PETER R. SCHMIDT
DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 32611
Home Address: Martin's Island, 20924 NE 132nd Ave., Waldo, FL 32694
Home Phone: (352) 468-3244
Work FAX: (352) 392-6929
A.B. 1965 Stanford History (Honors)
M.A. 1967 UCLA African History/African Studies
1966 Makerere University, Uganda
(Diploma student) Archaeology/African Studies
Ph.D. 1974 Northwestern African History & Anthropology
Professional Academic Appointments:
2002--2004 Chief Curator of Archaeology, National Museum of Eritrea
2001-02 Dean, College of Arts and Social Science, University of Asmara
2001-2003 Special Advisor to the University of Asmara President on Research Development
2001-2002 Professor III of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Asmara, Eritrea
2000-- Professor of Anthropology, University of Florida
1998-99 Professor III of Archaeology, University of Asmara, Eritrea.
1998 Acting Head and Founder, Department of Archaeology, University of Asmara.
1998--2001 Official Representative from the American Anthropological Association
(AAA) to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
1988 95 Director, Center for African Studies, University of Florida.
1988-2000 Associate Professor, Anthropology, University of Florida.
1985 87 Associate Professor of History, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
1985 87 Head and Founder, Archaeology Unit, University of Dar es
1984 Visiting Associate Professor, Anthropology, University of California at
1981 89 Associate Professor, Anthropology, Brown University.
1971 81 Assistant Professor, Anthropology, Brown University.
Other Professional Appointments
2008- Chairman, International Advisory Board to the Global Resources Project,
Medieval Studies Association.
2001-2005 Founding Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Eritrean Studies
2001 First Opponent in Ph.D. dissertation defense of Randi Barndon, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. November 9, 2001.
1997-98 Director, Sub Saharan Africa Program, American Association for the
Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.
1995 Member, Editorial Board, The African Archaeological Review
1993 Member, Editorial Board, East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights
1988 1990 President, Society of Africanist Archaeologists.
1990 92 Executive Board Member, Society of Africanist Archaeologists.
1984 88 Brown University Program Director for African Exchanges.
1984 Academic Specialist to Omar Bongo University, Gabon, to consult in
Anthropology and Archaeology.
1982 Brown University representative to University of Dar es Salaam and
Negotiator of a Brown University and Dar es Salaam exchange program.
1982 84 Steering Committee of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists in America.
1981 Special Envoy to Tanzania from Brown University.
1981 to present President, Foundation for African Prehistory and Archaeology.
1978 84 Commissioner, Rhode Island Historic Preservation Commission.
1978 84 Member, Review Board, National Historic Register, Rhode Island.
1976 77 Research Associate, University of Dar es Salaam.
1978 80 Research Associate, University of Dar es Salaam.
1975 77 Chairman, Advisory Council of Professional Archaeologists, Idaho.
1975 77 State Archaeologist and State Historic Preservation Officer, Idaho.
Research, Special Projects:
2009-12 Lead Researcher in a project on: Social Memory, Trauma, and History in Northwestern Tanzania
2010-11 Chief Consultant for the Restoration of Kanazi Palace, a German colonial palace in Kagera, Tanzania.
2008--12 Consultant to and Director of Development for the Committee for Preservation and Restoration of the Bagashani (shrines) of Katuruka village, Kagera Region, Tanzania
Director of a Regional Inventory of Heritage Resources in the Greater Asmara
2001--2002 Director of a Project to establish an On-Site Museum on Sembel Site, Asmara. Stage Three in a Heritage Management Plan for Greater Asmara.
2001--2003 Director of a Regional Inventory of Heritage Resources in the Greater Asmara area, Eritrea.
2001 Lead Instructor and Director of Advanced Archaeological Field School,
University of Asmara: the Mai Chiot Site.
Director of Archaeological Excavations and the 4th Year Field School, University of Asmara, Eritrea
1999 Director of the USAID Project (Completion Date): Enhancing Human Rights in Uganda.
Director of Archaeological Survey in the Greater Asmara region; documentation of sites threatened by urban encroachment. Stage Two in formulating a Heritage Management Plan for Greater Asmara.
Director of Archaeological Excavations and the 3rd Year Field School, University of Asmara, Eritrea. Stage One in a Heritage Management Plan for Greater Asmara.
1997 Co-Leader of University of Florida delegation to the Dedication of the Human
Rights and Peace Centre at Makerere University, Uganda.
Co-Director of the Remote Sensing Project with US Forest Service in southern
and eastern Eritrea in collaboration with the National Museum of Eritrea.
1996 Lead Designer for Curriculum and Degree Program in Archaeology at the
University of Asmara; Reconnaissance of heritage sites in vicinity of Qohaito,
Southern highlands of Eritrea. September and October.
1996 Archaeological Reconnaissance of Dahlak Kebir Island, Red Sea, for the
National Museum of Eritrea. May.
1995 Director of a pilot study in Ancient Land Use: the Crater Lake Region of Fort
Portal, Uganda. May and June.
1995 Academic Visitor to Eritrea to assess the Cultural Heritage Resources of central Eritrea. May, 1995
Co organizer of the International Workshop on The History of Landscape Change in
Africa Held at Kibale Forest, western Uganda, May 22 29, 1994.
Director of the USAID Project (Launch Date): Enhancing Human Rights in Uganda.
[Started in 1990 with seed money from a USIA grant].
1991 94 Director of the Project to launch the new Journal: East African Journal of Peace and
Human Rights at Makerere University, Uganda.
1990 Director of archaeological survey in Northwestern Cameroon, in
collaboration with the Institute of Human Sciences, Yaounde,
Cameroon, June July.
1987 Director of Archaeological Research and University of Dar es Salaam
Archaeological Field School in southern coastal (coast region) Tanzania,
1986 Chief archaeologist for the Omar Bongo University expedition to investigate
Early Iron Age industry in Moanda, Gabon, June. Implementation of Heritage
1986 Director of the University of Dar es Salaam Archaeological Field School:
The prehistory of the Western Usambara Mountains, April June.
1985 Chief Archaeologist for the Omar Bongo University expedition to investigate
the Early Iron Age of Haut Ogooue Province, Gabon, September. Heritage resource
1984 Director of Excavations at the NG5 site, an early Iron Age site in Kigera
Region, Tanzania, June and July. Heritage Management of Iron Age Sites.
1984 87 Producer of a 58 minute, 16rnm color documentary film The Tree of Iron,
filmed in northwestern Tanzania for national PBS TV; NEH funded project.
