Ana səhifə

Name: Honor Code: Stearns Chapter 9 pgs. 193-210 Civilization In Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe


Yüklə 20.34 Kb.
tarix15.06.2016
ölçüsü20.34 Kb.

Name:


Honor Code:


Stearns Chapter 9 pgs. 193-210

Civilization In Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe





  1. What were the two major Christian Civilizations that took shape in Europe?

One was anchored in the Byzantine Empire, which straddled western Asia and southeastern Europe and sponsored the spread of Orthodox Christianity to eastern Europe. The other was defined above all by the beliefs and institutions of Catholicism in western and central Europe.


  1. How did the significance of the Byzantine Empire go beyond its ability to keep Rome’s memory alive?

Lasted for almost a thousand years; The empire’s capital, Constantinople, was one of the truly great cities of the world, certainly the most opulent and important city in Europe during this time; From Constantinople, radiated one of the two major religions: Orthodox Christian Church.


  1. During the postclassical millennium what portions of eastern Europe were significantly more advanced than the West?

Political sophistication; cultural range; and economic vitality

I)The Byzantine Empire





    1. Origins of the Empire

      1. When did the Byzantine Empire begin and how was Constantinople a vigorous center?

4th century C.E. Emperor Constantine constructed a host of elegant buildings and soon separate eastern emperors ruled from Constantinople


    1. Justinian’s Achievements

      1. Describe Justinian’s character and/or personality.

He was somber, autocratic, and prone to grandiose ideas.


      1. Describe the influence of Theodora on Justinian’s rule.

She was courtesan connected with Constantinople’s horse-racing world, who was eager for power. Theodora stiffened Justinian’s resolve in response to popular unrest and pushed the plans for expansion.


      1. What were Justinian’s positive contributions to the Byzantine Empire?

Rebuilding Constantinople and systemizing the Roman Legal code.


      1. What was the importance of unified law?

Reduced confusion but also united and organized the new empire, paralleling the state’s bureaucracy; and ultimately helped spread Roman legal principles in various parts of Europe.


      1. How did the Byzantines hope to restore power in north Africa?

Its role as grain producer for the Mediterranean world.


    1. Arab Pressure and the Empire’s Defenses

      1. Explain how the Arab people were able to take some control away from the Byzantine Empire.

Arabs had built a fleet that challenged Byzantine naval supremacy in the eastern Mediterranean while repeatedly attacking Constantinople. They quickly swallowed the empire’s remaining provinces along the eastern seaboard of the Mediterranean and cut along the Middle East.



      1. What were the new economic burdens as a result of Muslim wars?

Invasions and taxation, weakening the position of small farmers, greater aristocratic estates and new power for aristocratic generals. The free rural population that had served the empire during its early centuries was forced into great dependence. Greater emphasis was given to organizing the army and navy.


    1. Byzantine Society and Politics

      1. Explain how the Byzantine political system had remarkable similarities to the earlier patterns in China.

The emperor was held to be ordained by God, bead of church as well as state. He appointed church bishops and passed religious and secular laws. The elaborate rituals symbolized the ideals of a divinely inspired, all-powerful ruler, although they often immobilized rulers and inhibited innovative policy. Aristocrats predominated;


      1. Describe the complex set up of the centralized imperial authority.

Aristocrats predominated; bureaucrats were specialized into various offices, and officials close to the emperor were mainly eunuchs. Provencal governors were appointed from the center and were changed with keeping tabs on military authorities. An elaborate system of spies helped preserve loyalty.


      1. What did the social and economic aspects of the Byzantine society depend on?

Constantinople’s control over the countryside, with the bureaucracy regulating trade and controlling food prices. The large peasant class was vital in supplying goods and providing the bulk of the tax revenues. Food prices were kept artificially low to content the numerous urban lower classes.


      1. What was the center of Byzantine cultural life and why was it important?

The secular traditions of Hellenism, so important in the education of bureaucrats, and on the evolving traditions of Eastern, or Orthodox, Christianity.


    1. The Split Between East and West

      1. Why was their hostility toward Charlemagne?

He tried to proclaim himself a Roman emperor and the Byzantine officials believed that they were the true heirs of Rome and that Western rulers were crude and unsophisticated.


      1. What was the last cause of the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church?

Quarrel over the type of bread to use in celebration of the last supper; Roman Catholic priest were supposed to be celibate and Orthodox priests could marry.


    1. The Empire’s Decline

      1. Explain how and what showed the diminish of the Byzantine Empire.

The Byzantine Emperor lost the battle of Manzikert in 1071. The creation of mew independent Slavic kingdoms in the Balkans, such as Serbia, showed the empire’s diminished power.


      1. Why does the author say “the fall of the Byzantium was one of the great events in world history”?

Because the Byzantine Empire had been so durable and important, anchoring a vital corner of the Mediterranean even amid the rapid surge of Islam. The empire’s trading contacts and its ability to preserve and spread classical and Christian learning made it a vital unit throughout the postclassical period.

II)The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe

1)How did Cyril and Methodius spread the Orthodox Christianity religion in the Balkans?

Their ability to speak the Slavic language greatly aided their efforts. Devised a written script for this language, derived from Greek letters.


    1. The Emergence of Kievan Rus’

      1. Describe the trade route of the Scandinavian Traders.

They moved along two rivers of western Russia, the rivers ran south to north, through this route they were able to reach the Byzantine Empire. The Scandinavian people began setting up some governments along their trade route.


      1. Describe the importance of Kiev in regards to the city helping spread Christianity.

Centrally located, Kiev became a prosperous trading center, these exchanges led to the growing knowledge of Christianity.


    1. Institutions and Culture in Kievan Rus’

      1. Explain the Russian literature that developed in Kievan Rus’.

Used Cyrillic alphabet, featured chronicles that described a mixture of religious and royal events and showered praises on the saints and the power of God. Disasters were seen as expressions of the just wrath of God against human wickedness.


      1. Describe the patterns of Russian social and economic patterns.

Russian peasants were fairly free farmers, although an aristocratic landlord class existed. Russian aristocrats had less political power than their counterparts.


    1. Kievan Decline

      1. How did Kievan principality begin to fade?

Rival princes set up regional governments, and the royal family often squabbled over succession to the throne. Invaders from Asia whittled at Russian territory.


      1. Under the Tartar rule, what needed to be done in order for most Russian affairs to be unharmed or left alone?

Tribute must be paid.


    1. The End of an Era in Eastern Europe

      1. What were the “organizing threads” that survived when Russia and other Slavic societies returned?

Christianity and the Eastern European assumptions about political rulers and church-state relations and the pride in a lively artistic culture.








Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©kagiz.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət