few disaster management agencies, such as the National Security Council of the Prime Minister Department and the Drainage and Irrigation Department, to assess to all the information on weather development and forecasts and warnings so as to enhance their operation in disaster mitigation and management.

c. Interaction with users, other Members, and/or other components
MMD continues its endeavor to improve interactions with users, other Members, and/or other components. MMD meets the users of meteorological services by conducting regular client’s day. Discussions with the disaster management agencies and mass media were also regular activities of MMD. MMD also encourages and receives visits from schools, institutions of higher learning and government and private agencies so as to enhance public awareness. These activities had helped MMD to further understand the user requirement and enhance the services provided.
During year 2006/2007, MMD is actively involved in and had also hosted a number of international and national workshop/seminar/meeting on meteorological and seismological related issues. These involvements help to enhance MMD’s human capacity and capability buildings as well as national and international cooperation and collaboration. The WMO Regional Seminar on Enhancing Service Delivery by National Meteorological and Hydrological Services in Regional Association V (South-West Pacific) was held in Petaling Jaya from 4 to 7 April 2007. It was held back to back with the Seminar on Tsunami Warning Operations under the Pacific Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (PTWS), 2 –3 April 2007, in cooperation with International Tsunami Information Centre, UNESCO, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Pacific Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System.
The National Seminar on Socio-Economic Impact of Extreme Weather and Climate Change was held in Putrajaya on 21-22 June 2007.
d. Training Progress
PRECIS (Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies) Workshop
MMD successfully hosted the PRECIS Workshop at its Headquarters in Petaling Jaya from 7-12 August 2006. The workshop was sponsored by the Hadley Centre for Climate Research, United Kingdom. A total of 22 participants who are researchers and meteorologists from Thailand, Viet Nam, Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia attended the Workshop. The objectives of this workshop were to introduce climatological science, climate change and climatological projection model to the participants as well as to train them to run and use the numerical climate model for the purpose of generating regional climate change scenario.
Typhoon Committee Roving Seminar
Two officers from MMD had participated in the Typhoon Committee Roving Seminar held in Manila, Philippines, 5-8 September 2007. The main objective of the seminar was for capacity building purposes, especially on research and operational aspects of typhoons. The seminar had successful and fruitful outcome in providing expert training on topics such as microwave satellite images analysis, Doppler radar analysis and tropical cyclones’ interaction with monsoon systems.
Integrated Workshop on Social-economic Impacts of Extreme Typhoon-related Event
Malaysian participants also contributed in the discussion at the Integrated Workshop on Social-economic Impacts of Extreme Typhoon-related Events, held in Bangkok, 10-14 September 2007. The integrated workshop discussed issues and explored in depth ideas on research projects and operational aspects of typhoons.
Others
MMD had also participated actively in other international trainings, workshops, seminars and conferences, including those related to typhoons, disaster management and floods, such as the followings:


  1. International Roundtable on: Lessons from Natural Disasters, Policy Issues and Mitigation Strategies;

(ii) High-level Workshop on the Implementation of the Strategic Plan 2007 - 2011 of the Typhoon Committee;

    1. WMO International Conference on "Secure and Sustainable Living: Social and Economic Benefits of Weather, Climate and Water Services";

    2. WMO International Training Workshop on Tropical Cyclone Disaster reduction and

    3. Training Course on Severe Convective Storm Nowcasting


e. Research Progress
The recently completed research activities at MMD are the followings:


  1. The Regional Intra-Seasonal Rainfall Distribution Associated With The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Events;

(ii) The Influence of Regional Sea Surface Temperature (SST) on the South China Sea Near-Equatorial Vortices During Northern Winter Monsoon;

(iii) Air Quality Trends and Climate Change in Malaysia and



(iv) Testing of different cumulus parameterization schemes, different time steps and different moisture schemes
The current on-going research activities at MMD are the followings:


