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Pentarchy, Patriarch: Rome (Pope), Constantinople (Ecumenical), Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem; Moscow


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Fall of Constantinople


  • Pentarchy, Patriarch: Rome (Pope), Constantinople (Ecumenical), Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem; Moscow

  • 324-Constatine; 379-Rome=Christian; 476-Fall of Western Roman Empire;

  • Byzantine Empire; Constantinople

  • 1071-Battle of Manzikert-Seljuk Turks; 1204-4th Crusade; 1261-Byzantine restoration

  • 1402-Ottoman Turks surround Constantinople; 1453-Fall of Constantinople; Hagia Sophia

  • Apophatic theology; apophasis; hesychasm, hesuchia; Gregory Palamas (1296-1359)

  • Deification, theosis: John 10:34-5 (Ps 82.6); 2 Pet 1.4; John 17.21; Romans 8.19-22


Constantinople and Istanbul


  • Mehmet II (the Conquerer) (r. 1451-81); Lady Mara (d. 1480)

  • Organization: milet (nation); George Scholarius (ca. 1400-1472) – Gennadius – Patr. 1454-56; 1463; 1464-65

  • Ecclesiastical courts; Great Synod; Metropolitan (archbishop)

  • Restrictions: Janissaries; seizure of churches: Selim I (1512-20)

  • Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66); Selim II, the Drunkard (1566-74)

  • After Gennadius (1465): Mark, Symeon of Trebizond; Dionysius; Raphael

  • Factions: Lady Mara; princes and princesses of Wallachia (Romania) and Moldavia; King of Georgia

  • Mt. Athos; archontes; Cantacuzeni; Michael Cantacuzenus (d. 1578); Rome; West European embassies

  • Education: Patriarchal Academy; Venice; University of Padua; Roman schools


Constantinople and Rome


  • Charlemagne; 1. Papal claims; 2. Filioque–Nicene Creed; council of Aachen (809); Normans-ca. 1000:

  • 3. liturgical differences - Eucharist: a) leavened bread; b) epiclesis; c) communion in both kinds

  • 1054: Cardinal Humbert; 1095: Pope calls Crusades; Latin Jerusalem: 1099-1187; 1270: Acre/Akko falls

  • 1204: 4th Crusade—Diverted to Constantinople in 1204; Alexius: Deposed Byzantine Emperor

  • Western Crusaders pillage Constantinople; take over much of the Byzantine Empire; 1261: Byzantine reconquest

  • 1274-Union of Lyons (condemn 1285); Scholasticism-Thomas Aquinas; “Economy”

  • 1433-Council of Basel; 1439-Council of Florence (repudiated 1484)

  • Antioch-Syrian Catholics; Uniates; 1965-excommunications repealed


Constantinople and Wittenberg


  • Luther (1483-1546; Germany); 1512 received Dr. Theol.: began to teach at University of Wittenberg

  • 31 October 1517: 95 Theses; 1520; Pope condemns Luther; 1521: Diet of Worms—Luther condemned

  • 1522: return to Wittenberg; Sola Scriptura, Tradition (Jn 20.30-1; 21.25; 2 Thess 2.15 and 1 Cor 11.2)

  • Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560); 1530: Augsburg Confession

  • 1555: James Basilicus the Heraclid; Prince of Moldavia; 1563: executed

  • 1559: Orthodox deacon Demetrius from Montenegro

  • 1570: David von Ungnad (ambassador) & Stephen Gerlach (chaplin)

  • Patriarch Jeremias II; Martin Kraus (Crusius); Tübingen; 1574: Augsburg Confession to Patriarch

  • 15 May 1576 response to Augsburg Conf.; Predestination/Free Will (Augustine)

  • Other problems: Filioque; 7 or 2 sacraments; Real Presence in Eucharist; Veneration of Saints

  • 1577: Lutheran response: insist they are right; 1579: Jeremias repeated same objections

  • 1580: 2nd Lutheran response: more conciliatory; 1581: Jeremias repeats objections again; says stop writing

