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Physical Education ICT




“To what extent is the motivation of a professional basketball player or team affected by salary?”




This document for guidance only – please note relevant rules on plagiarism
Ref: Sam Golding

Part One: Introduction
Part Two: Review of Literature
Part Three: Discussion and Conclusion
Part Four: Appraisal
Part Five: Appendix
Part Six: Bibliography
Introduction

This study will be an investigation into the motivational role of money on the performance of professional basketball teams and players. My interpretation of motivation is the willingness of a person to perform an action; this can be affected by both intrinsic (Competitiveness) and extrinsic (trophies, prize money etc.) factors.
I have chosen this topic to follow for three main reasons. Firstly, because I have partaken in the playing of basketball on a recreational and competitive level for many years, which leads me to inquire into what motivates professional basketball players to perform to a high standard on a regular basis. Secondly, I have enjoyed viewing and following NBA basketball for as long as I have been playing, so I am interested into by what means a basketball player gets motivated to succeed on when they play s o frequently. Thirdly, motivation features in the skill acquisition module of A/S Physical education, also salary of performers has been discussed in the Socio-cultural section.
The topic of motivation is involved in all levels of sport, from school to professional levels. This is recognised in two forms, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation comes from within the performer e.g. reaching personal goals, self-competitiveness etc. Extrinsic motivation comes from external factors to the performer e.g. money, trophies, team talks from coach, expectation from fans and supporters etc. As motivation covers all sports in one of these two forms, I am going to concentrate on the extrinsic factors of motivation on professional basketball players.
The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the role of money in the extrinsic motivation of NBA basketball players. It will also briefly explore other forms and aspects of motivation which affect them.


Source of Information

Obtained from…

Topic

Deadline

Date of Completion

Textbooks


Obtain information from library (School or Public), Ed-Excel standard issue text book.

Motivation – Types/roles of etc.

On going




Web-sites

Through Internet access at home or school.

Salary statistics of NBA players and teams.

Information on motivation types etc.

Coaching styles


31/02/2001


31/02/2001

Media – Magazine/ Newspaper articles

Backdated and current issues of ‘XXL Basketball’ and national newspaper sports articles.

Salary deals For transferred players.

Uses of money earned.

Sponsorship deals.


On going




Correspondence with people involved in Professional Basketball, Journalists, Players, coaches (All if Possible)

Through e-mail of a questionnaire to magazines / Journalists, Players and coaches through official web-site information.

Motivation-By What?

How are they Motivated? Etc. Questions based on statistics of salary and performance of players and teams for the season of 1999-2000



To be sent by 01/03/2001

Reply time allowed but no official date set for this, expected date is before 31/04/2001




Section of Assignment

Task

Deadline

Review of literature


Present gathered data

Easter 2001

Discussion/Conclusion

Discuss the evidence found relevant to the topic, draw conclusions

25th April 2001

Appraisal


Evaluate study,

How successful was it? Does it answer set question?

What improvements could be made?

What further studies could be made?



10th May 2001

Completion

Put project together, organise project, make final adjustments

May/June 2001


Review Of Literature
Information has been gathered from textbooks, Internet and newspaper articles, I have attempted contact with many journalists and some NBA players. Each of these will be discussed in turn during the course of this literature review.
To aid my investigation I decided to find a definition of motivation, in order clarify the task I had set myself. In the article ‘What is motivation’ by Karlene Sugarman, she states that “motivation is the psychological force that pushes and drives you to work hard.” (K. Sugarman 1999). Motivation can be described as the “why of behaviour”(Gross 1992). Motivation is found in two forms, which are heavily inter-linked as stated in Paul Bernhardt’s article in perspectives magazine, “…researchers talk about two types of motivation, extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation is based on concrete or overt rewards. Intrinsic motivation is based on internal rewards.”(P. Bernhardt 1996). He went on to say “Intrinsic motivation comes from within. …. When someone asks ‘Why did you do that?’ you answer, ‘because I like it.’ That is clearly intrinsic motivation. If pressed you could probably come up with more specific reasons:..…. the satisfaction of having a well placed shot……

…Extrinsic motivations are rewards that come from outside our self. Obviously, money is an extrinsic motive. For some, fame or power might be the main motives.” It is not as clear-cut as this, with the two separate categories. The line between the two is somewhat blurred, as a form of motivation which is categorised extrinsic, may give some form of internal gratification. This is stated in the article in ‘Perspectives magazine’ “Somehow, the person must find intrinsic value in the external reward…Money does have unique qualities because it can be converted to so many other services and wares which might satisfy intrinsic motivations.”(P. Bernhardt 1996).


Although NBA basketball is not covered to a great degree In the media, I was able to obtain two articles from the ‘Daily Express’ covering the NBA. The first of which displays an argument against the view that money is the main motivational source for professional basketball players. The article explains about a basketball player who recently signed a multimillion-dollar contract, but instead of splashing out on luxuries for himself he plans to build a hospital. “Now he has signed a contract with his architect and builder, not for some grand Mansion for himself but a $14million, 300bed hospital in Kinshasa in his home town in the Congo…has already bought land for the land for the hospital, and with or without an NBA title, will be back in Kinshasa in September for the ground breaking.” (D. Purgavie, 2001). The Second, talks about British basketball player who turned down a deal for $12million with the winners of the NBA from the previous season, in order to repay his gratitude to his current club. “I owe the Magic a great debt of gratitude and I am repaying that debt. To leave the team would have been poor on my part. You can’t be a man of principle some of the time.” (J. Amaechi, 2001). Both articles show signs of very different motivational factors to the value of money.
As I was unable to receive any replies from the questionnaire sent out, I am having to base much of the project on statistical data. I decided to use the data from two highly contrasting teams, the Los Angeles Lakers and the Orlando Magic. The Lakers who in the season studied dominated throughout with their highly paid squad, compared with a surprise team in the Orlando Magic who performed unexpectedly well with their team of considerably lower paid team of unknowns.
Table 1: LA Lakers.

Player

One years salary

League leaders List + Position in list / Season team

Position in League Salary List

Shaquille O’neill

$17,142,858

Points per Game – 1st

Points Total – 1st

Rebounds per Game – 2nd

Rebounds Total – 2nd

Blocks per Game – 3rd

Blocks Total – 3rd

All-NBA First team,

All-Defensive Second team



1st

Kobe Bryant

$9,000,000

Points per Game – 12th

All-NBA second team,



All-Defensive First team

30th

Glen Rice

$7,000,000

N/A

53rd

Robert Horry

$4,800,000

N/A

N/A

Derek Fisher

$3,000,000

N/A

N/A

Rick Fox

$3,033,000

N/A

N/A

Travis Knight

$2,800,000

N/A

N/A

Ron Harper

$2,000,000

N/A

N/A

AC Green

$1,700,000

N/A

N/A

Tyronn Lue

$809,280

N/A

N/A

Devean George

$790,440

N/A

N/A

Sam Jacobson

$721,080

N/A

N/A

John Salley

$510,000

N/A

N/A

Byron Scott

$510,000

N/A

N/A

Brian Shaw

$510,000

N/A

N/A

Shea Seals

$385,000

N/A

N/A

John Celestand

$301,875

N/A

N/A

Andy Panko

$5,000

N/A

N/A

Team

$54,123,533

League wins – 1st

Playoffs – 1st



4th

Table 2: Orlando Magic



Player

One years salary

League leaders List + Position in list / Season team

Position in League Salary List

Darrell Armstrong

$4,125,000

Assists per game – 16th

Assists Total – 14th

Steals per Game – 3rd

Steals Total – 2nd



All players in this team fell under the $5million mark and so it is difficult to say their exact position in the list

Armon Gilliam

$3,707,200

N/A

N/A

Derek Strong

$3,159,000

N/A

N/A

Chauncey Billups

$3,100,080

N/A

N/A

Gerald Wilkins

$3,000,000

N/A

N/A

Ron Mercer

$2,298,840

N/A

N/A

Bo Outlaw

$2,000,000

Blocks per Game – 14th

Blocks Total – 12th



N/A

Terry Davis

$1,925,000

N/A

N/A

Yinka Dare

$1,893,500

N/A

N/A

Michael Smith

$1,660,000

N/A

N/A

Michael Doleac

$1,357,320

N/A

N/A

Corey Maggette

$1,259,400

N/A

N/A

Harvey Grant

$1,200,000

N/A

N/A

Johnny Taylor

$1,172,400

N/A

N/A

Matt Harpring

$1,163,760

N/A

N/A

Tim Legler

$1,119,000

N/A

N/A

Anthony Johnson

$1,100,000

N/A

N/A

Anthony Parker

$980,280

N/A

N/A

Pat Garrity

$952,800

N/A

N/A

Ben Wallace

$893,750

Rebounds per game – 20th

Rebounds Total – 19th



N/A

Rodrick Rhodes

$600,000

N/A

N/A

Monty Williams

$510,000

N/A

N/A

Jeff McInnis

$460,000

N/A

N/A

John Amaechi

$385,000

N/A

N/A

Chucky Atkins

$385,000

All-Rookie Second team

N/A

Makhtar Ndiaye

$385,000

N/A

N/A

Miles Simon

$385,000

N/A

N/A

Dominique Wilkins

$250,000

N/A

N/A

Earl Boykins

$88,324

N/A

N/A

Kiwane Garris

$61,147

N/A

N/A

Louis Bullock

$10,000

N/A

N/A

Team

$41,586,801

League wins – 16th

Playoffs – Out first round



20th

Table 3: Top Ten highest paid Players



Number

Player

Team


Player Salary

Accolades



Shaquille O'Neal

Los Angeles

$17,142,858

Points per Game – 1st

Points Total – 1st

Rebounds per Game – 2nd

Rebounds Total – 2nd

Blocks per Game – 3rd

Blocks Total – 3rd

All-NBA First team,

All-Defensive Second team,

Regular season and playoff Most Valuable Player




Kevin Garnett

Minnesota

$16,806,300

PPG – 8th

Points Total – 10th

RPG – 4th

Rebound Total- 3rd,

All-NBA First team,

All-Defensive First team





Alonzo Mourning

Miami

$15,004,800

PPG – 15th

Points Total – 12th

RPG – 12th

Rebound Total – 12th

BPG – 1st

Block total – 1st,

All-NBA Second Team,

All-Defensive First team





Patrick Ewing

New York

$15,000,000

- out for much of the season due to injury



Juwan Howard

Washington

$15,000,000

-



Scottie Pippen

Portland

$14,795,642

All-Defensive second team



Hakeem Olajuwon

Houston

$14,302,001

- out for much of the season due to injury



Karl Malone

Utah

$14,000,000

-



Dikembe Mutombo

Atlanta

$12,820,249

RPG – 1st

Rebound total – 1st

BPG – 2nd

Block Total – 2nd





Jayson Williams

New Jersey

$12,375,000

- out for much of the season due to injury

79 players earned over $5million Dollars in the NBA in 1999-2000 season.
The evidence from these tables does suggest that being highly paid induces good performance in a player. Much of the first 40 players featured in this salary list feature in many of the statistical lists.

Discussion/Conclusion
The information presented in the literature review will now be discussed in order to draw conclusions on the subject.
A definition of motivation and the types of has been offered. All of the sources agreed that there are two categories of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic feedback. Intrinsic motivation; gaining internal rewards. Extrinsic motivation is based on receiving physical or external rewards. Two of the sources (P. Bernhardt 1996) and (K. Sugarman 1999) stated that there was no clear distinction between the two types of motivation for example, a performer can gain intrinsic rewards through an external reward, or a performer may receive external gratification from an intrinsic motivational source. It is generally agreed that this crossover of ideas is essential for ultimate success in a given activity, the combination helps to achieve optimum performance (Edexcel, Advanced PE, 2000). Although when motivated completely intrinsically good performances can be produced, it is only when an incentive is given that the performer will produce their best. The same goes with extrinsic motivation. If the motivation I solely extrinsic then a good performance may occur, but if they are not enjoying the activity then the performance may not be as high as it could be. Motivation of either variety is essential when taking part in all activities, as if we were not motivated to them we would not take part in them at all.
The Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that if we do a job in which we are paid poorly, we must enjoy doing it, otherwise why would we do it? And the reverse, if we do a job in which we are receiving a high salary, then we must only do it for the money. So this could apply to basketball players, the lower paid players such as the rookies play well because they enjoy to play. Whereas highly paid players may perform to a high standard because of the money.
In two newspaper articles I found evidence to argue against the extrinsic role of money in the motivation of Professional Basketball Players. The first article by (D. Purgavie, 2001) titled “Why Mutombo Walks Tall” was about a former native of the Congo’s use of the money he acquired in a multimillion-dollar move between two teams involving a swap of four other players in exchange for him. Although this would be categorised as an extrinsic motivational factor of money, it was not greed, or the money itself that was motivating him, but more what he could do which would be worthwhile cause. He had vowed to use it to build a 300bed hospital in his home town of Kinshasa in the Congo. From this act although it is an extrinsic motivation, he receives an intrinsic reward from the act. To prove the effect of this motivation, his team the Philadelphia 76ers finished top of the Atlantic division and Eastern Conference with the joint second total wins of the regular season, and Mutombo himself was named defensive player of the year. The end of the article, in which this story was found, finished “Nobody seems to have told him he is supposed to be greedy and arrogant and hang around in strip clubs.” (D. Purgavie, 2001), suggesting that he is an exception, and that the stereotypical Pro-Basketball player would be what is described.

