Ana səhifə

Nrc style Sheet (2011)

Yüklə 108.36 Kb.
ölçüsü108.36 Kb.
NRC Style Sheet (2011)

NRC follows APA style as presented in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. This list comprises points on which NRC style deviates from this reference (marked by *) and clarifies other styling issues. NRC style is flexible, and it may be determined that the author’s prevalent style should be maintained. A sample word tracking sheet is also included at the end of this document to assist the proofreader with consistent spellings.


Proper names, titles of courses or seminars, or course themes

  • Same capitalization rules as book titles in text (i.e., nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, subordinating conjunctions [if, because, as, that]; prepositions 4-letters-or-greater), roman type, no quotation marks (e.g., Discovery Core, Principles of Sociology, Multiculturalism in the U.S.)

Educational or job titles

  • As a rule, capitalize when used specifically in front of a name; do not capitalize when following a name or in general reference (e.g., President Harris Pastides; Harris Pastides, president; the president’s office; Professor Warren; Bill Warren, professor of English; the professor; the chair of the department; the resident monitor; the provost; the peer mentors).

Department names

  • Capitalize official names of departments in text; do not capitalize the informal name (e.g., He enrolled in the Department of Civil Engineering. but He enrolled in the civil engineering department.)



  • Only for statistical vector symbols and design style


APA 4.21

  • Book titles

  • Titles of book series, conference presentations, dissertations, lectures, essays. Edit to APA reference list style when possible.

  • To introduce a new, technical, or key term or label. Italicize once, then regular font.

  • Scales in a Likert scale (e.g., strongly agree, agree, disagree)

  • Genera, species, varieties

  • Linguistic examples ( e.g., row of Xs, grade of W)

  • Words that could be misread (e.g., small group – designation, not size)

  • Italics for mere emphasis discouraged; try to create emphasis with syntax; italics OK if emphasis might otherwise be lost.

Quotation marks

APA 4.07

  • Ironic comment, slang, or coined expression. Use once; then do not continue to use marks. (e.g., she was “rewarded” with an F; he was a “nark”).

  • Use for book or periodical chapter or title of article.

  • Do not use to hedge or for emphasis (e.g., not the teacher “rewarded” the class with small gifts).


Ampersand (&)

APA 6.12

  • Use in parentheticals, tables, captions, reference list, and in-text citations.

  • Use and with multiple name bylines for TOC, chapters, articles, and headers.


  • Latin abbreviations used only in parenthetical material; in text, spell out, no italics. See APA 4.26 for exceptions.

  • Spell out state names in text; use two-letter postal code in reference list.

  • Spell out United States unless used as an adjective (e.g., U.S. Navy)

  • Program abbreviations or acronyms – in general, no punctuation; however, honor author’s style if punctuation is used

Abbr. not requiring initial definition









Book titles

  • Acceptable to use shortened book title in text, if complete reference is included in reference list (e.g., The Community College for The Community College: Opportunities for America’s First-Year Students).


APA 4.11

  • Use en-dash without spaces; do not use a slash (/) (e.g., pre–posttest, test–retest reliability, not test/retest reliability).

Dates & time

  • Use complete and specific dates when possible, including year.

  • Do not use ordinal numbers (e.g., December 1, not December 1st).

  • In text, spell out months and use full years in spans (e.g., 2009-2010, not 2009-10).

  • No period following abbreviations of months in tables or box insets.

  • Time: a.m. and p.m. are lowercase or set in small caps with periods.


APA 4.35

  • If amount can exceed 1, but the number is smaller than 1, use 0 before (e.g., 0.5%).

  • If amount cannot exceed 1, do not use a preceding 0 (e.g., p < .01).

Educational degrees

  • Abbreviations in text OK. In general, no periods (e.g., BA, MA, EdD, PhD).

  • Do not include academic titles or suffixes (e.g., Dr., PhD, JD) on covers, title pages, copyright pages or in author/presenter biographies.

  • In general reference, academic degrees are not capitalized.

  • Use an apostrophe in bachelor's degree, master's degree, or doctor's degree but not for associate degree. Use ‘s, even for plurals (e.g., I have two master’s degrees and I have a master’s degree but I have a master of science degree)

First-year, freshman, & FYE

  • Use first-year student(s), not freshman(men), unless freshman(men) is part of a published title, a program, or an office.