  1. Tropical Cyclone Landfall Mode over Indochina and Its Effects on the Malaysian Rainfall and

    1. Local Extreme Weather Events: Mesoscale Convective Complexes and Their Evolutions over Peninsular Malaysia.



III. Hydrology
Progress in Member’s Regional Cooperation, Important, High-Priority Goals and Objectives
a. Hardware and/or Software Progress
Improvement of Facilities
The Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) to date has installed about 375 telemetric stations in 38 river basins. A total of 405 manual river gauges and 1019 stick gauges in floods prone areas have been set up to provide additional information during the floods season. As part of the local floods warning system, about 272 automatic floods warning sirens and 147 floods warning boards are being operated. Of this a total of 44 stations have been installed this year which comprises 27 new water level telemetry stations and 32 new rainfall telemetry stations.
A web-based and online early warning system known as “The Debris and Mudflow Warning System for Cameron Highlands in the State” has been developed by the working group on hydrology under the Regional Cooperation Project and Implementation Programme (RCPIP). Similar project will be expanded to other area namely Bukit Damansara, Kuala Lumpur which is prone to land slide. The implementation of floods hazard mapping projects has been initiated for the districts of Muar and Kota Tinggi in the southern region of Peninsular Malaysia. The districts will be the target area for this pilot project (2007-2010) as they were severely hit by the recent December 2006 and January 2007 floods.
Technical Advancement
The website InfoBanjir website (http://infobanjir.water.gov.my) continues to be enhanced and improved in terms of IT technology, hardwares, procurement and network expansion as well as its contents to meet the customer’s requirement.
Floods Forecasting and Warning (basin in operation)
Floods forecasting operations were carried out during the floods seasons by the respective DID state offices with technical assistance from the National Flood Forecasting Centre at DID Headquarter. The river basins which have been provided with forecasting models are summarized in the following Table:



No


River Basin

Catchment Area

(km2)

Number of Forecasting Point

Forecasting Model

1

Muda River

4,300

2

Stage Regression

2

Perak River

14,700

3

Stage Regression

3

Muar River

6,600

2

Linear Transfer Function

4

Batu Pahat River

2,600

2

Stage Correlation

5

Johor River

3,250

2

Regression Model

6

Pahang River

29,300

3


Linear Transfer Function and Stage Regression (back-up)

7

Kuantan River

2,025

1

Tank Model

8

Besut River

1,240

1

Stage Regression

9

Kelantan River

13,100

2

Tank Model and

Stage Regression

(back-up)


10

Golok River

2,175

1

Stage Regression


No


River Basin

Catchment Area

(km2)

Number of Forecasting Point

Forecasting Model

11

Sadong River

3,640

1

Linear Transfer Function

12

Kinabatangan River

17,000

1

Linear Transfer Function

13

Sg Klang

1280

5

Flood Watch

Some of the floods forecasting models were being revised early this year with a view to evaluate their performance and subsequently to make necessary improvement where and when necessary.


b. Implications to Operational Progress
The improvement on facilities and forecasting tools and models had helped DID to enhance its an early warning system for hydrological related hazards, especially on floods. Timely and appropriate preventive and mitigation actions can be taken to reduce loss of lives and socio-economic damages.
c. Interaction with users, other Members, and/or other components
DID continue to interact with the public and mass media to improve public awareness on water related disaster as well as sustainability. Cooperation with disaster management agencies, including Malaysian Meteorological Department, is essential element in mitigating hydrological related disasters.
To improve its capacity buildings as well as national and international cooperation and collaboration, DID is actively involved in international and national seminar/workshop/meeting on hydrological related issues.
d. Training Progress
During this year, the following courses/workshops/seminars related to flood hydrology were organized:


  1. A course on “Flood Forecasting Application for Engineers”, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, 7 - 9 Mac 2006;

(ii) A course on “Flood Forecasting Application for Supporting Officers” Kota Bharu, Kelantan, 22 - 24 August 2006;

(iii) A Workshop on “Flood Hazard Mapping for Flood Hazard and Risk Management in East and Southeast Asia Regions”, Kuala Lumpur, 7 - 9 February 2007;

(iv) A course on “Flood Forecasting Application for Supporting Officers” Kota Bharu, Kelantan, 3 - 5 September 2007 and