1984 Consulting specialist in the Iron Age archaeology of Ngounie Province, Gabon,
1984 Consulting specialist in the Iron Age archaeology of Haut Ogooue Province,
Gabon, January February. Heritage Management of archaeological resources.
1983 84 Negotiator of an academic (research and teaching) relationship between
Brown University and Omar Bongo University, Gabon.
1983 Director of archaeological research and geological survey in northwestern
Tanzania; NEH and SSRC funded research.
1981 82 Producer, Co director of a 25 minute, 16mm color documentary film, Beating the
Bellows: An Archaeological Experiment in African Iron Technology.
1980 Director, ethnographic study of ritual and technology among the Barongo iron
smelters; and, archeological excavations and site survey in Kagera Region,
Tanzania; NSF funded research. Heritage Management of the Ngono River Basin.
1979 Director, ethnographic and ethnotechnological study of Barongo iron smelting,
Western Tanzania; NSF funded research.
1978 Director, archaeological excavations and ethnohistoric research in western
Tanzania; NSF funded research.
1976 77 Director, ethnographic and ethnotechnological study of iron smelting among
the Haya; archaeological excavations and survey in northwestern Tanzania;
NSF funded research.
1969 70 Director, ethnohistoric and archaeological investigations in northwestern Tanzania; NSF funded research.
Books: Historical Archaeology: A Structural Approach in an African Culture
Greenwood Press, Westport. 1978.
Making Alternative Histories: The Practice of Archaeology and History in
Non Western Settings, ed. by P. R. Schmidt and T. C. Patterson. School of
American Research, Santa Fe. 1995.
The Culture and Technology of African Iron Production, ed. by P. R. Schmidt.
University Press of Florida, Gainesville. 1996.
The Plundering of Africa's Past, ed. by P. R. Schmidt and R. McIntosh. Univ.
of Indiana Press, Bloomington and James Currey, London. 1996.
Iron Technology in East Africa: Symbolism, Science, and Archaeology.
University of Indiana Press, Bloomington. 1997.
Historical Archaeology in Africa: Representation, Social Memory, and Oral
Traditions. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek. 2006.
The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea, ed. by P. R. Schmidt, M. C. Curtis, and Z. Teka. Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ. 2008.
Postcolonial Archaeologies in Africa, ed. by P. R. Schmidt. SAR Press, Santa Fe. 2009.
Submitted: The Death of Prehistory, ed. by P. R. Schmidt and S. Mrozowski. For Oxford University Press.
Monographs: The Origins of Iron Smelting in Africa: A Complex Technology in Tanzania.
Research Papers in Anthropology, No. 1, Brown University, 1981.
Quelques Resultats sur l 'Age du Fer au Gabon, Universite Omar Bongo,
Libreville, Gabon, with L. Digombe, M. Locko, and V Mouleingui-Boukossou,
Archaeological Investigations in the Vicinity of Mkiu, Kisarawe District,
Tanzania, Archaeological Contributions of the University of Dar es Salaam,
Occasional Paper No. 1. Dar es Salaam, 1992. With N.J. Karoma, A.
LaViolette, W. Fawcett, A. Mabulla, L. Rutabanzibwa, and C. Sanane.
The 1st Millennium BCE in the Northern Horn of Africa. Special Issue of the African Archaeological Review, Co-editor with David Phillipson. Vol. 26(3) 2009.
African Archaeology and the Ancestors. Bassey Andah Memorial Lectures. Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Ibadan.
Films: Beating the Bellows: An Archaeological Experiment in African Iron
Technology. A 25 minute, 16mm color documentary. Producer and Director.
The Tree of Iron A 58 minute, color documentary. Producer, 1988. A National
PBS Black History Month feature, Feb. 1995.
Museum Exhibits: Created the Sembel On-Site Museum, Asmara, Eritrea: Opened December 2002.
“Pathways to Urbanism”: A Photographic Exhibit about Ancient Eritrea at the Florida Museum of Natural History. March 22—July 22, 2007.
Katuruka Village Museum. A museum in NW Tanzania that celebrates the history of the Rugomora Mahe site and iron working in Kagera Region. Completed June, 2010.
* Peer Reviewed "A New Look at Interpretations of the Early Iron Age in East Africa," History
in Africa, vol. 2, 1975, pp. 127 136. *
“Interpreting Idaho's Heritage," Idaho Yesterdays, 19(4), 1976.
"Prehistoric Culture and Complex Iron Smelting in Tanzania,” Science, vol. 201,
1978, pp. 1085 1089 with D. H. Avery. *
“A Metallurgical Study of the Iron Bloomery, Particularly as practiced in
Buhaya,” Journal of Metals, October 1979, pp. 14 20. With D. Avery. *
"Steel Production in Prehistoric Africa: Insights from Ethnoarchaeology in West
Lake, Tanzania,” Proceedings of the 8th Pan African Congress of Prehistory and
Quaternary Studies, edited by R.E. Leakey and B.A. Ogot. Nairobi, TILLMIAP,
1980, pp.335 340.
“Early Iron Age Settlements and Industrial Locales in West Lake," Tanzania Notes
and Records, Nos. 84 85, 1980, pp.77 94.
“An Alternative to a Strictly Materialist Perspective: A Review of Historical
Archaeology, Ethnoarchaeology, and Symbolic Approaches in African Archaeology." Review of Old World Archaeology, coordinated by Eugene Sterud, American Antiquity, vol. 48, (1) 1983, pp. 62 81. *
"More Evidence for an Advanced Prehistoric Iron Technology in Africa,” Journal
of Field Archaeology, vol.10(4) 1983, pp. 421 434. *
"Cultural Meaning and History in African Myth.” International Journal of Oral
History, vol.4(3) 1983, pp. 165 183. *
"Resultats des Datations au Carbone 14 Concernant la Prehistoire au Gabon:
Results of Carbon 14 Dating Concerning Prehistory,” L 'Anthropologie (Paris),
Tome 88, no. 3, pp. 457 458. With M. Locko, A.S. Diop, V. Mouleingui-
Boukossou, and J. B. Mombo.
Newly dated Iron Age sites in Gabon,” Nyame Akuma, No. 26, 1985, pp. 16-18.
With Lazare Digombe, Michel Locko, Vincent Mouleingui.