  • Hyphenate first-year as adjective, not as adjective-noun pair (e.g., First-year seminars help students adjust to the first year of college).

  • The first-year experience refers to the comprehensive collection of academic and social experiences (formal and informal, intentional and unintentional) students have during their first year of undergraduate study. All students have a first-year experience. When referring to a single course or initiative, the text should be edited to use a more specific term (e.g., first-year seminar, Penn State’s first-year student initiative not the first-year experience course or Penn State’s The First-Year Experience initiative [unless by permission, see below]).

  • Note: The First-Year Experience® is a registered service mark requiring a license.

  • Use the ®, when used with the Center’s name on cover or title pages or stand-alone promotional pieces (initial use only).

  • Do not use ®, when the Center’s name or the words the first-year experience appear in the body of a piece.

  • Abbreviation FYE: If clearly referring to a first-year seminar, recast. If referring to a larger program or series of programs, let stand.


  • $.80, not 80¢

N or n

  • N = total group, n = subgroup; italics with space before and after equal sign


APA 4.31-4.38

  • Spell out

  • In text, all numbers below 10 (e.g., two-year college not 2-year college)

  • Numbers beginning a sentence or title (reword when possible)

  • Common fractions (e.g., one fifth of the class, two-thirds majority)

  • Use figures for

  • Comparison (e.g., 2 of 30 students)

  • Preceding unit of measurement (e.g., a 5-mg dose)

  • Statistical or mathematical functions

  • Dates, time (w/exceptions), ages, sample, grades, population, scores, scales, money, rounded large numbers (e.g., a 3 on a 5-point Likert scale, Grade 8, 3 million)

  • Numbered series, parts of books, tables (e.g., Table 1, chapter 5, step 1)


  • Judicious use of e.g. (for example) and i.e. (that is).

  • Do not use e.g. or i.e. for definition of an acronym.

  • Spell out e.g. and i.e. in text; but abbreviated, with no italics, in parenthetical.


  • Apostrophe only for possessives of words ending in s (e.g., Mills’, Dickens’ )


  • For countries or organizations, use which or that, not who.


  • Capitalize (no italic) World Wide Web, but lowercase websites and web pages

  • Capitalize (no italic) Internet

  • Close compound online: however, hyphenate e-mail (i.e., not email)

  • URL at the end of a sentence in text takes a final period



  • Hyphen for compound adjectives (e.g., client-centered therapy)

  • En-dash for adjectives of equal weight (e.g., Japanese–European effort)

Dates & time

  • En-dash with spaces for time and spans in tables or box insets

(e.g., 10:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m.; 10 – 11 a.m.; Nov 23 – 25).

  • *Hyphen, no spaces, for time spans in text (e.g., 10:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m., 10-11 a.m., November 23-25).

  • Also see General/Dates & time.


  • To amplify or digress (e.g., students—from the first group—encountered difficulty); no spaces before or after

  • Use minimally


  • Avoid double hyphenated compounds

  • *Re- and pre-, if followed by a vowel, always use a hyphen, even if followed by e.

  • Double closed compound (e.g., pre- and posttest results)

Other spans

  • Use a hyphen to separate nonsequential numbers (e.g., telephone numbers).

  • Hyphen, no space, (not en-dash) for all inclusive spans (e.g., 2005-2008, 25-30 students); however, if the series is preceded by a preposition, use a preposition or conjunction between the series, not a hyphen (e.g., 1898-1903 not from 1898-1903 but from 1898 to 1903 or between 1898 and 1903).

Pages & sections

  • *Hyphen and no spaces (e.g., pp. 92-105, Sections 3.01-3.09)


APA 4.11

  • Clarify relationship in hyphenated compound (e.g., classification/similarity-judgment condition)

  • Do not use when a phrase is clearer (e.g., to her mother or guardian, not to her mother/guardian)

  • To indicate per only when accompanied by a number (e.g., 7 mg/kg); otherwise spell out per

  • Cite republished works in text (e.g., Freud (1923/1961) )


Introductory statement or clause – vertical or in-text lists

  • If statement contains the following/as follows, use a final colon.

  • Do not use colon at the end of the introductory statement if list is the complement or object of the statement (e.g., The students three choices were (a) working together, (b) working in pairs, or (c) working alone.).

  • Use a colon to introduce a list (e.g., The study included three critical areas: The Horseshoe, Russell Hall, and McKibbon House.).


  • Use series of lower case letters in parenthesis for list items [e.g., (a), (b), (c)].

  • Enumerate for clarity, to prevent misreading, or for lengthy items; otherwise, use standard punctuation (i.e., commas, semicolons).

  • All items must be syntactically and conceptually parallel.


  • Use bulleted lists.

  • Avoid numbered list unless for steps in a process or numbered survey items.

  • No final punctuation at end of list item unless item is a complete sentence.

  • Always capitalize first letter of first word in a list item.

  • All items must be syntactically and conceptually parallel.

  • The complexity and length of the list items determine whether to use run-in or vertical style rather than a set number of items

PERSON, TENSE, & VOICE APA 3.06, 3.09, 3.18


  • Be consistent in use of verb tenses and person.

  • Use present tense or present perfect tense whenever possible.

  • Strive for active voice.

  • Avoid second person; third person preferred.

Person & voice

APA 3.18

  • Strive for active voice, third person; rephrase when necessary.

  • *When active voice is cumbersome or rephrasing will lose intent,
    a.       Passive voice shall be the next choice
    b.      Active voice with first person pronoun shall be used last

Strive for – Active voice, third person
Data obtained through a survey conducted in a controlled setting indicated…
Students recorded their experiences in a daily journal.
Analysis of surveys administered to faculty in the spring revealed…
Avoid - Passive voice
The survey was conducted in a controlled setting.
The students were told to keep a journal of their experiences.
Faculty and students were surveyed at the beginning of the term.

Avoid - Active voice with first person pronoun
We conducted the survey in a controlled setting.
We told the students to keep a journal of their experiences.
We surveyed faculty and students at the beginning of the term.

  • Avoid anthropomorphism (e.g., no—the experiment attempted to demonstrate...; yes—the researchers attempted to demonstrate…; no—Table 1 compares GPAs of…; yes—Table 1 shows the GPAs of …)

  • For basic information on voice, see

Tense – past or present perfect

  • For the abstract, literature review, methods, results, discussion of someone else’s completed research (e.g., past—Kuh (1995) proposed that…; present perfect—Kuh (1995) has proposed that…)

Tense – present

  • Discussion of results or conclusions of your research, to make suggestions, or describe events that currently exist (e.g., Data in Table 1 show that…)

  • Established knowledge or enduring truths (e.g., Practice improves skill.)



African American student (no hyphen)

Asian American student (no hyphen)


decision making/maker (n)


first-year (not freshman)

follow-up (n, adj); follow up (v)

general education (not gen ed)

health care


note taking (n); note-taking (adj)


part-time/full-time (adj)

policy making/maker (n)


study abroad (v); study-abroad (adj)

Supplemental Instruction

test taking (n); test-taking (adj)

undergraduate (not undergrad)

university college (except for

official department name)

Washington, DC


web-based (adj)


TABLES APA 5.07-5.19

Column, row, stub headings

  • Should be telegraphic whenever possible; (exception – list complete survey items).

  • Standard abbreviations are encouraged (e.g., SD, GPA, M).

  • If a heading is a complete sentence (e.g., survey list item), use ending punctuation after each item.

  • Table items must be syntactically and conceptually compatible; don’t mix elements (APA 5.13).

  • Only the first letter of the first word in a heading is capitalized, unless a proper name or course title (e.g., Strongly agree, Second trial but Discovery Core).

  • If heading contains word “Percentage,” do not use % sign in table body.

Notes, asterisks, superscript, postscript

  • End notes and probability notes always take a final period.

  • See APA 5.16.

Table number

  • In text, tables are sequentially numbered in roman type; do not refer to a table as above or below (e.g., Table 4, not the Table below).

  • Monograph/book, include chapter number (e.g., Table 2.2 for 2nd table in ch. 2).

  • Do not use the word see (e.g., see Table 1) unless the table is distant from the referring text.

Table titles

  • Italics

  • Same capitalization rules as book titles in text (i.e., nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, subordinating conjunctions [if, because, as, that]; prepositions 4-letters-or-greater)

Table Checklist

APA 5.19

  • Is the table necessary?

    • 3 or fewer numbers, use a sentence

    • 4 to 20 numbers, use a table

    • More than 20 numbers, consider using a graph or figure

Are all comparable tables in the manuscript consistent in presentation?

  • Is the title brief but explanatory?