(v) A course on “Flood Forecasting Application for Engineers” Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, 24 - 25 July 20


e. Research Progress
The active on going projects are as follows:


  1. Sg. Kerayong Urban Hydrology Study funded by the Intensified Research Priority Areas (IRPA);

    1. Flood Diversion (Keruh Diversion, Gombak Diversion etc.) and

    2. Detention Pond (Sri Johor, Taman Desa, Batu, Jinjang etc.)

Notably, Kuala Lumpur Stormwater and Management Road Tunnel Project (SMART) is currently 100% completed and it has been operated since 23 June 2007. It has successfully undergone a wet test where traffic was diverted for safe passage of floods water into the tunnel.



IV. Disaster Prevention and Preparedness (DPP)
Malaysia experiences various natural disasters such as floods, fire, landslide, typhoon, tsunami etc. However, the incident of disasters in Malaysia is minor as compared to many other countries affected by disaster in this region. In the month of December 2006 and February 2007, southern states of Peninsular Malaysia such as Johor, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang were affected by severe floods. About 92,000 families or 340,000 people received services provided by various government agencies and NGO’s as a disaster victim in relief centres and their relative houses.
Every year, just before the onset of the northeast or winter monsoon, the Honourable Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia, as the chair of National Disaster Management and Relief Committee, would chair the flood disaster preparation and mitigation meeting. All disaster management agencies involved would assess and report on their preparedness on emergency response, recovery and rehabilitation for the flood disaster victims. Similar preparation and mitigation meetings are also held at the state and district levels.
Progress in Member’s Regional Cooperation, Important, High-Priority Goals and Objectives
(a) Hardware and/or Software Progress
Structural Designs for Floods Mitigation
Structural mitigation measures in both engineered and non-engineered structures are implemented to minimise flood, such as through the construction of river embankments and Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART) system and through international cooperation.
Government Integrated Radio Network (GIRN)
The Government has recently introduced an integrated radio network project. This project will provide secure digital trunk radio system for the various government agencies involved in disaster management.
Fixed Line Alert System (FLAS)
The Fixed Line Alert System (FLAS) or Disaster Alert System (DAS) will enable the government to disseminate timely, short and precise early warning messages to a large number of targeted regional communities.

(b) Implications to Operational Progress
Directive No.20 of the National Security Council (NSC)
In order to facilitate the management of disaster, the National Security Council is tasked to coordinate efforts among the various agencies involved in disaster management. Under the Directive, when a severe disaster occurs meeting will be immediately convened by the Disaster Management and Relief Committee. A Disaster Control and Operation Centre will also be operationalised. The operation of the Disaster Control and Operation Centre will be established based on the disasters which could either be at the District, State or National level. Today, the NSC is taking steps by having meetings at regular intervals with the various agencies to further strengthen cooperation in disaster prevention and preparedness.


LUPar Programme
The purpose of LUPar is to provide general guidelines for policy makers, decision makers, national disaster managers, local authorities on the type of development to be allowed in hazard prone areas and to provide mitigation measures for the areas. The main goal for the LUPar programme is to encourage policy makers to apply the principles and practices of community based disaster management into their relevant Acts and legislations.
c. Interaction with users, other Members, and/or other components
National Disaster Management Strategy
The national disaster management strategy is to advance effective coordination and integrated approach in developing the culture of prevention and mitigation as well as providing safety for the community. The main components of the strategy are as follows:



  1. Development – reduce the risk of disaster for the through continuing development of disaster management capabilities in mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery processes;




  1. Partnership – establish a national approach to disaster management through coordinated and integrated system involving multi-agency and private sector including non-governmental organizations and civil society;




  1. Education and Training – develop and encourage participation in providing literature education and training to enhance awareness and effective disaster handling among officials of various agencies and the community;




  1. Community Awareness – develop a national approach to foster and enhance community awareness of risks, preparedness, response and recovery strategy through drills;




  1. Total Defence / Public Participation – promote and develop concept of Total Defence as a mean to enhance Public Safety capability and resilience in response to threats of hazards and disasters; and




  1. International Cooperation - promote and develop international cooperation network by exchanging, sharing experiences and best practices as well as training on disaster management.