"Radiocarbon dates for the Iron Age in Gabon," Current Anthropology, vol. 26, (4)
1985, p.516. With Lazare Digombe, Michel Locko, Vincent Mouleingui-Boukosso,
and Jean Bernard Mombo. *
“Innovation and Industry during the Early Iron Age in East Africa: KM2 and KM3
sites in Northwest Tanzania,” African Archaeological Review, vol. 3, pp. 53 96,
1985. With S. Terry Childs. *
“The Use of Preheated Air in Ancient and Recent African Iron Smelting Furnaces:
A Reply to Rehder,” Journal of Field Archaeology 13:3, 1986, pp. 354-356.
With D. H. Avery.
“Gabon: The Earliest Iron Age of West Central Africa," Nyame Akuma, No. 27,
1986. With L. Digombe et. al. Principal author.
“L'Age du Fer Ancien du Gabon” L'Anthropologie, Vol. 91, (2), pp. 711 715,
1987. With L. Digombe et. al. Principal author. *
“The Development of Early Iron Age Prehistory in Gabon," Current
Anthropology, Vol. 22 (1), 1988, pp. 179 184. Principal Author. *
“Eastern Expressions of the Mwitu Tradition: Early Iron Age Industry of the
Usambara Mountains, Tanzania,” Nyame Akuma, No.30, 1988 pp. 36 37.
“'The Coast and the Hinterland: The University of Dar es Salaam Field School,
1987-88.” Nyame Akuma, 32, 1989, pp. 38 46. With Adria LaViolette and
“Archaeological Survey in Northwestern Cameroon,” Nyame Akuma No. 34,
1990, pp. 10 16. With Raymond Asombang.
“Rock Shelters and a Greater History of the Bamenda Grassfields, Cameroon,”
Nyame Akuma, 34, 1990, pp. 5 10. With Raymond Asombang.
“A Human Right to a Cultural Heritage: African Expressions and Configurations.”
In the East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights, vol. 2, no. 1, 1995.
pp.41 52. *
“Ancient African Iron Production." American Scientist, vol. 83 (6) 1995, pp. 524-
533. With S. Terry Childs. *
“The Agricultural hinterland and settlement trends in Tanzania." Azania 29 30
(1996), pp. 261 62.
”Rhythmed Time and Its Archaeological Implications,” In Aspects of African
Archaeology: Papers of the 10th PanAfrican Association for Prehistory and
Related Studies, edited by G. Pwiti and R. Soper. University of Zimbabwe
Publications, Harare, 1996, 654 659.
“Reading Ideology in the African Archaeological Record." With B.B.
Mapunda. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 16: 73 102, 1997. *
“Les Hauts Fourneaux de Brousse" La Recherche. May, 1997, pp. 54 58. With
“Archaeological Views on a History of Landscape Change in
East Africa.” Journal of African History.38: 393-421, 1997. *
Review of Encyclopedia of Precolonial Africa, ed. Joseph Vogel. American
“Urban Precursors in the Horn: Early 1st Millennium Communities in Eritrea.” Antiquity. 75: 849-859, 2001. *
“The “Ona” Culture of Greater Asmara: Archaeology’s Liberation of Eritrea’s Ancient History from Colonial Paradigms.” Journal of Eritrean Studies 1 (1) 29-59, 2002. *
“Resisting Homogenization & Recovering Variation and Innovation in African Iron Smelting.” Mediterranean Archaeology, Special Edition, eds. Jean-Paul Descoeudres, Eric Hysecom, Vincent Serneels, and Jean-Louis Zimmermann. Vol. 14:219-228, 2002.
“Heritage and Tourism: Issues and Alternatives in Eritrea.” The Journal of Eritrean Studies 2:29-44, 2003. *
“Historical Archaeology in Africa: Noble Claims, Revisionist Perspectives, and African Voices?” With Jonathan Walz. Journal of African History 46(2):315-319, 2005. *
“Teaching Revolutionary Archaeology: African Experiments in History Making and Heritage Management.” Archaeologies 1(2):46-59, 2005. *
“Re-Representing African Pasts through Critical Historical Archaeologies.” With Jonathan Walz. American Antiquity 72(1):53-70, 2007. *
“An Unusual Pattern of Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups in Northern African Cattle.” With M. S. Ascunce, A. Kitchen, M. M. Miyamoto, and C. L. Mulligan. Zoological Studies. ZoolStud.Sinica.edu.tw/46.1OnlineFirst/940615.pdf. 2007. *
“Silences and Mentions in History Making.” Journal of Historical Archaeology
41(4):126-143, 2007. With Jonathan Walz. *
“Tropes, Materiality, and Ritual Embodiment of African Iron Smelting Furnaces as Human Figures. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 16(3):262-282. Special Issue, eds. S. Nanoglou and L. Meskell. 2009.*
“Variability in Eritrea and the Archaeology of the Northern Horn During the First Millennium BC: Subsistence, Ritual, and Gold Production.” African Archaeological Review 26(3):305-325. 2009.*
Re-evaluating the Archaeology of the First Millennium BC in the Northern Horn. African Archaeology Review 26(4): 255-56. 2009. With David Phillipson.
“African Archaeology and the Ancestors.” Bassey Andah Memorial Lecture delivered at the University of Ibadan, February 20, 2009. World Archaeological Congress, Online at World Archaeological Congress homepage, Reports. January 2, 2010.
“Postcolonial Silencings, Intellectuals, and the State: A View from Eritrea.
African Affairs 109/435:293-313. 2010.*
“Trauma and Social Memory in NW Tanzania: Organic, Spontaneous Community Collaboration.” Journal of Social Archaeology 10(2):255-279. 2010.*
“The Play of Tropes in Archaeology: Ethnoarchaeology as Metonymy. Ethnoarchaeology: Journal of Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Experimental Studies 2(2): 131-151. 2010*
Reflections on African Archaeology and the Ancestors. Studies in the African Past: Journal of the African Archaeological Network 9:42-62. 2010*
Postcolonial Archaeologies in Africa: Breaking the Silence. African Archaeological Review 27:333-337. 2010. With Karega-Munene.*
African Archaeology and the Ancestors. Africa Review: Journal of the Indian African Studies Association 2(1) :41-64. 2010.
Book Review of Archaeology and the Postcolonial Critique. M. Liebmann and U.Z, Rizvi, eds. 2008, AltaMira Press, Lanham MD. American Antiquity 75(2):412-14. 2010.
Comments on “Consensus and the Fringe in American Archaeology.” Archaeologies: Journal of the World Archaeological Congress 6(2):215-219. (2010).
Chapters: “History, Smugglers, Change and Shipwrecks.” In Shipwreck Anthropology,
edited by R. A. Gould. School of American Research, University of New
Mexico Press, Albequerque, 1983, pp. 143 171. With S. Mrozowski. *
“Experimental Iron Smelting: The Genesis of a Hypothesis with Implications
for African Prehistory. In African Iron Working, Ancient and Traditional,
edited by Peter Shinnie and R. Haaland, Norwegian University Press, Bergen,
1985, pp.121 141. With S. Terry Childs.
Documentary Insights into the Archaeology of Smuggling' In Documentary
Archaeology, ed. by Mary Beaudry, Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp. 32-
"Early Exploitation and Settlement in the Usambara Mountains," in Forest
Conservation in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, ed. by Alan
Hamilton and Robert Bensted Srnith, International Union for the Conservation
of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K., 1989, pp. 75 78.
“Oral Traditions, Archaeology, and History in Africa: A Short Reflective History,”
in A History of African Archaeology, ed. by Peter Robertshaw. James Currey. 1990, pp. 252 270. *
“An Interpretative Model for Sustainability Based on the Use and Transformation of a Forested Landscape in Eastern Equatorial Africa," in Environment and
Archaeology: Emerging Trends and New Techniques for Heritage Management &
Sustainable Development in Tropical Forest Areas, ed. by A. Gus Pantel and Kent
Schneider. Organization of American States and United States Department of
Agriculture, Atlanta, 1992, pp. 30 38.
“Historical Ecology and Landscape Transformation in Eastern Equatorial Africa,”
in Historical Ecology, ed. by Carole Crumley, School of American Research, 1993,
pp. 99 125. *
“Foreword: Human Rights and Governance,” in Human Rights and Governance in
Africa, ed. by R. Cohen, G. Hyden, and W. Nagan, University Press of Florida,
1993, pp. xi xii.
“Foreword: In Population Growth and Change in Africa, ed. by B.L. Turner, G.
Hyden, and R. Kates, University Press of Florida, 1993, pp. xiii-xiv.
“Using Archaeology to Remake African History." In Making Alternative
Histories, ed. by P. Schmidt and T. Patterson. SAR Press. 1995, pp. 118 147.*
“From Constructing to Making Alternative Histories." In Making Alternative
Histories, ed. by P. Schmidt and T. Patterson. With T. Patterson. SAR Press,
Santa Fe. 1995. *
"Reconfiguring the Barongo: Reproductive Symbolism and Reproduction among
a Work Association of Iron Smelters.” In The Culture and Technology of African
Iron Production, ed. by P.R. Schmidt. University Press of Florida, 1996, pp. 74-
“Cultural Representation of African Iron Production." In The Culture and
Technology of African Iron Production, ed. by P.R. Schmidt. University Press of
Florida, 1996, pp. 1 28. *
“Actualistic Models for Interpretation of Two Early Iron Age Sites in
Northwestern Tanzania.” In lee Culture and Technology of African Iron
Production, ed. by P.R. Schmidt. With S.T. Childs. University Press of
Florida, 1996, pp. 186 233. *
"Preheating: Practice or Illusion." In The Culture and Technology of African
Iron Production. With D.H. Avery. University Press of Florida, 1996, pp. 267-
"The African Past Endangered." In Plundering Africa's Past, ed. by P.R.
Schmidt and R. McIntosh. University of Indiana Press, 1996, pp. 1 17. With R.
“The Human Right to a Cultural Heritage: African Applications.” In
Plundering Africa's Past, ed. by P.R. Schmidt and R. McIntosh. University
of Indiana Press, 1996, pp. 18 28. *
“Rhythmed time and its archaeological implications." In Aspects of African
Archaeology, ed. by Gilbert Pwiti and Robert Soper. Papers from the 10th
Congress of the PanAfrican Association for Prehistory and Related Studies,
Harare, 1996, pp. 655 662.
“A Culture of Looting in the United States: Genesis of a Trade in Illicit African
Art.” In the Proceedings of the ICOM (International Commission of Museums)
workshop on the protection of the African Heritage. ICOM, Paris, pp. 95-101,
“Forward.” In the “Tree Against Hunger”: Enset-Based Agricultural Systems in
Ethiopia. S. Brandt, A. Spring, et.al., American Association for the Advancement
of Science, Washington DC, pp. v, 1998.
Reading Gender in Ancient African Iron Technology.” In Gender in African
Prehistory, ed. Susan Kent. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, pp.139-162, 1998. *
“Are there Tropical African Responses to the 536 AD Event?” In Human Responses to the 536 Event, ed. Joel Gunn. Archaeopress, BAR Reports, Oxford, 2000.
“Why Deep Time Landscape Histories are Needed to Improve Environmental Management in Africa.” In Aquatic Resources in Africa, eds. Thomas Chrisman and L. Chapman. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 2003.
“New Discoveries in Eritrea: The Early Pre-Aksumite Period and the Rise of Cultural Complexity in the Horn.” In XI Congress of Panafrican Association of Prehistory and Related Fields: Acts, eds. K. Sanogo, T. Togola, D. Keita, and M. N’Daou. Bamako, Mali, pp, 377-395, 2004.
“Iron, Tropes of Reproduction.” In The Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender. Macmillan Reference Library, Thompson Gale. 2007.
“The Development of Archaeology in Eritrea.” In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea. Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ, pp. 1-20, 2008. With M. C. Curtis.
“Landscape, People, and Places on the Ancient Asmara Plateau.” In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea. Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ, pp. 65-108, 2008. With M. C. Curtis.
“The Ancient Ona Communities of the 1st Millennium BCE: Urban Precursors and Independent Development on the Asmara Plateau.” In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea. Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ, pp. 109-162., 2008. With M. C. Curtis and Z. Teka.
“Ancient Gold Mining North of Asmara: A Focus on Hara Hot.” In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea. Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ, pp. 179-188, 2008. With D. Habtemichael and M. C. Curtis.
“Paleoethnobotanical Analysis and Agricultural Economy in Early 1st Millennium BCE Sites around Asmara.” In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea. Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ, pp. 207-216, 2008. With C. D’Andrade and M. C. Curtis.
“Interpretations of Faunal Remains from Archeological Sites on the Asmara Plateau of Eritrea.” In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea. Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ, pp. 217-234, 2008. With J. Shoshani and M. W. Ghebregiorgis.
“Bulls’ Heads and Enigmas: Strong Inference and Interpretative Puzzles in Eritrea.” In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea. Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ, pp. 235-246, 2008. With A. Naty.
“The Emba Derho Site: An Aksumite Period Tomb North of Asmara, Eritrea.”
In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea. Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ, pp. 247-264, 2008. With M. Haile and J. Shoshani.
“The Second Millennium CE: Settlement, Economy, and Ritual Life.” In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea. Red Sea Press, Trenton, NJ, pp. 265-286, 2008. With M. C. Curtis.
“What is Postcolonial about Archaeologies in Africa?” In Postcolonial Archaeologies in Africa, ed. P. R. Schmidt, SAR Press, Santa Fe, pp. 1-20, 2009.*
“Postcolonial Silencings and the State.” In Postcolonial Archaeologies in Africa, ed. P. R. Schmidt. SAR Press, Santa Fe, pp. 95-114, 2009.*
“An Africa-informed View of Postcolonial Archaeologies.” In Handbook of Postcolonial Archaeology, eds. Uzma Rizvi and Jane Layton. With Karega-Munene. AltaMira Press, Lanham, MD, pp. 189-197. 2010*
“New Light on Ancient Eritrea: Local Variations during the 1st Millennium BCE.” In kaiserlichem Auftrag: Die Deutsche Aksum-Expedition 1906 unter Enno Littmann. Band 2: Altertumskundliche Untersuchungen in Tigray/Äthiopien (Forschungen zur Archäologie Außereuropäischer Kulturen 3.2). Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, ed. by Steffen Wenig. Linden Soft, Aichwald, pp. 169-190. 2011.
Submitted: Introduction: Replacing Prehistory with Historical Process in Archaeology. In The Death of Prehistory, ed. by P. R. Schmidt and S. Mrozowski. With S. Mrozowski.
Historical Entanglements with the Ancient African Past. In The Death of Prehistory, ed.by P. R. Schmidt and S. Mrozowski. Oxford University Press.
“Oral history, oral traditions and archaeology: A History of Structural Analysis.” In Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology, eds. Peter Mitchell and Paul Lane. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
“Historical Archaeology and History Making?” In Proceedings of the 12th Congress of the Pan African Association of Prehistory and Related Studies. University of Botswana, Gaborone.
Bricolage, Ritual Performance, and Habitus [Forgotten] in Barongo Iron Smelting. In the Proceedings of the World of Iron Conference, British Museum, London, 2009.
“Human Rights, Culture, and Dams: A New Global Perspective” In Damming the Past: Dams and Cultural Heritage Management, eds. S Brandt and F. Hassan, pp. 79-90. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Manuscripts and Reports on Heritage Management (Selected):
"Research Reports from Buhaya," (a series of short notes). TANZANIA
ZAMANI: A bulletin of research on pre colonial history (an information
Bulletin). No. 5 (July, 1969), pp. 3 4; No. 7 (July, 1970), pp.4 6; No. 8 (Jan.,
1971), pp. 5 7.
Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University. "An Investigation of Early and
Late Iron Age Cultures through Oral Tradition and Archaeology: An
Interdisciplinary Case Study in Buhaya, Tanzania." University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, 1974.
"The Historical and Archaeological Resources of the Montour Valley, Idaho.”
With Arthur A. Hart and Merle Wells. Submitted to the Bureau of Reclamation,
November 15, 1975.
“An Interim Report of Prehistoric Research in West Lake Region: Prehistory
of Iron Age Africa with a Focus on Northwestern Tanzania." Submitted to
Division of Antiquities, Ministry of Culture, March 13, 1978, 62 p.
"Recommendations for an On Site museum at the KM3 site, Kemondo Bay.”
Submitted January 26, 1979 to Regional Cultural Officer, Bukoba, Tanzania
“The Prehistoric and Historic Sites of the Ngono River Flood Basin,
Threatened Cultural Resources: A Plan for their Study, Preservation, and
Mitigation.” Submitted to Division of Antiquities and Archives, Tanzania,
1981, 110 pp.
“An Assessment of the Potential for Archaeological Research and Teaching
in Gabon.” Submitted to Omar Bongo University, Gabon, 1984, 42 pp. A Heritage
“An Assessment of the Clay Resources of Bukoba District, Kagera Region:
Building a Model for the Study of Early Iron Age Domestic and Industrial
Ceramics.” Submitted to Tanzania National Scientific Research Council,
Division of Antiquities and Archives, and the Kagera Region Culture Office,
May 1984, with S. Terry Childs.
“Preliminary Report: Archaeological Survey in the Western Usambara
Mountains West and SW of Lushoto, Tanga Region; and Kilwa Coastal Zone,
Kilwa, Lindi Region.” With N. J. Karoma, submitted to Department of Antiquities,
“Archaeological Investigations in the Vicinity of Mkiu, Kisarawe District,
Tanzania.” Submitted to the Division of Antiquities, Tanzania, with N.J.
Karoma, A. LaViolette, W.B. Fawcett, A. Mabulla, L. Rutabanzibwa, and C.
“The Archaeological Potential of Dahlak Kebir Island, Eritrea. Submitted to
the University of Asmara, Eritrea. With Yoseph Libsekal. 1996. A Heritage
“Preliminary Report on the Results from the 1998 Training Excavations at the Sembel Site.” Submitted to the University of Asmara and the National Museum of Eritrea, 1999. 26 Pages
“A Report on the Destruction of the Sembel Heritage Site: A Story of Inadequate Protective Protocols, Failure to Heed Warnings, and Failure to Notify Responsible Parties.” 2002.
The Restoration of Kanazi Palace: A Foundation for Sustainable Heritage Tourism in Kagera, Tanzania. Submitted to the US Embassy, Tanzania, the Department of Antiquities, Tanzania, COSTECH, Tanzania, and the Kagera Regional Governemnt, Tanzania.
Papers, Colloquia, Symposia (since 2003):
2003-2004 “Asmara: Built on the Ruins of an Ancient Civilization.” Public Lecture sponsored by the United States Embassy, Asmara. March 10, 2003.
“New Thoughts on the Earliest Pre-Axumite Sites around Asmara.” Lecture at the University of Asmara for the University Community. March 12, 2003.
“800 BC: How and Why an Ancient Civilization Developed around Asmara.” Sponsored by the United States Embassy, Asmara. March 14, 2003.
“Human Rights Issues within the Practice of Archaeology.” World Archaeological Congress (WAC5), Washington DC. June 25, 2003.
“Oral Traditions, Archaeology, and the Political Economy of Historical Memory in East Africa.” World Archaeological Congress (WAC5), Washington DC. June 26, 2003.
“Gold and Prosperity in Ancient Eritrea? Recent UF Research.” Lecture in African Studies, University of Florida. September 19, 2003.
“New Archaeological Discoveries in Eritrea and Tanzania (Session Organizer): “The Rise of Cultural Complexity in the Horn in the Millennium before Aksum.” African Studies Association Annual Meeting, Boston. October 31, 2003.
“Urban Development and Preservation of Historic Sites in Eritrea.” African Studies Association Annual Meeting, Boston. November 1, 2003.
“Teaching African History through Archaeology.” Lecture to Faculty Seminar in the Teaching of Africa, Santa Fe Community College, January 16, 2004.
“Making New Ancient Histories in Africa.” Featured Black History Month Lecture at University of Michigan-Flint. February 12, 2004.
“Mitochondrial D-loop analysis of bovid skeletal material from Eritrea.” With Connie J. Mulligan, Marina S. Ascunse, and Andrew Kitchen. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Tampa, April 2004.
“Sembel On-Site Museum: An Experiment in Identity and Archaeology gone Wrong.”
African Studies Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Nov 11, 2004.
Co-Organizer, Symposium on Post-Colonial Archaeology, Pan African Association for African Prehistory and Related Studies, Gaborone, Botswana. July 4-7, 2005.
Keynote Address, Pan African Association for African Prehistory, Gaborone, Botswana,
July 5, 2005: “Historical Archaeology: History Making?”
Contributed paper presented in the Post Colonial Archaeology symposium, Pan African Association for Prehistory and Related Studies, Gaborone, Botswana. July 6, 2005: “A Post Colonial Failure of Archaeology: the ‘Bacwezi state’ in Uganda.”
Contributed paper presented in the Historical Archaeology symposium, Pan African Association for Prehistory and Related Studies, Gaborone, Botswana, July 7, 2005: “How Can Historical Archaeology in Africa Engage History Making?: An Eritrean Study.”
2005-2006 Organizer of Symposium: Advances in Eritrean Archaeology: From Modern Humans to Classical Civilization. For the 18th Biennial Meetings of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists, June 22-26, 2007, Canada. Invited Symposium.
“Archaeology in Action: Making New Histories through Teaching and Research in Eritrea.” Paper presented at the 18th Biennial Meeting of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists, June 22-26, Calgary, Canada. Invited Paper.
“First Millennium BC Agricultural Economy in the Asmara Region.” With Catherine D’Andrea and M. C. Curtis. Paper presented at the 18th Biennial Meeting of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists, June 22-26, Calgary, Canada. Invited Paper.
2006-2007 Organizer of Symposium: Post Colonial Archaeology in Africa. For the annual Chacmool Conference, University of Calgary, November 11-14, 2006. Invited Symposium.
Organizer of a Seminar on Post Colonial Archaeologies in Africa, held at the University of Florida, March 30 to April 3, 2007.
“Post Colonial Silencing, Struggles over Knowledge Production, and Failed Vision: Perspectives from Eritrea.” Paper presented at the Seminar, Gainesville FL, April 1, 2007.
Organizer and Chair of a Roundtable “The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea” at the 50th annual meeting of the African Studies Association, New York, October 18-21, 2007.
“The Archaeology of Greater Asmara.” Paper presented at the 50th annual meeting of the African Studies Association, New York, October 18, 2007.
“East African and linkages with other continents between 500 and 1500 CE.” Presentation at the Workshop for the Global Middle Ages Project, University of Minnesota, November 9, 2007. Invited presentation.
“Postcolonial Silencing, Knowledge Production, and Heritage Patronage: Perspectives from Eritrea.” Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Society for American Archeology, Vancouver, March 25-28, 2008. Invited paper.
Postcolonial Silencing, Knowledge Production, and Heritage Patronage: Perspectives from Eritrea. Paper presented at the Society for American Archaeology meetings in Vancouver, Canada. March 27, 2009. Contributed paper.
Co-organizer of the Symposium, “Postcolonial Archaeologies in Africa,” Society for American Archaeology meetings in Vancouver, Canada. March 26-30, 2009.
“Reclaiming Social Memory from Colonial Constructions that Obscure Multivocality.” Paper presented in the Symposium, ‘Unmasking Multivocality in Archaeology’, part of the theme, “Memory, Archaeology, and Oral Traditions.” Paper presented at the World Archaeological Congress (WAC 6), Dublin, Ireland. June 29-July 3, 2009. Invited paper.
Discussant for the Symposium ‘Does Archaeology Matter: Evaluating the Relevance of Archaeology Outreach in Diverse Communities’, part of the Theme, “Engaged and Useful Archaeologies” at the World Archaeological Congress (WAC 6) in Dublin, Ireland. July 3, 2009. Invited paper.
“Archaeology in Eritrea: Parallels to Tanzania in Capacity Building.” Paper presented August 1, 2009, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Invited paper.
Plenary Address: “Postcolonial Archaeologies in Africa.” Presented at the Biennial Meetings of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists held in Frankfurt, Germany. September 8, 2009. Invited paper.
Co-organizer the symposium “The Pre-Axumite Period in the Horn of Africa” with David Phillipson for the Biennial meetings of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists at Frankfurt, September 10, 2009. Invited symposium.
“The Ancient Ona Culture of Eritrea: Ritual and Subsistence--A Way of De-homogenizing the Pre-Aksumite?” Paper presented at the Biennial Meetings of the Society for Africanist Archaeologists in the Symposium, “The Pre-Axumite Period in the Horn of Africa”. Invited paper.
“How Archaeological Practices Transform Indigenous Histories into Subaltern Texts in Eastern Africa.” [changed to] “Making the Subaltern through Archaeological Intervention in Africa.” With Jonathan Walz. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the American Anthropological Association in San Francisco, November 19-23. Invited paper.
“Archaeology and the Totalitarian State in Africa.” Paper presented at the annual meetings of the American Anthropological Association in San Francisco, November 22, 2009. In the symposium, “Radical Archaeology as Critical Anthropology: papers Honoring Thomas C. Patterson.” Invited paper.
“Deconstructing Archaeologies of African Colonialism: Colonial Processes of Making and Liberating the Subaltern.” Paper presented at the Society for Historical Archaeology annual meetings in Toronto, Canada. January 7-11, 2009. In the symposium “Beyond Conceptual “Borders”: The Contribution of the Archaeology of Indigenous-Lived Colonialisms to Archaeological Theory.” Invited paper.
“Ritual and Gold as Archaeological Conundrums in Ancient Eritrea.” Paper presented at the Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, January 26, 2009. Invited paper.
“Bricolage, Ritual Performance, and Habitus [Forgotten] in Barongo Iron Smelting.” Paper presented at the World of Iron Conference, British Museum, London, February 18, 2009. Contributed paper.
Bassey Andah Memorial Lecture: African Archaeology and the Ancestors. University of Ibadan, Nigeria, February 20, 2009. Invited address.
“Recovering Archaeological Evidence for Symbolic Meanings in the Iron Technology of Buhaya, Tanzania.” Paper presented in the Archaeologists Without Borders Workshop, sponsored by the World Archaeological Congress, University of Ibandan, Nigeria, February 19-21, 2009. Invited paper.
“Gold, Subsistence, and Ritual on the Asmara Plateau of Ancient Eritrea.” Paper presented in the Archaeologists Without Borders Workshop, sponsored by the World Archaeological Congress, University of Ibandan, Nigeria, February 19-21, 2009. Invited paper.
“The Denial of History by Ethnoarchaeology.” Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Society for American Archaeology, Atlanta, April 24, 2009.
Co-Organizer of the Symposium, “Prehistory as History or The End of Prehistory: Deep-Time non-Western Histories and Issues of Representation—Their Implications for ‘Prehistory’” at the annual meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Amelia Island, Florida, January 8, 2010.
“How Historical Archaeologists Erase Non-Western Histories.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Amelia Island, Florida, January 8, 2009. Contributed paper.
Organizer and Convener, Special Symposium on “Prehistory as History or The End of Prehistory: Deep-Time non-Western Histories and Issues of Representation—Their Implications for ‘Prehistory’”, held at the University of Florida, January 9, 2010.
From Macro to Micro Histories: Change and History in Buhaya, Kagera. Presentation of a paper and a public lecture in the Fulbright Reflection Series at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. June 7, 2010.Also see: http://tanzania.usembassy.gov/pr_06142010.html
“Disease and Social Trauma in NW Tanzania: Implications for Historical Knowledge and Archaeology.” Paper presented at the 13th Congress of the PanAfrican Association for Prehistory and Related Studies and the 20th Biennial meeting of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists in Dakar, Senegal. November 3, 2010. Contributed paper.
“Postcolonial Teaching of Archaeology: Lessons Learned.” Paper presented at the 13th Congress of the PanAfrican Association for Prehistory and Related Studies and the 20th Biennial meeting of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists in Dakar, Senegal. November 4, 2010. Invited paper.
“History and Memory in Tanzania: Collaboration with Oral Tradition Keepers in Communities Devastated by HIV/AIDS.” Lecture for the Retired Faculty of the University of Florida. Harn Museum, University of Florida, November 17, 2010. For video see: http://mediasite.video.ufl.edu/mediasite/Viewer/?peid=e5a6fc1c9a4a41aa9b367a4d05ddb7991d. Invited lecture.
:Historical Knowledge in NW Tanzania: Damned by Disease and Social Trauma.” Paper presented at the annual meetings of the American Anthropological Association at New Orleans, November 21, 2010. Invited paper.
“A Collaborative Experiment with Heritage Tourism in a Tanzanian village Transformed by HIV/AIDS.” Public Lecture presented for the American Institute of Archaeology, Gainesville Chapter, December 2, 2010. Invited lecture.
“HIV/AIDS and Cultural Changes in Northwestern Tanzania; Finding Subaltern Histories.” Lecture presented at the Center for African Studies, University of Florida. January 14, 2011. Contributed lecture.
“The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Social Memory, and Community Initiatives in Heritage Development in NW Tanzania.” Lecture presented at the University of Botswana, Archaeology Unit Symposium Series. January 20, 2011, Gaborone, Botswana. Invited lecture.
Community Archaeology and the HIV/AIDS Crisis in NW Tanzania. Lecture presented at the Fort Ross Foundation, Fort Ross, CA. July 11, 2011.
Bricolage and Iron Smelting: Cultural Improvisation in Iron Production. Lecture present at the University of Cape Town at a workshop to launch the African Archaeological Materials Research Group: the origins, innovations and diversity in African metallurgy. September 29, 2011. Invited Lecture.
Hegemonic Tropes in the Representation of African Iron Working. Lecture presented at the University of Cape Town at a workshop to launch the African Archaeological Materials Research Group: the origins, innovations and diversity in African metallurgy. September 30, 2011. Invited Lecture.
An Overview of Archaeological and Environmental Research in Uganda and Tanzania, 1970-2010. Lecture presented in the Departments of Anthropology and Geography, University of New Hampshire. October 14, 2011.
Prospects for Archaeological and Environmental Research among the Ndali Crater Lakes of western Uganda. Lecture presented at the University of New Hampshire, October 15, 2011.
Community Archaeology, Collaboration, and Heritage Development: Coping with HIV/AIDS in NW Tanzania. Public Lecture at Rollins College, Winter Part, FL. February 15, 2012.
The Symbolic Dimension of Iron Production in Africa. Lecture presented at Rollins College, Winter Part, FL. February 15, 2012.
Academic Honors, Fellowships (selected):
2009-2010 Fulbright Hays Senior Fellow: Research into Social Memory and Trauma in NW Tanzania.
2008 Best Book Prize in African Archaeology, 2006—2008. Awarded at the 18th Biennial Meeting of the Society of Africanist Archeologists, Sept. 11, 2008. For The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea, Red Sea Press, 2008.
1998 Iron Technology in East Africa: Symbolism, Science, and Archaeology. Nominated
For the best book in African Studies in 1997.
1998--99 Fulbright Scholar, University of Asmara
1996 Fulbright Academic Specialist to Design a new Archaeology
Curriculum, Degree Course, and Research Program at the University of
1995 The Tree of Iron selected for National PBS broadcast as a Black History
1989 Red Ribbon Award (2nd in Social Sciences) American Film and Video
Festival, Chicago. As Producer of “Tree of Iron.”
1988 Golden Apple Award (Best in Division) as Producer of “Tree of Iron.”
National Film Festival, San Francisco.
1988 Award of Excellence, Society of Visual Anthropology, as Producer of
“Tree of Iron.”
1985 87 Fulbright Scholar, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
1986 Fulbright Academic Specialist to Omar Bongo University, Gabon, June.
1984 Ford Foundation grant to sponsor establishment of new archaeology unit at University of Dar es Salaam and training of Tanzanians in archaeology.
1983 National Endowment for the Humanities grant for the production of a one
hour documentary film, Advanced African Technology, now titled The Tree of
1983 Social Science Research Council fellowship grants for completion of research.
1983 National Endowment for the Humanities Grant for the pre publication
preparation of research.
1982 Pilot program for Africa, a Fulbright grant that sponsors academic exchange
between Brown University and Tanzanian institutions, 1982 85.
1982 National Science Foundation grant for material analysis of ceramic artifacts
from northwestern Tanzania.
1881 Honorary M. A. degree, Brown University, upon promotion to Associate Professor.
1981 Fulbright Fellow, short term, to Tanzania, October December 1981.
1978 80 National Science Foundation continuation grant.
1975 77 National Science Foundation Grant for study of Technology Settlement and
Cultural Change in Bukoba, Tanzania.
1973 Wenner Gren Foundation Grant for ethnoarchaeological research into iron
smelting among the Haya.
1969 70 Predoctoral National Science Foundation Grant for ethnohistory and
archaeological research in Bukoba, Tanzania.
1965 Honors in History, Stanford University.
Grants and Contracts:
US Embassy, Cultural Completion of the Restoration of
Heritage Grant Pending 21,700 Kanazi Palace
College of Liberal Arts 2011 11,340 Humanities grant to implement a
And Sciences, UF curriculum in local history of national
Importance. Kagera Region, TZ
US Embassy, Cultural 2010 26,500 Completion of Heritage
Heritage Grant Conservation of Kanazi Palace
Kihanja Kingdom, Kagera, TZ
US Embassy, Cultural 2010 10,000 Emergency Conservation
Heritage Grant of Kanazi Palace of Kihanja
Kingdom, Kagera Region, TZ
US Embassy, Cultural 2009 2,000 Restoration and Conservation
Heritage Grant Bagashani burial shrines in
Katuruka, Kagera Region, TZ
Center for African 2009 2,000 Sponsorship of Special Seminar
Studies, Univ. of Florida on “End of Prehistory”
CIBER (Business School 2009 10,000 Assessment of Heritage Tourism in
Univ. of Florida) NW Tanzania; Training of Undergraduates
Fulbright-Hays Senior 2009 80,300 Research into Social Memory and
Fellow, US Dept. of Trauma in NW Tanzania
Ambassador’s Fund 2005 31,677 Archaeological Research at Qohaito: Eritrea: Training—suspended due to
for Cultural Preservation Not implemented due to political cond.
Ambasssador’s Fund 2002 30,400 Cultural Heritage Conservation Grant:
for Cultural Preservation Sembel on-site Museum
USAID 2002 63,000 Regional Survey and Testing, Greater
Asmara; Special Advisor on Research
Development & National Museum
CMS Gas and Oil, 2002 7,500 Heritage Assistance with Sembel
Asmara/Houston on-Site Museum
USAID 2002 17,000 Regional Survey, U. of Asmara
USAID 2001 63,000 Regional Survey, Training
Univ. of Asmara
Ambasssador’s Fund 2001 24,500 Cultural Heritage Conservation Grant:
for Cultural Preservation Regional Survey of Heritage Resources Regional Sur
Fulbright/CIES 1999 13,900 Fulbright, 3 months: Eritrea (continuation)
Ford Foundation 1998 300,000 Human Rights Education at Makerere
Ambassador’s Fund 1998 24,999 Purchase of Archaeological Equipment
National 1998 5,100 Archaeological Survey in Eritrea
Geographic (with Yoseph Libsekal)
Fulbright/CIES 1998 54,500 Fulbright Scholar: Eritrea
MacArthur 1998 25,000 Symposium on Water Management in
Associate Liaison 1997 18,600 Electronic Conferencing (AAAS)
USAID 1997 99,400 Enhancing Human Rights in Uganda
USIA 1996 9,200 Curriculum Design and Research in Eritrea
USAID 1996 50,000 Enhancing Human Rights, Uganda
Ford Foundation 1995 28,000 Fellowship Support A. Mabulla
USAID 1995 50,000 Enhancing Human Rights, Uganda
US Dept. Ed. 1994-97 796,000 Center Support and Fellowships
USAID 1994 100,000 Enhancing Human Rights, Uganda
US Dept. Ed 1993 250,000 Center Support and Fellowships
USAID 1993 100,000 Enhancing Human Rights, Uganda
Rockefeller, Co P.I. 1992 250,000 Fellowships for Visiting Scholars
USAID 1992 100,000 Enhancing Human Rights, Uganda
US Dept. Ed. 1992 249,000 Center Support and Fellowships
USIA 1992 199,000 Governance Project/Linkage
with Obafemi Awolowo Univ.
National Endowment 1992 214,900 Summer Institutes for HBCU faculty
for the Humanities
Ford Foundation 1991 49,000 Fellowship Support B. Mapunda
US Dept. Ed. 1991 210,000 Center Support and Fellowships
Nation Endowment 1991 60,000 Start Human Rights Journal at
For Democracy Makerere University, Human Rights
and Peace Centre
US Dept. Ed. 1990 179,000 Center Support and Fellowships
Ford Foundation 1990 49,000 Fellowship Support A. Mabulla
USIA 1990 72,600 Makerere Univ. Linkage
Sponsored Research, UF 1990 16,000 UF Support for Environmental
Ford Foundation 1989 25,200 Conference on Structural Adjustment
US Dept. Ed. 1989 146,000 Center Support and Fellowships
Joukowski Family 1988 18,000 Completion of Film
Ford Foundation 1987 168,000 Training Tanzanians in Archaeology
Rep. of Gabon 1987 2,100 Research
Caltex 1986 276,000 Research and student exchange
Fulbright/CIES 1986 45,000 Teaching/research
USIS 1986 1,600 Academic consultant, Gabon
National Endowment 1985 15,000 Film production
Rep. of Gabon 1985 3,300 Research
Fulbright/CIES 1985 50,000 Teaching/research
Rep. of Gabon 1985 6,900 Research
Rep. of Gabon 1984 3,400 Research
USIS 1984 5,200 Academic consultant, Gabon
Ford Foundation 1984 206,000 Training Tanzanians/Research
SSRC 1983 12,000 Research completion
National Endowment 1983 185,000 Film production
National Endowment 1983 52,500 Analysis and pre publication
Fulbright/CIES 1982 50,000 Scholarly Exchange: Tanzania
Fulbright/CIES 1981 3,500 Consultant: Tanzania
NSF 1981 9,500 Analysis
NSF 1978 80 114,500 Research
NSF 1976 77 101,000 Research
Wenner Gren 1973 3,000 Research
NSF 1969 9,100 Research