  • Does every column have a column heading?

  • Explanations for all abbreviations and special characters, fonts, or symbols?

  • Are all probability level values correctly identified, and are asterisks attached to the appropriate table entries?

  • Same number of asterisks used to indicate probability level in all tables?

  • Are the notes in the following order: general note, specific note, probability note?

  • Are all vertical rules eliminated?

  • Will the table fit across the width of a journal column or page?

  • If all or part of a copyrighted table is reproduced, do the table notes give full credit to the copyright owner? Have we received written permission to use?

  • Is the table referred to in the text before it appears?

  • For journal articles, tables should typically only appear in the results section.

Table 1

Student Outcomes of the First-Year Seminar (N = 236)

Percentage of students responding






The FYS course developed my understanding about what a scholarly community is all about.






Overall, the FYS course helped to develop the skills necessary to become a participatory member of the Babson community.






Table 2.2

College Preparatory Course Pass Rates by SLS Status

College preparatory area




SLS status

Took prep

Passed prep

Took prep

Passed prep

Fall 2006

Took & passed





Did not take





Fall 2005

Took & passed





Did not take





Note. Passing college preparatory means a grade of S.

*p < .01, two-tailed test.


University of South Carolina

  • Do not use USC abbreviation as a stand alone in text (tables or box insert OK); can use USC abbreviation if referring to a specific campus (e.g., USC Columbia, USC Aiken, or for campuses other than Columbia, USCA, USCB, USCS, after initial full identification).

  • Preferred abbreviation, after initial full identification, is South Carolina.

  • Do not use a hyphen or comma when referring to different campuses (e.g., University of South Carolina Columbia, University of South Carolina Beaufort, not University of South Carolina-Beaufort or USC-Aiken).

  • Capitalize University when referring informally to USC.

Other universities

  • Use the school’s or author’s preferred style (e.g., UW-Beloit).



  • Avoid beginning or ending an extract on the first or last line of a page


  • No hyphenation of the last word or first word on a page

  • Exception – hyphenation of last word on a page OK within spread

  • Avoid hyphenated syllable orphans at end of paragraphs (e.g., the -tion or –entation of orienta-tion standing alone on the last line of a paragraph)

Ladders – stacked hyphens

  • Two in a row OK; mark if more than two.

Stacked words

  • Two in a row OK; mark if more than two (e.g., the student must).

the student must

  • Allow one stack per page.


  • Minimum of two lines at the top and bottom of a page

  • Minimum three lines under figures or tables at the bottom of a page

  • Minimum five lines on the last page of a chapter

Word breaks

  • If possible, break after a vowel (criti-cism not crit-icism; sepa-rate not sep-arate).

  • Single vowel syllables in the middle of a word should stay on the first line (e.g., sep·a·rate is hyphenated as sepa-rate).

  • Break after a prefix, rather than later in a word.

  • Avoid double hyphenated compounds (e.g., meta-analy-sis, service-learn-ing)

  • Final syllables in which a liquid l is the only audible vowel sound should not be carried over (e.g., no – multi-ple).

Sentence spacing

  • *One space following ending punctuation

APA Style Guide – Quick Notes In-Text Citations
Single author

(Whipple, 1996) or Whipple (1996)

Multiple authors—Note: “et” is a full word, but “al.” is an abbreviation and takes a period.

Two authors

(Napoli & Wortman, 1996) or Napoli and Wortman (1996)

Three to five authors

(Braxton, Milem, & Sullivan, 2000) or Braxton, Milem, and Sullivan (2000)

Six or more authors—

Kosslyn, Koenig, Barrett, Cave, Tang, & Daly (1996) becomes (Kosslyn et al., 1996) or Kosslyn et al. (1996)

Subsequent references to same source

More than two authors

(Braxton et al., 2000) or Braxton et al. (2000)

More than two authors when first author is the same in more than one reference

(Kuh, Douglas, et al., 1994) or Kuh, Douglas, et al. (1994)

(Kuh, Schuh, et al., 1991) or Kuh, Schuh, et al. (1991)
Within the same paragraph

(Whipple) or Whipple

Personal communication—Note: These are not included in the reference list.

T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001)

(V. G. Nyguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998)
Multiple references within the same parenthetical cite

Same author(s) but different publication dates

(Tinto, 1993, 1997) or Tinto (1993, 1997)

Different authors (in alpha order)

(Berger & Milem, 1999; Peletier, Laden, & Matranga, 1999; Upcraft, 1985, 1989)

No author or unknown author
Cite the first few words of the reference entry (usually the title) and the year.  Use double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter, and italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure, or report.
A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).

The book College Bound Seniors (1979)…

Organization as an author

According to the American Psychological Association (2000)…

First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000) Second citation: (MADD, 2000)
Direct quotesNote: The period follows the parenthesis unless you are using a block quotation, then the period is before the parenthetical.

Fewer than 40 words

Whipple (1996) suggests the primary objectives of such programs are to “enhance learning outside the classroom, provide for relationship and community building…and promote a value-based developmental experience” (p. 303).

More than 40 words

Other researchers have examined the link between active learning and social integration, suggesting that active learning may actually be a precursor to social integration (Braxon, Milem, & Sullivan, 2000; Milem & Berger, 1997):

Thus, students who frequently encounter active learning in their courses perceive themselves gaining knowledge and understanding from their curse work…Because their classes are judged to be rewarding, students may invest the psychological energy needed to establish membership in the social communities of their college or university. (Braxton et al., p. 572)

APA Style Guide – Quick Notes Reference List

Basic elements required for citations—Note: Text citations and reference list must agree.

Author or editor’s name (initials only for first and middle names)

Date of publication

Complete date for magazines & newspapers

Month for other serials without volume numbers

Title of chapter/article

Title of larger work

Issue and volume number, if newspaper, journal, or magazine

Inclusive page numbers, if chapter in book or article from periodical

Edition (if applicable)

Place of publication (books/monographs) only

Publisher (books/monographs) only

For web resources, complete URL; retrieval date not necessary unless content can change (e.g., Wiki)

URL not necessary if DOI number is provided; DOI is preferred

Organization of the reference list

Use one-half inch hanging indent

Alpha order by last name of first author

Earliest publication first if more than one work by same author in list

If no author, use first word of title, not including the words a, an, or the

Journal article

Braxton, J. M., Milem, J. F., & Sullivan, A. S. (2000). The influence of active learning on the college student departure process: Toward a revision of Tinto’s theory. The Journal of Higher Education, 71(5), 569-590.

Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication 57, 323-335.

Note: More than seven authors, list first six names, then ellipses and last author’s name.

Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. (2002a). Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in major

depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 287, 1807–1814.

Napoli, A. R., & Wortman, P. M. (1996, Fall). A meta-analysis of the impact of academic and social integration on persistence of community college students. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 5-21.

Newsletter article

Easley, H. (2008, July). The transfer student: Using parents as partners. E-Source for College Transitions, 5(6), 11.

Brochure or pamphlet

Research and Training Center on Independent Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and writing about people

with disabilities [Brochure]. (4th ed.). Lawrence, KS: Author.
Note: A description is added in square brackets to indicate the type of document if it is not a common source.

Unpublished conference paper, presentation, symposium, or poster session

Shrout, P. E. (Chair), Hunter, J. E., Harris, R. J., Wilkinson, L., Strouss, M. E., Applebaum, M. I., et al.

(1996, August). Significance tests—Should they be banned from APA journals? Symposium conducted
at the 104th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.

Cummings, L. (2010, November). The academic library as a transitioning place. Presentation at the 16th National Conference on Students in Transition, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Thesis (unpublished or published on a database)

Barefoot, B. O. (1992). Helping first-year college students climb the academic ladder: Report of a national survey of freshman seminar programming in American higher education (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA.

Adams, R. J. (1973). Building a foundation for evaluation of instruction in higher education and continuing education (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Biswas, S. (2008). Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatment target in Parkinson's disease (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 3295214)

Gould, J. B. (1999). Symbolic Speech: Legal mobilization and the rise of collegiate hate speech codes. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60(02), 533A.

Note: Abstract title is not italicized.

Chapter in an edited book—Note: Editor’s names in normal order - not reversed as author names.

Levine Laufgraben, J. (2005). Building learning communities for first-year students. In R. S. Feldman (Ed.), Improving the first year of college: Research and practice (pp. 195-218). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Whipple, E. G. (1996). Student activities. In A. L. Rentz & Associates (Eds.), Student affairs practice in higher education (2nd ed., pp. 298-333). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.