The Second of the articles by (M. Ogden, 2001) titled “Megabucks Can’t Sway Amaechi”. This article was about a British player in the NBA who turned down the opportunity to move to the Playoff Winners the LA Lakers which involved an upgrade of salary from $385,000 to in excess of $2million a year. This vast increase in salary could not persuade him into moving due to his sense of loyalty to his current team, so he accepted a £465,000 one year deal from his current club instead. This showed that he had good intrinsic motivation, as he did not feel that he required that sum of money to perform, his main source of motivation was his loyalty. These articles both show evidence of intrinsic motivation, or at least received internal gratification from their external rewards.


As I did not receive replies to my questionnaires I was forced to base the main bulk of the investigation on statistics. I began by Comparing the Salaries and performances of two very different teams. 1. LA Lakers and 2. Orlando Magic.

Table 4:


Team

Total Team Salary

Highest Paid Player

Highest Player Salary

Final Positions

Los Angeles Lakers

$54,123,533

Shaquille O’neill

$17,142,858

Regular Season – 1st ,

Playoffs – Winners



Orlando Magic

$41,586,801

Darrell Armstrong

$4,125,000

Reg. Season – Overall 16th,

Playoffs – Out First Round



A Huge difference is visible between the salary and season performances of both teams (displayed in tables 1, 2 and 4). LA with a vastly larger overall Salary, and a just below $13million difference between the salaries of the highest paid player of the respective teams. This initially shows a trend in the role that these external incentives play on the motivation to succeed. But when you consider the differences in the salary and expectation on either team, the picture becomes less clear. Where the Lakers with their big name, big price-tag players had an expectancy to succeed. Whereas, Orlando with their relatively low paid unknowns, by far exceeded all expectations.

Orlando the previous season had failed to qualify for the playoffs in many years, and subsequently went on to lose their most well known and talented player in the following summer. So, in this following season they had no more big name talents, and were not even expected to get close to qualifying for the playoffs. This shows the amount of intrinsic motivation collectively held by the team.

The Lakes, However finally managed to reach their full potential in this season, after 2 years of under achieving, the extrinsic pressures placed upon them by their price tags were increasing. So here their motivation through their combined intrinsic motivations and extrinsic motivations of salary came through to help them to succeed.

Surprisingly more different players, from Orlando were in the various league leaders lists and All-NBA teams, although the total count for inclusion in the various lists was larger for LA. But for the Lakers only two separate players were responsible for these, compared to Orlando’s 4.



It could be argued that the Orlando players could still be motivated by the money, as although considerably lower than that of LA, the sums of money were still on the whole considerably high.
Five of the ten highest paid players failed to make a single league leaders list, or All-NBA team. Although three of these had ongoing injuries, the remaining two may appear to be motivated only by the money and so are letting their performance slip. Where younger players who are doing consistently better than these are getting paid considerably less.
From my investigations the following conclusions have been formed:

  • Motivation is the “why we perform” an activity.

  • There are two main types which are very inter-linked, Intrinsic from within, extrinsic motivation through a possible external reward.

  • For optimum performance, there must be a combination of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivational forces.

  • A performer should not concentrate on one either intrinsic or extrinsic factor for motivation, otherwise they either take the task too seriously or not take it seriously enough. Both leading to a decline in the quality of performance.

  • Although much of the motivation for NBA players comes extrinsically, it is not always from money, it can be from what good they can do with it.