Enhancement of Public Education and Awareness
To enhance disaster preparedness, the Malaysian government has continuously carried out public education program on disasters prevention to people living in flood prone areas with the objectives of protecting human lives and property; minimizing or to avoid social disruption and economic losses. Public education and awareness programmes are carried out through various media including TV and radio broadcasts. Among the programmes and activities that have been implemented to enhance public awareness are as follow:


  1. Dissemination of information on hazards and warnings to the public through pamphlets and mass media;

  2. “Roadshow” on disaster awareness and management at the State and district levels; and

  3. Campaign on the annual “National Disaster Awareness Day” on 26 December.


d. Training Progress
Training activities are organized at national and states level to cater for Social Welfare Officers and volunteers to work in disaster management. In the month of August 2007, the Department of Social Welfare organised special workshop in disaster management for national level. Other training modules include working at multi disciplines level, disaster technical management, rehabilitation and other issues related to disaster management. The objectives of these trainings are to provide knowledge and skills for officers and volunteers to work professionally in helping the disaster victims.

Disaster Management Exercise
NSC conducted exercises to ensure high level of responsiveness among the relevant agencies involved in disaster management in areas such as decision-making and implementation of procedures and guidelines. Although some of these exercises are not related to typhoon disaster threat management these exercises help to strengthen cooperation and to consolidate effort in multi-agency tasking. These exercises were held during the first quarter to third quarter of 2007:


  1. Disaster and crisis management exercise in various field;

  2. Nuclear, biological and chemical exercise;

  3. Influenza pandemic simulation exercise; and

  4. Tsunami emergency drill.



V. Typhoon that Impacted TC Members
Altogether, there are twenty-two tropical cyclones (tropical storm intensity or higher) developed over the west Pacific Ocean, South China Sea and Philippines Island from 1 October 2006 to 30 September 2007. Table 1 shows the list of the nineteen tropical cyclones that developed over the west Pacific Ocean, two that developed over the northern South China Sea and one that formed over the northern Philippines Island during this period. Nevertheless, there are only six tropical cyclones, as shown with an asterisk in this table, which caused impacts on the weather in Malaysia, particularly on the rainfall as well as the coastal waters. These tropical cyclones tracked close to Malaysia, within a distance of less than 700 km away. The convergence of northwesterly and southwesterly winds over the Malaysian region caused by these tropical cyclones had enhanced the afternoon convective activities. This winds convergence caused heavy and sometimes widespread rains over Malaysian region and strong southwesterly winds of 40-60 km/h and rough seas with waves up to 3.5 m over the coastal waters of northwest and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah. Tropical cyclones that located far away from Malaysia caused no significant impacts on Malaysia. The tracks of the six tropical cyclones that tracked close to Malaysian region are shown in Figure 1.
Table 1: List of Tropical Cyclones and their Birth, Death and Life Time


No.

Tropical Cyclone Name

Birth

Death

Duration (Days)

1

Bebinca

03-10- 2006

06 -10 -2006

3

2

Rumbia

03-10-2006

06 -10 -2006

2

No.

Tropical Cyclone Name

Birth

Death

Duration (Days)

3

Soulik

09-10- 2006

16-10-2006

7

4

Cimaron

27-10-2006

04-11-2006

8

5

Chebi

09-11-2006

13-11- 2006

4

6

Durian*

26-11-2006

05-12-2006

8

7

Utor*

07-12-2006

14-12-2006

6

8

Trami

17-12-2006

18-12-2006

1

9

Kong-Rey

31-03-2007

06-04-2007

5

10

Yutu

17-05-2007

23-05-2007

5

11

Toraji

05-07-2007

05-07-2007

0

12

Man-Yi

08-07-2007

17-07-2007

8

13

Usagi

29-07-2007

04-08-2007

6

14

Pabuk

05-08-2007

09-08-2007

4

15

Wutip

08-08-2007

09-08-2007

1

16

Sepat*

12-08-2007

20-08-2007

7

17

Fitow

29-08-2007

08-09-2007

10

18

Danas

07-09-2007

11-09-2007

4

19

Nari

13-09-2007

17-09-2007

3

20

Wipha*

16-09-2007

19-09-2007

3

21

Francisco*

23-09-2007

25-09-2007

1

22

Lekima*

30-09-2007

02-10-2007

2



Figure 1: Tracks of the six tropical cyclones closest to Malaysia. The number in the circle represents the date of occurrence of the tropical cyclones.

The rain cloud clusters over the Malaysian region associated with the six tropical cyclones, as shown in the satellite imageries in Figure 2, indicate heavy and sometimes widespread rains over Malaysian. These heavy and sometimes widespread rains are depicted in the daily rainfall charts of selected meteorological stations from November to December 2006 and August to September 2007 as shown in Figures 3(a), 3(b), 3(c), (3d) and 3(e). Some of these charts may not show significant amount of rainfall as depicted by the corresponding satellite imageries as the heavy rains occurred not over but in the vicinities of these stations.










Figure 2: Satellite Imageries indicate the rain cloud clusters over Malaysian region during the tracking of the six tropical cyclones



Figure 3(a): Daily rainfall chart recorded by selected meteorological stations in Malaysia for November 2006: Typhoon Durian (26/11/06 – 05/12/06)


Figure 3(b): Daily rainfall chart recorded by selected meteorological stations in Malaysia for December 2006: Typhoon Utor (07/12/06 – 14/12/06)




Figure 3(c): Daily rainfall chart recorded by selected meteorological stations in Malaysia for August 2007: Typhoon Sepat (12/08/07 – 20/08/07)



Figure 3(d): Daily rainfall chart recorded by selected meteorological stations in Malaysia for September 2007: Typhoon Wipha (16/09/07 – 19/09/07)



Figure 3(e): Daily rainfall chart recorded by selected meteorological stations in Malaysia for September 2007: Tropical Storm Francisco (23/09/07 – 25/09/07) and Severe Storm Lekima (30/09/07 – 02/10/07)
In comparison with the weather conditions during the previous years, the southwest monsoon season (June to mid-September) experienced around this region for this year was slightly abnormal. Instead of the usually dry, hot and hazy weather conditions, most parts in Malaysia and Indonesia had received more rainfall during this period, June and July in particular. As a result, the usual impacts of the trans-boundary haze pollution over Malaysia were very much lessened.

VI. Resource Mobilization Activities
Disasters have inflicted heavy cost in human, material and physical resources, and damage to the environment. They represent a potentially significant obstacle to economic growth and development. Thus Malaysian Government knows the importance of having proactive, efficient and effective natural disaster management that would include preventive, mitigation, preparedness, response, rehabilitation and rebuilding components as well as education and training, partnership, public and civil awareness and international cooperation, in place. At present, we have the National Security Directive No. 20 that encompasses the policy and mechanism on national relief and disaster assistance to advance national disaster management through effective coordination and integrated approach in the building of a culture of prevention and civil protection/public safety in the community. The National Security Division is tasked to coordinate efforts among the various agencies involved in disaster management.
Whereas the responsibilities of the Department of Social Welfare in management of disasters are stipulated in the Standard Operational Procedures (SOP) as follows:


  1. Management of evacuation centres;

  2. Assistance in the form of food, clothing and other necessities including family disaster kit;

  3. Registration of victims and

  4. Guidance and counseling.

On top of that the department also will continue to assist the families those are seriously affected by disaster in order to help them to return to their normal daily life. This is considered as a long-term intervention or management process.


In preparation for the natural disasters, the Department of Social Welfare has identified 4,565 suitable relief centres and can accommodate 1.3 million victims throughout the country when necessary. On top of that the department also set up 591 ration storage centres at strategic places to supply food and other necessities for the victims at the relief centres.
The victims that are placed at the relief centres will be registered and managed by Social Welfare Officers with the help of National Welfare Brigade as volunteers. During their stay in the relief centres, victims with emotional problems would be assisted by counselors.




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