Kuh, G. D., Douglas, K. B., Lund, J. P., & Ramin-Gyurnek, J. (1994). Student learning outside the classroom: Transcending artificial boundaries (ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports No. 8). Washington, DC: The George Washington University, Clearinghouse on Higher Education.

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

Kuh, G. D., Schuh, J. H., Whitt, E. J., & Associates (1991). Involving colleges: Successful approaches to fostering student learning and development outside the classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

American Psychiatric Association. (1990). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.).

Washington, DC: Author.

Note: "Author" is used as publisher when author and publisher are identical.  

ERIC document

O’Brien, C. T., & Merisotis, J. P. (1996). Life after forty: A new portrait of today’s and tomorrow’s postsecondary student. Boston: Education Resources Institute. Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 401 813)

Web resource—Note: There is no period after the URL. Retrieval date is not necessary unless material may change over time (e.g., Wikis), then use “Retrieved January 1, XXXX, from http://www.XXX”

Tinto, V. (n.d.). Rethinking the first year of college. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University: Retrieved from

National Institute of Mental Health. (2002). Breaking ground, breaking through: The strategic plan for mood

disorders research of the National Institute of Mental Health (Publication No. 0507-B-05). Retrieved
from NIMH Web site via GPO Access:

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting

Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. doi:10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10

Carnegie Mellon University. (2007, December 20). Randy Pausch last lecture: Achieving your childhood dreams [Video file]. Retrieved from

Note: Titles are not italicized for online video blog files

Charney, T. (Producer). (2007). Ashes to hope: Overcoming the Detroit riots. U.P. Family Still Struggles to

Deal With Pressure of '67 Riot [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Center publications


Schnell, C. A., Louis, K. S., & Doetkott, C. (2003). The first-year seminar as a means of improving college graduation rates. Journal of The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition, 15(1), 53-75.


Ward-Roof, J. A., & Hatch, C. (Eds.). (2003). Designing successful transitions: A guide for orienting students to college (Monograph No. 13, 2nd ed.). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First- Year Experience and Students in Transition.

Chapter in monograph

Austin, D. (2003). The role of family influence on student success. In J. A. Ward-Roof & C. Hatch (Eds.), Designing successful transitions: A guide for orienting students to college (Monograph No. 13, 2nd ed., pp. 137-163). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

Manuscript: ___________________________________________________ Date: __________













Manuscript: ___________________________________________________ Date: __________

Comments on this MS; editorial problems, ways in which it varies from APA

Queries for style


Special notes

Espresso Graphics ©2005 Deborah Roberti

P Espresso Graphics ©2005 Deborah Ro

Styles Overview- 2011

Styles are arguably the most important feature in Microsoft Word because everything in Word has a style attached. Styles are the architecture upon which Word is based. The definition of a style is two-fold. First, a style is a set of predefined formatting instructions that can be used repeatedly throughout the document (e.g., a Heading 1 style that has a specific font, color, or size, and is uppercased, bold, and centered). All the formatting instructions are automatically applied (without manually reformatting) when you select the style.

More importantly, styles are tags to identify parts of a document (e.g., headings, footnotes, hyperlinks, body text). For long documents, documents that are likely to be heavily edited or have multiple editors, and documents that may form the basis for other documents, using styles (i.e., Home=>Styles or Format=>Styles in older Word versions) can eliminate editor and proofreader headaches and make the designer’s job much easier. Applying direct formatting, such as using the B, I, U buttons or Ctrl+ I, B, U, can cause unwanted changes to be made to the entire document, and direct formatting frequently will not translate to a Mac (e.g., applied italic formatting - I button-is lost in translation to a Mac; however, the Emphasis style can be read by a Mac).

There are several reasons for using styles in a document:

  • Consistency — each section will have a similar appearance providing a professional, clean-looking document

  • Easier to modify — changes made to a style will apply to all text formatted in that style throughout the entire document (e.g., Font for the body text can be changed without affecting headings or tables).

  • Efficiency 

  • Once a style is created, it can be applied anywhere in the document without needing to individually reformat

  • Table of Contents can be quickly generated

  • File size is managed. Manually formatted files can become bloated in file size with subsequent reopening or sendings since Word first reads the attributes of the underlying style and then has to broadcast anything contrary (e.g., manually formatted on top of that)

  • Styles can be selected as a search feature in the Find/Replace box (Ctrl+F)

  • Accuracy – formatting is maintained and not lost in HTML, XML, or Mac translation 

The Styles drop-down menu can be constantly displayed while working in an active document by select the tiny in the lower right corner of the Styles menu. The list can dragged and dropped to a convenient screen location and formatted to a manageable size that does not require scrolling by using the Options command at the bottom of the menu and setting the Select Styles to Show box to In Current Document.