  • Performance is not always reliant on the salary of the player, e.g. Ben Wallace of Orlando, appearing in the league leaders list for rebounds, yet earning under $1milion which is considerably lower than others featured in the list.

  • There are many factors involved in the motivation of basketball players, other than money.



Appraisal
The Process of researching this topic was to enable me to learn more about the topic of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic. It was also to show the effects of these forms of motivation on top sports professionals in addition to natural skill and ability. Previous to starting this project I had some knowledge of the topic of motivation, although limited, as it had been covered previously in the course.
Some of the difficulties in encountered upon gathering research for this study were:

  1. There is a vast number of teams and hundreds of players in the in NBA, so it would be far too time consuming to study statistics for all of these. So only small sections were possible for comparing and contrasting which could give a limited and possibly inaccurate overview of the NBA as a whole. Also finding this statistical information and salaries of teams/players was a difficult task.

  2. Basketball as whole is featured to a very little extent in the media in the UK, and when it is reported it is usually only on British league stories. The only times that newspapers print stories on the NBA is usually to report the winner of the Playoffs at the end of the season, or features on British/European players in the NBA. There is little television coverage on the NBA except for a 30minute magazine program on Saturdays on ITV. When the coverage rights were owned by Channel 4 the coverage was more extensive. Including two one-hour shows, one 30minute show and one live match per week. Although ITV does have more extensive coverage on its Digital channel, ITV2, unfortunately I am not able to view this, as I do not receive digital television.

  3. I decided to send out questionnaires to John Amaechi (the only British player in the NBA) and Vlade Divac, both NBA players. I sent them questionnaires to get an inside view into what motivates them to perform in order to obtain evidence from within the group I am studying. This could not be carried out with British or European league players as they are not under the same pressures and demands of popularity and salary as NBA players. I also sent out questionnaires to various sports Journalists who deal specifically with basketball, as they have strong views about and a vast knowledge of the subject. Unfortunately, I am yet to receive a reply from any of these sources. This limited my resources to statistical evidence and knowledge of results. Answers for these questions would have been of great benefit to my study.

Therefore, this investigation has had large limitations due to the lack of and low quantity of literature and information specific to this subject. Much of the motivation information came from articles on which were general to many sports, or from the issued textbook which was not specific to the subject of the project.


Opportunities have been opened for further investigation in this topic. The topics raised in this investigation could have been broadened by investigating roles of different types of motivation on all levels e.g. Recreation, School, county/state, college, National/European and NBA levels. Another investigation that could have been made is how do performers respond to specific types of motivation e.g. Extrinsic, with the promise of money or chocolate in younger performers.
Appendix


  1. Advanced PE for Edexcel:

  • Intrinsic Feedback – From within the performer.

  • Extrinsic Feedback – From an external reward.




  1. Motivation” article by P. Bernhardt: see attached




  1. What is Motivation?” by K. Sugarman: see attached




  1. Questionnaire sent out as part of research: see attached




  1. Why Mutombo Walks Tall” by D. Purgavie – Daily Express: see attached




  1. Megabucks Can’t Sway Amaechi” by M. Ogden – Daily Express: see attached


Bibliography:


  • F. Galligan, C. Maskery, J. Spence, D. Howe, T. Barry, A. Ruston, D. Crawford(2000) – Advanced PE for Edexcel

  • XXL Basketball magazine (1999-2001).

  • D. Purgavie (march 7th 2001) – Daily Express ‘Why Mutombo Walks Tall’.

  • M. Ogden (March 7th 2001) – Daily Express ‘Megabucks Can’t Sway Amaechi’.


Webliography

  • www.nba.com/history/stand19992000.html – Statistics on performance tables, salary and team results.

  • www.nba.com/lakers/stats/index.html – team statistics (LA Lakers)

  • www.nba.com/magic/stats/index/html – team statistics(Orlando Magic)

  • www.insidehoops.com/nba_salaries_prefic.shtml – League statistics

  • www.sportsbusiness.about.com/sportsbusiness/library/salary/nba – Salary Statistics

  • www.geocities.com/kobenicpmal/teaminfo/salaries.html – Team Salary Statistics

  • http://mentalhelp.net/perspectives/columns/be0596.htm – Article on Motivation for “Perspectives” Magazine by Paul C. Bernhardt

  • www.e-sports.com/article.asp?Article_id=2106 – Sports Psychology Article by



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