  • 3rd Luther response: repeats 2nd; ignored


Constantinople & Geneva (Calvinism)


  • Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531); 1522 – Begins reform in Zurich; 1529-Colloquy of Marburg; Eucharist – Real Presence

  • John Calvin (1509-64); reform in Geneva 1536-64; Double Predestination

  • Cyril Lucaris (1572-1638); 1595 – Graduated from Padua; 1596-1601 – in Russia

  • Patriarch of Alexandria: 1601-20; Patriarch of Constantinople: 1620-35 1636-38

  • 1627: printing press; Jesuits; Vizier; Grand Mufti;

  • Ambassadors: Catholic=France & Holy Roman Empire (Germany); Protestant=England & Netherlands

  • 1629: Confession of Faith: 1) Salvation by faith alone; 2) Predestination; 3) Against veneration of images; 4) Only 2 Sacraments; 5) No Real Presence


Constantinople & Canterbury (Anglicanism)


  • Henry 7th (1485-1509); Henry 8th (1509-47); Catherine of Aragon--Mary Tudor

  • Canon Law; Annulment; Thomas Cranmer; 1533: marries Anne Boleyn—Elizabeth

  • 1534: King-not Pope-head of English church

  • Edward VI (1547-53); Book of Common Prayer (1549; 1552)

  • Mary Tudor (1553-58): Catholicism reestablished – “Bloody Mary”

  • Elizabeth (1558-1603); via media; Puritans; James I (1603-25) & Charles I (1625-49)

  • 1649: Puritans revolt in a Civil War; Puritan rule 1653-58; Charles II (1660-85); James II (1685-88)

  • 1688 – Prince William of Orange & Mary; 1689 – religious tolerance; the Non-Jurors

  • 1714: Patr. of Alexandria sends delegation to England; Arsenius, a Metropolitan

  • 1716: Non-jurors approach; Arsenius sympathetic

  • 1717: proposal for union take by Arsenius to Constantinople; also sent to Russia

  • 1721: Response from Constantinople; Councils; Mary & Sts.; Consubstantiation / Transubstantiation

  • 1724/25: conversation breaks off; Greek College at Oxford: 1698-1705


Constantinople & Moscow


  • sobor = council; 988 – Vladimir (d. 1015); Kiev; Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus’

  • Novgorod; City of Vladimir; Grand Prince

  • 1237-40 – Mongols conquer Russia; “the Golden Horde”; Serai = capital

  • 1328 – Rise of Moscow;

  • ca. 1350 – Lithuania & Poland: Galicia / Volynia (western Ukraine/Byelorussia/E. Poland)

  • 1380 – Russian victory against Mongols; 1447 – end of Mongol Rule

  • 1386 – Lithuanians become Catholic; Sergius of Radonezh (1314-92)

  • 1433 – Isidore metropolitan of Kiev; 1437 – Isidore in Russia; to Florence

  • 1441 – returns from Florence – accepted union; a Cardinal; 1443 – fled to Italy

  • 1448 – Russian bishops appoint metropolitan Jonas – independence; recognized by Constantinople in 1589


Moscow & Rome


  • Moscow as 3rd Rome: legend of the “White Cowl”; Filofei – 1510

  • 1386: Conversion of Lithuania; Jagiello marries Jadwiga; Jagiello becomes King Wladyslaw of Poland

  • Lithuanians resist: led by Vitovt; Orthodoxy tolerated

  • 1469- new Metropolitan of Kiev – separate from Moscow; Vil’na (Vilnius)

  • 1569: Poland absorbs Lithuania; authorities become anti-Orthodox

  • 1594: Orthodox proposal for church unity (Gregorian calendar: 1582); 1595: council; 1596: Pope accepts

  • Council of Brest: Oct. 1596; the Unia (Union); Uniates; Cossacks

  • 1607 – last non-Uniate bishop dies; 1620: new bishops

  • Peter Moghila – Metropolitan of Kiev (1633-67); Confession

  • 1654: Russia allies w/ Cossacks; attacks Ukraine; 1667 :war ended – Russia in controls eastern Ukraine


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