New blank Word documents are based on a Normal template, and typed text will automatically appear as a Normal style (e.g., font name, font size, line spacing, indentation, text alignment, and other formats currently defined for the Normal style), which is a building block for other styles in the template.

Types of Styles

There are four types of styles in Word: paragraph, character, list, and table. Paragraph and character styles are the most frequently used styles and are easy to create. A paragraph style contains both font and paragraph formatting, which makes it more flexible than a character style. If a single word is highlighted in the text and a style applied, paragraph style will apply to the entire paragraph, not the selected word (e.g., centering, line spacing, text alignment, bullets, numbers, indents, tabs). Character styles can be applied to individual words and single characters (e.g., font, size, color, borders).

The following list shows the four styles and their symbols:

Paragraph applies to all the text within the end paragraph mark of where the pointer is positioned.

Character applies at the character level—to blocks of words and letters.

List provides a consistent look to lists - advanced level.

Table provides a consistent look to tables - advanced level.

Warnings, Notes, and Options

Warning. If creating or modifying a style, do not check the Automatically Update the Style box if multiple users work on the same document. This feature will update the style each time a formatting change is made in a paragraph that has a style attached.

Note. Documents received from other sources will keep the styles they were created in (unless the Automatically Update the Style box has been checked for a style). Styles can be transposed on documents (i.e., reformatting with a house style) by displaying the Developer Tab (not a default tab) in the ribbon (to display, select Word menu icon > Word Options > Check Show Developer Tab in Ribbon; in older versions of Word, select Tools>Templates and Add-ins), selecting Document Template and clicking the Automatically Update box. Note the following caveats when performing this procedure:

  • Save a copy of the original document before imposing styles to compare and verify changes. The original can be deleted when a clean copy is finalized.

  • If the previous author did not label a heading as a style, that heading will become a Normal style and any bold or italic direct formatting may be lost.

Options. Instead of using a customized or home-style template as the default, the Word Normal template can be kept as a default, and a Workgroup folder can be created where created templates can be stored and selected for new documents. This folder will display any time a new document is selected.

Troubleshooting Styles

Problem 1 – You click on a paragraph or word to apply direct formatting (e.g., italic, bold, numbering, centering) and the entire document changes to that format.

Cause - Some styles in Word are set to automatically update when direct formatting is applied.

Solution - To undo the immediate problem, press Ctrl+Z (or Undo button) and the change will be reversed except for the word or paragraph you were originally trying to format directly

Permanent Solution - Use style menu (not direct formatting) when making changes.

Problem 2- A style has changed unexpectedly

Cause – Automatic updating may be turned on for that style or your style may be based on another style that has changed.

Solution – Turn off Automatic Update by right clicking the style in the menu, select Modify, and clear the Automatic Update check box. If your style is based on another style that has changed, when you click Modify, select No Style in the Based On box (note – you cannot use this solution on Word default styles – the box will be greyed out – only new styles you have created).

Problem 3- Formatting from text copied and pasted from one document to another is lost.

Cause – Style in the original document may not be in the new document, the styles are based on different underlying styles, or direct formatting has been applied.

Solution – Paste and immediately click the tiny clipboard icon at the end of the pasted text (Paste Options) and select Keep Source Formatting. If unsuccessful, try Paste Special >As Word Document Object, which will paste the text into a text box. Or, make a copy of the document for safety, clear the formatting in the source document before copying, then paste into the new document and apply formatting.

So all this to say… retrain yourself to use the Style Menu and avoid Direct Formatting (the buttons in the toolbar) unless you are creating a personal document or e-mail.


Keyboard tip. You can use Ctrl+Shift (i.e., character – bold/italic) or Ctrl+Q (i.e., paragraph – center/indent) to clear directly applied character or paragraph formatting.

Font size. Consider sans-serif fonts for everything for text destined to be read by people younger than 45. For text designed to be used by older readers, consider a serif font for the body copy. Whichever one you choose, choose the opposite for your headings to provide a contrast.

Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur © 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət