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This is certify that project report entitled

It is bonafied work of Miss. Hodage Shubhangi R. In the practical fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of bachelor of Engineering in Electronics Engineering of the Shivaji university, Kolhapur.
She has carried out the work under my supervision and guidance, during academic year 2005-06

Prof. B. R. Bagane,


Prof. R. T. Patil Dr. C. R. Rao

(H.O.D.) (Principal)

Department of Eln. T.K.I.E.T.,Warananagar



It gives me an immense pleasure to present a report on the successful completion of my Enviromental Science Report On

I express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Prof. B. R. Bagane for his valuable guidance rendered in all phase of project. I am thankful for his wholehearted assistance, advice and expert guidance towards making my project a success.

My special thanks to honorable Principal Dr. C. R. Rao & Head of Department Prof. R. T. Patil for their keen interest, encourage and excellent support.

I would also like to express my thanks to all of other staff members of college & friends who helped me directly & indirectly during the completion of this Seminar.




T.K.I.E.T., Warananagar























  • What is environment?

The environment can be defined as,

  1. The circumstance or conditions that surround an organism or group of organisms.

  2. The complex of social or cultural conditions that affects an individual or community since humans inhibit the natural world as well as the built & technological social &cultural world all constitute important parts of our environment.

Environment science is the systematic study of ours eves and proper place in it. A relative new field, environmental science, social science and humananities in a broad, holistic study of the world around us. In contrast to more theoretical disciplines, environmental science is mission oriented.

Types of Environment:-

Environment is usually divided into two parts

- 1)Physical

- 2) Biotic

1) Physical Environment-

It consists of

i) Forces of Nature like wind

ii) Gravity condition like temperature & light

iii) Time

iv) Non living material alike soil & water

2) Biotic Environment-

The biotic environment is made of all living being including their relations, interrelations & interrelated actions. Any constituent or condition

of the environment, which affects directly or indirectly the form of functioning of organism any specific way is called environmental or ecological factor.

Ecological factors are Numerous, diverse and often intricated mixed & connected with each another though it is customary to study each environmental factor operate in isolation. The various environmental factor. Separately,no facto influence on the evs with all the parameters recorded faithfully.Those factors of the environment which determine the distribution of plants in various parts of the earth are called determining factors.They are traditionally divided into the following groups:-

1)Climatic factors:-

Physical forces related to material factors related to aerial evs.

e.g.light,atm.,temp.,wind,precipitation&atmospheric humidity.
2) Topoaraphic factors:-

Physical factors related to surface behaviour of the earth.

e.g.steepness of slope,altitude,direction of mountain chains etc.
3) Biotic factors:-

They include reactions & interrelated action of other living beings plants animals &man.

4) Fire:-

Through a physical factor,it is generally cause by human activity.

5) Edaphic factors:-

Both physical &biotic factor of the soil like soil composition,soil air,soil water ,soil matter soil organism etc. Edaphic factors constitute the root evs while climatic&biotic are also termed as biotic or physical factors.

Man-Environment Relationshipe :

Man enjoys a dominant position over living and non-living world over around him. Since pre-historic time. Darwin(1871)wrote “Man could never have attained his present dominant position in the world without the

Use of his hands, which are admirably adapted to act in obedience to his will”. According to him the uniqueness of man in nature thus involves primarily his bipedal gulf that made the aims and whole upper part of the body. Freeing of hands for the use of self produced tools was one distinguished character that made man out of all organisms, to make profound changes in the natural relationship that took millions of years to evolve. The civilization is as old as the man’s knowledge a fire tools to alter his environment. During Paleolithic period, Man was very intimate to the biotic community. He is a practical sort of way was interested in ecology since survive he needed to have definite knowledge of his environment i.e. of the forces of nature and of the plants and animals around him.Although he was not the strongest the twittest or the hardiest among his congeners but had effective social organization manipulative power &intelligence that made him to well adapted his environment. There was no or rare malnutrition starvation & chronk diseases, the population was regulated largely by his infant mortality & high social mortality. The man was, however; not a good conservator as he, to his best capacity, exploited his eve for game & fire wood & accumulated waste for over all percent of the period. Since civilized man on the earth , man has lived as Nomadic hunter gather. Thus whereve he moved, caused damaged to be pristine condition of nature on small or large scale.

During Neolithic period only man bagan to domesticate plant & animals (husbandry) use metals & harness energy permanent village ; intergroup co-operation & track routes were developed . It is during this period that the economics began to displace ecology as the vital key to survive success as man’s just to master the Nature for his wasted interests proliferated .

Modern socio-economic development of humidity , which is the highest form of vital activity has most vigorously stimulated changes in the manner of interaction between man & the nature with far reaching consequences for the latter . Today Naturalists fear that in the name of this socio-economic revolution , mankind is engaged in a programme of self defend. The harmony between world population per capita demand & evs resources is disintegrating fast resulting in inadequate living standards in respect of food , water, clothing shelter, & medicoer. According to report . Today, two third of the human race lives in under developed areas of the word , most of these populations drink unsafe water, eat inadequate &unsafe food live in unfit dwelling ,& dispose wastes recklessly. Even in some parts of the developing world every living individual is afflicated with intestinal parasites & insame parts half the number of children born Never reach the fifth birthday .

The fate of man depends largely on whether he can success in achieving a new equilibrium between the Natural evs . He has conquered & the civilization he was created .

Multidisciplinary Nature of environmental studies:-

Though , man has been knowing about nature a great deal . Since , it’s early resistance by & large this knowledge was restructed to only a few species a useful organisms as food , fodder , medicines on aesthetic value. The understanding about environmental forces was added but still limited to various forces of Nature & the season . Later it was more about domestication of plants & animals in the last few centuries it revolved around discovery New a resources for industrial development however till recently the holistic nature of ecology or environmental science was not recognise only in the mid 20^th century eve become matter of concern due to the problems of pollution . The world ever Now , it is well excepted that eve studies has to have multidisciplinary approach for better understanding for the eve essues as well as for effective actions to protect it .

Agricultural status in India:-

India is primarily on agricultural oriented country . Agriculture occupies the most vital place in India economy .It provides livelihood to about 70% of the countries population & contributes nearly 45% to the national income . It is one of the measure sources which supplies row materials to many industries & contributes nearly 40% to the country foreign exchange earning.

Progress made in the field of agriculture development in India since the advent of independence in 1947 is an inspring one . Before independence this sector suffered from deep rooted institutional , structural , economic & social deficiencies leading to a low productivity trap . Consequent upon the determined , & well co-ordinated efforts for development , a combination of factors like priority of agreeculture in the planning stratcegy , emphasison bulding up an infrestucture of irrigation , power scientific research & extension services tendancy refarms & a network of credit & marketing facilities have contributed to near trebbling of food grain over the last 30 years .

India can legitimately claims that inspite of severe droughts that have gripped the country several times in the past , starvation could be privented by bridging the gulf between supply & demand initially with imported grains & subsequently with domestrically produced food grains . The mid-sixties witnessed a break through in productivity with the adoption of new agriculture at technology a phenomenon popularly known as “Green revolution .” In the early seventies India became not merely self sufficient in foodgrains but also a food exporting nation.

In India from ancient times traditional method of agriculture is used by the farmers. The role of traditional agriculture practies assumes greater importance . These are highly prevalent in the areas where new agriculture technology has not traditional agriculture practices.

Traditional agriculture mainly depends on Irrigation , traditional tools & implements, biological fertilizers & pesticides , livestocks mainly bullock-carts, traditional seeds.

A] Traditional tools & implements:-

The tools & implements used by the Indian farmers are comparatively few in no; smaller in size , abslute , crude & antiquated in character , simple in kinds & very significant in value as compared to the most up do date form impliments used by the westerns farmers. However, the implements used in India are light , portable & within the capacity of drought oxen. There are of various types such as -

  1. The iron shod , wooden plough & plough share , used for the upturning of the soil & the driven by the either a pair of bullocks or buffalows.

  2. The wooden yolkes in which bullocks are yolked either for hauling the plough or at the time of lifting water from wells .

  3. The seed drill which is generally made out of long hallow , piece of bamboo with a funnel at the upper end, facilities even distance of seed into the newly made furrows by the plough to the handle of which this implement is tied while sowing.

  4. The pata or the leveller used for levelling the field preliminary to sowing.

  5. A massive wooden roller used for crushing colds.

  6. A charsa for drawing water from the wells.

  7. A big & heavy rope.

  8. A wooden structure of strong logs of wood raised on one side,upon which a pulley is set which a pulley is set which facilitates the movement of the rope fastened with the leather bucket.

  9. A spade or kudali used for irrigating purposes &to some extent in assisting the ploughs.

10) The khurpi used for harvesting.

11) The jeli or fingered fork used for wedding & spacing out .

13) The sickle used for upturring the harvested crop when it is being trodden by

the feet of the bullocks for separating chaff from the corn.

14)A long , rough, thick woven cloth used either in covering the crop on the

threshing floor from rain or winds or in taking in to the market.

15) The cart used for transporting purposes but owing to it’s prohibitive cast. It is

not within the reach of every peasant.

B] Water Irrigation:-

Irrigation implies maintaining the storage of water in the soil required for plant growth at time & places of deficient water supply.

Irrigation in India has been practiced from ancient times & irrigation tanks & wells are familiar feature of the Indian landscope the supplement & conserve the rain fall .Irrigation has proved beneficial to the country . Infact it forms the datumfine for sustained successful agriculture. It alleviates suffering, preserve life, averts famines & advances the material prosperity of the country.

a)Need of Irrigation:-

  1. In the rainfall over the country is unequal irrigation & quite often liable to complete failour . Therefore gave the artificial supply of water to the lands their irrigation .

  2. Irrigation is necessary for the maximum production of most farm crops , especially in the arid & semiarid region . Even in the areas of high rainfall irrigation of second & third crop when rainfall fails.

  3. The need for irrigation also arises from the fact that inspite of considerable advantage of the soil , sunshine & climate.

  4. Irrigation alone supplies dependable & timely supplies of water.

b) Traditional methods of Irrigation:-

Irrigation by Bullocks:-

Bullocks were used in lifting water from the well for this irrigation more time was spent.

c) Sources of Irrigation:-

1) Rivers:-

Most of the irrigation by river waters is provided by gravity flow by canals taking of from barrages or dams across the rivers . Pumping is also being adopted , to lift the water from the river on the land.


Well is also a source of irrigation.


Pumpset (electric & disel ) is a vital device for efficient & quicker irrigation. It has been observed that the pumpset irrigation has become a common practice with the irrigation introduction of HYV technology.

In this method water is left from the well with the help of electric pumpset.

C] Fertilizers:-

“The substances which we add into soil to increases the fertility of soil are called as fertilizers.”

In traditional agreeculture system biological fertilizers are mostly used .

Biogical Fertilizers:-

“The material which have biological origin & added to the soil to increases soil fertility are called biological fertilizers or organic fertilizers .”

e.g. Mannures.


“ These are biodegradable organic compounds derived foom plants & animals.”

Following are three types of manures –

i)Farm yard manures:-

These are different organic wastes like cattle dung , urine , poultry waste, fodder , dry leaves etc. It is the most important of all fertilizers because it cantains all the nutrients required for the growth of crops & also it causes a certain amount of disintegration of the soil . Since these organic substances when added to the soil they make soil fertile & increase the crop production . In addition to it’s manorial properties , it has valuable physical effects upon the texture & water holding powers of soil . It restores humus in the soil as well as gives cohesion to the sandy soils, it also called waste generates wealth . It is widely used by Indian farmers for increasing crop productivity .

Average farm yard mannuare in India contains about 0.3 percent nitrogen, 0.2 percent phosphoric acid & 0.3 percent potash . On other hand , manure with no fodder mixed with it contains 0.5 to 1.5 % of nitrogen , 0.4 to 0.8 % phosphoric acid & 0.5 to 1.9 % of potash .
ii)Green Mannures:

“ Manures prepared from young & green non crop plants like sunhemp, cow pea , cluster beam are called Green manure.”

Green manures are prepared by ploughing fresh green plants into the soil, so that both organic & intercorporated in the soil . They undergo decay & decomposition which lead to the formation of humus .

The crop used for green manuring should possess the characters like rapid growth, abundant foliage & ability to grow well on poor soil. The crops used for green manuring are of two types, viz, leguminous & non- leguminous crops , sunhemp , vigna sinensis ( cowpea), Trifolium alexandrium ( clover ) , bans, groundnuts , soyabean , lentils , sebannia are the plants commonly used for green manuring plants that are used for green manuring absorb useful nutrients from the deeper layer of the soil & bring them to the surface layer of soil when they are buried into the soil.

Green manuring adds both organic & inorganic matter to the soil . As a result of this fertility of soil increases . The use of green manure increases the water holding capacity of the sandy soil, improves tilth of clay soils by opening it ; increase accretion , facilitates drainage & requires less water for crop . It creats crumb structure in soil. Which is most important from agriculture point of view. It improves physical condition of soil. It protect the soil from erosion & leaching . Green manure provides 60-90 kg nitrogen per hector.
iii)Compost manures:-

It is an organic manure prepared by complete decomposition of organic matter with the help of micro-organism like fungi. It becomes readily available to plants & improves quality of soil . Compost is dry , brown in colour as well as light in weight .

Method used for preparation of compost fertilizer:-

  1. Underground a pit is made which is 1.5 meter in length , 1m in breadth & 2m in depth.

  2. In the pit farm yard manure & soil are arranged in layers one above the other.

  3. When each layer reaches to heigh of one & an a half or two feet above the ground level the top is plastered over with a paste of cattle dung & earth in orde to conserve moisture & nitrogen to prevent fly breeding.

  4. The micro-organism in the soil decomposes the organic matter underground at suitable temp, moisture & air .

  5. A manure is then ready in 4 to 6 months time & rich product containing over 2% nitrogen , obtained which would increase crop yield by 25 to 50%.

Advantages of fertilizers:-

i)The traditional fertilizers are easily available as well as cheap.

ii)They increase fertility of soil


In ancient time pesticides are not available. Therefore in traditional agriculture system farmer use following alternative methods to control the pest.
1)Mechanical control:-

It is old method of pest control which involves collection & distribution of eggs , larvae, pupae & adulls . It also involves removles of infected plants, beating drums & crackers etc.

2)Cultural control:-

It is non chemical way of pest control by changing farm practices . It requires the knowledge of life history of pest.

Cultural practice involve farm technique like deep ploughing , early or late sowing, clean cultivation , crop rotation , mixed plantation , use of insect resistance varieties etc.
3)Biological control:-

It is the method of killing the pest by biological enemy by using predator,parasite or pathogen.

Advantages of pesticides:-

I) This pesticides are easily available.

II ) It is cheap method of pest control.

Disadvantages of pesticides:-

I) Pest can not be controlled totally.

II) Decreasing crop production.

E] Biological control of weeds:-

Bioherbicides are used to kill the weeds. Weeds are unwanted plants, affected the growth of crop plants by growing along with crop plant . The weeds complete with crop plants for sunlight, water & nutrients & damage the crop.
Following organisms are used to control the weeds –

a)Conchinial insects feed on cactus.

b) Snails are feeding water hycianth.

c) Zygogramma controls growth of parthenium.

d) The milk weed vine growing along with cittus plants are controlled by introducing the fungus phytopthora infestans. Bioherbicides are not harmful & do not disturb ecological balance.

F] Use of natural insecticides:-

Some biological products are used to kill or repel the pest .

e.g. Neem tree extract called azadirection is repellent; similarly, Tobacco alkaloids , pyrethrum are also used as natural insecticides.

G] Traditional seeds:-

Seed is basic input of farming .Before “Green revolution” farmer used traditional seeds. At that time high yield variety seeds are not genetically improved. Therefore , the production of crop decreases year by year.

H] Livestock:-

In traditional agricultural operations & at different stages livestock are used for many purposes . Animals are used to plough the fields, left the irrigation of water & for transfort of agriculture products etc.

Valuable organic manure are provided by livestock . The farmyard manure is widely used in India.

Modern system of agriculture use large amount of fossil fuel energy,water, chemical fertilizers & pesticides to produce huge quantity of crop. Mechanised & chemical based farming , commertial farming & contract farming & genetic farming are the types of modern agriculture.

The new diverse demands of exotic species of crops vegetables & fruits have introduced changes in traditional agriculture pattern & practices.

Changing agriculture crops a per demands & supply policy are also highly appreciated & accelerated due to the tremendous research like green house plantation , tissue culture, poly house, vermiculture, glass house etc.

A] Mechanised farming:-

This age is modern as well as mechanized age. In most of the field new changes are done. In modern agriculture more improvements are done . Now a days agriculture is mechanized . Tractor powertilar are the main important sources in mechanized agriculture . In modern agriculture for increasing crop production various modern implements are used.

  • Use of tractor:

Tractor is one of the most important thing in modern agriculture for farming tractor is used in so many fields.

  • Cultivation:-

Cultivation of land is most important in modern agriculture cultivation makes the land is fertile as well as water holding capacity of land is increases. In ancient time farmer depends on bullock carts & farm workers for the cultivation. In agricultural field 40-45% of money is spend on workers of the total income.

Modern agriculture system use tractor for cultivation using the tractor time spend is very less.

Rotavhetar, subsoilar are the modern implements of agriculture.We can use these implements with the tractor.These implements can used in modern agriculture.
1]Sub soilar:-

Sub soilar is most important for farming.This implement goes deep in earth at level 1 1\2-2 feet.Therefore soil become porous & it can absorb water easily. It also remove extra water.

The weight of this implement is 60 kg . It can join to 50 or more than 50 Hp of tractor .
2] Rptavhetor:-

This instrument is joined to the backside of tractor . In this instrument , on one rotated metal pipe 14-20 circular metal plates are joined with the help of nut-bolts . Weeds can remove upto 10-15 cm in deep.

Power tiller :-

Now a days division of agricultural land is carried out so number of big land holders decreases. Hence they can not take their own tractor. It is difficult to get workers for agriculture works, so it is necessary to use of power tiller. The work of bullock-cart is also done by the power tiller. Rotavhetor is joined to the backside of powertiller . If we use power tiller , then land become porous for cultivation using rotavhetor 1-11\2 disel needs per hrs. In one day about 1 hector land is cultivated by rotavhetor.

B] Water Irrigation :-

“ Irrigation means the deficient water supply to the crop plant without from rain.” The areas are irrigated from river, well, canal,pumpset etc. In modern agriculture new method of irrigation are introduced.

Modern methods of irrigation:-

Water & air in the soil are very important for the growth of crop plant . Sprinkler irrigation & dripper irrigation are the modern methods of irrigation. In sprinkler & dripper irrigation 30 to 50 % & 40 to 50 % water is saved respectively . In both these irrigation leveling of land is not necessary.

I] Sprinkler Irrigation :-

Sprinkler irrigation is used to provide necessary water to land at a time . In sprinkler irrigation water is spread on the surface of land & plants as rainfall. In this method water is lifted by using electrical motor & pumps from water source . After with the help of alluminium pipe lifting water is spread on the land in same quantity . The distance between nozal & two sub pipes is nearly about 12*12 meter . The force on the water near nozal is about 2-3.50 kg \sq. cm . Therefore , the speed of water spreading their nozal is 1.5-2 cm per hour.

II] Dripper Irrigation :-

By using dripper irrigation water holding capacity of land is maintained . The working capacity of dripper irrigation depends upon it’s format. At the time of prepairing the format of dripper irrigation it is necessary to look carefully land, water & crop .

There are two types of land deep & shallow .At a time of giving water from dripper it is necessary to cheak the distance between two rows & crop plants as well as the water to crop . If land is shallow then water is provided daily. If land is medium & deep then water is provided by one day gap . Therefore air & water balance in the land is maintained due to this balance the growth of micro-organism as well as growth of roots takes place. Therefore , production of crop increases.

Advantages of sprinkler & dripper irrigation methods:-

  1. By this methods of irrigation the balance of air & water in land is maintained therefore , 13 to 18 % production increases.

  2. By this methods water is saved in large quantity .

  3. In both these irrigation leveling of land is not necessary.

  4. In dripper irrigation water is provided near the roots it causes decrease in weeds.

  5. In dripper irrigation this is no effect of wind.

  6. In both these methods of irrigation water is provided to crop plants by their needs . Therefore , fertility of soil never decreases.

  7. It avoids salinization of soil.

C] Fertilizers:-

In modern agricultural farmers uses not only chemical fertilizer but also uses biofertilizers , manures etc.

I] Chemical Fertilizers:-

“Chemical fertilizers are the fertilizers which are artificially prepaired from inorganic compound.”

In modern agriculture , chemical fertilizers are used in large quantity than other fertilizers to increase the fertility of soil as well as the production of crops . These fertilizers provides nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium large amounts to the crop plants.

Chemical fertilizers are usually of three types they are –

    1. Nitrogenous fertilizers.

    2. Phosphatic fertilizers.

    3. Potassic fertilizers.

  1. Nitrogenous fertilizers:-

Examples:- 1) Ammonium sulphate.

2) Sodium.

3) Urea etc.
Nitrogen influences crop growth in many ways e. g. It encourages the development of foliage, imports a green colour to leaves ; in case of cereals, it tends to produce lumpness in seeds & it tends to produce succulence or tenderness in the plant . But if used in large quantities , Nitrogen may prove harmful to the crop for it may lower it’s quantity; It may dealy maturity; it may decrease resistance to decrease, and it may weaken the stems & cause loading in cereals.
b)Phosphatic fertilizers:-

Examples:-1)Single super phosphate .

2)Dicalcium phosphate.

Phosphatic fertilizers are given to soil in shape of phosphorous which is derived from various sources like bones & rock phosphates. When powdered rock phosphate is applied to the soil phosphoric acid become readily available. Phosphorous helps the growth of plant in many ways. e.g. It hastens maturity of crop, it encourages root development, decreases the ratio of straw to grain in cereals . It strengthen stems & reduces the tendency to lodge in cereals, it increases resistance to disease & it improves the quality of crops.

Phosphorous balances or offset the harmful effects of excessive nitrogen & even if it is applied in excessive quantities ,it produces no bad effect on the crop.

C) Potassic Fertilizers:-

Examples:-1) Potassium chloride.

2) Potassium sulphate etc.

These fertilizers help the transference of food materials from one part of the plant to another. They provide the needed green colour to the leaves, they tend to increase plumpness in grains & they tend to have a balancing effect between the first 2 types of fertilizers.

Advantages of chemical fertilizers:-

  1. To increase the fertility of soil.

  2. It provides nutrients to the crops in large amounts like N, P , K etc.

  3. Increasing the production of crops.

  4. Effect of chemical fertilizer is fast.

Disadvantages of chemical fertilizers:-

  1. Spoiling of soil due to excess use of fertilizers.

  2. Chemical fertilizers are made up of a few minerals . Thus they disturb uptake of other minerals & inbalanced the whole mineral pattern of plant body .

  3. Nitrate & phosphate from artificial fertilizers are leached in water bodies causing process of Eutrophication.

  4. Nitrate from nitrate fertilizers used on soil enters our rivers & ponds . Due to higher concentration of nitrates in drinking water , disease produced in human being is called as Methanemoglobinaemia.

  5. In Rajasthan , Nitrate (NO3) levels in water is very high . It is 800 mg/litre.

II] Biofertilizers:-

Biofertilizers are used along with the chemical fertilizers by farmers in modern agriculture practices.

“ The cultures of bacteria & blue - green algae which are used for increasing the fertility of the soil are called Bio-fertilizers.”

These bio- fertilizers provides nitrate to the crops .

These fertilizers are also known as “Bacterial culture” or “Bacterial Inoculent.”

The different types of Bio-fertilizers are as follows-
a) Rhizobia in root nodule:-

The bacteria of rhizobium group which live in association with the roots of leguminous plants farming root nodules on them is a well known bio- fertilizer. The bacteria present in root nodules fix the atmospheric nitrogen & convert it into nitrates which make the soil fertile .

b) Free living bacteria:-

Bacteria such as Azotobactor & clostridium which live freely in the soil , fix the atmospheric nitrogen & convert it into nitrate which increases the fertility of soil .

C) Anabaena from Azolla:-

Anabaena- a blue-green algae found in the leaf of Azolla is added to the soil along with manure or compost at the time of transplanting the seedlings of rice. This is because Azolla leaves are rich in nitrogenous compounds as Annabaena present in nitrogenous compounds.
d) Cyanobacteria:-

Cyanobacteria like nostoc , Aulosira & Anabaena are capable of nitrogen fixation . Therefore, propogation of cyanobacteria in the fields not only inrich the nitrogen content of the soil, but also provide organic matter & other substances of plant growth.

III] Vermiculture:-

It is a new method of fertilizer. Vermicomposting is done by the help of earthworm.

In rural areas mostly two species of earthworms are used for vermicompasting process.

e.g. Eisenia foetida & Eubrillus eugenae.

The culture boxes or container made up of plastic, wood, tin etc are used .

A mixture of soil , sand & organic matter is prepared as a culture medium water is added so as to hold 20-30 % of moisture. Temp. is maintained in between 10-15^0c for Eisenia foetida & above 20^0c for Eudrillus Egeniae.The common organic material used are decayed leaves,hay, rice or wheat branch,vegetative waste,cowdung poultry droping,biogas,studge etc.


“Vermicomposting is a process of composting of waste,containing the organic materials of domestic agriculture &industrial origin with the help of Earth worm”.

The idea of subjecting earth worms as apotential tour for breaking down of organic residues & nutrients recycling to the soil has the following important aspects.

  1. Earth worms dominate the soil foratal biomass in many ecosystem.Density of warms ranges form 247 to 3330ha-1.

  2. They feed on organic material & digest it by their own enzymes &ingeasted micro-organism.

  3. They excrete nutritionally rich casts contains N,P,K,Na,Ca,Mg&certain micro-nutrient which increases soil fertility.

  4. Casts also permute growth of nitrogen fixing & phosphate solubilising bacteria.

  5. Earthworms & casts lowers of the carbon , Nitrogen ratio of litter by compression during respiration (20:1)

  6. Soil becomes loose & air holding capacity increases . In this way the final quantity of the vermicompost is the result of combine efforts taken by earthworms & micro- organisms.

Essential part of vermicomposting.

Phase-I :-

Removal of non –organic matter from organic waste.

Phase-II :-

Microbial pretreatment of organic waste in this phase carbon contain is reduced by the emission of CO2 or by treatment of bacteria.


Size reduction of organic matter which is done mechanically shredding machine.


Vermicomposting or pretreated of organic waste.

The pre-treated organic mixture is fed to the earthworm, under aerobic condition the excretion is in the form of casting which is end product of the process called vermicompost. As it is the rich biofertilizer one of the obtained from the predation of water their vermicomposting. One more byproduct is earthworm then themselves they found to be very good sources of protein & can be used to feed for fish poultry, pigs. The body of earthworm contain 50-70 % of protein rich in arginine troposphere, tyrosine.

Importance of vermicomposting:-

Vermicompost has the following benefits-

  1. Vermicompost can breakdown organic residues into valuable finally divided plant growth media.

  2. It has got excellent porosity aeration & water holding capacity.

  3. It is rich in available nutrients out performs both traditionally compost & commercial plant growth media.

  4. Properly matured compost exhibit favorable antipathogenic influences when applied to soil.

  5. It increases the shelf life of food products & quality enzymatic induced.

D] Pesticides:-

“Substances that kill or repel pests, weeds & harmful micro-organisms are called pesticides.”

In modern agriculture system, many kinds of pesticides are used . According to pest killed, pesticides are different types-

  1. Fungicides to kill fungi.

  2. Herbicides to kill weeds.

  3. Nematiciedes to kill nematodes.

  4. Rodenticides to kill rodents.

  5. Insecticides to kill insects.

Pesticides are mostly available in liquids & they are spread on plants their pump on the basis of chemical nature the pesticides are classified as follows-

I] Organochorines:-

These are chlorinated organic compounds. These are lipophiltic & cause effect on fatty tissues of insects.

E.g. DDT, BHC, eldrine, endosulphan etc.

II] Organophosphates:-

These are neurotoxin organic esters of thiophospheric acids

E.g. Malathion, parathion etc.

III] Carbonates:-

These are neurotoxin organic esters of carbonic acid.

E.g. Carboxyl, carbofuron, abdicable etc.

IV] Parathyroid:-

These are the herbicides derived from urea .They cause chlorosis & neurosis in the weeds.

E] Integrated Pest Management:-

  1. It is the modern method of the pest control which involves minimum use of the chemical pesticides.

  2. Integrated pest management is a method of pest control that makes use of all suitable techniques & methods to ensure continued production of soil fertility without the excessive use of synthetic pesticides.

  3. IPM is necessary to get maximum yield from a particular crop,without causing much imbalanced in the ecosystem.

  4. IPM is necessary to ensure the production of cereals &other food products free from toxic effects caused by the high concentration of systhentic insecticides.

  5. An effective adaptation to this goal can be achieved by a combination or integration of various pest control measures such as cultural,mechanical & biological controls.

  6. The various combination of control measures of IPM provide an agro-ecosystem where pests are maintained & controlled more efficiently & cheaply.

  7. IPM is of great help in improving the economic condition of farmers.

  8. Some of the methods employed under IPM such as soil conditioning, rotation of crops &improved sanitation practices can easily overcome pest problems.

Advantages of pesticides:-

  1. Pesticides protect the crop plant from the attack of pest.

  2. They reduce undue loss & improve the crop yield

  3. They also protect the stored grains.

  4. Pesticides are used to control diseases like malaria,pilaria,plague,cholera etc which are spread by insects.

Disadvantages of pesticides:-

  1. Most pesticides are not very specific they also kill many non-target organisms.

  2. Pesticides also have an effect on natural pest control mechanism like frogs, snakes, birds etc.

  3. Pesticides also harm human being through the slow poisoning process.

  4. Pesticides cause pollution of air & water.

  5. Repeated use of pesticides may produce pesticide resistant pest population.

  6. Pesticides destroy balance of eco-system, by killing herbivores &carnivores.

F] Improved seeds:-

High yielding varieties of seeds are of care of our agricultural progress. They are considered as “miracle seeds”. Within a short period the area placed under high yielding varieties of seeds increased considerably. Use of high yield variety seeds causes increasing crop production. These improved seeds are qualified by agriculture universities; agriculture department of Maharashtra.

G] Tissue culture:-

It is the process of growing plant cells or tissues in a nutrient aspect medium to regenerate the entire plant.

Methodology of Tissue culture:-

  1. Explants of proper size (2 to 5mm) are taken &are sterilized.

  2. They are placed on nutrient medium in a test tube orchonical flask & incubated at 20-300c in presence of light.

  1. Within the few days from explants a callus is formed.

  2. From the callus many plantlets are achieved.

  3. In each plantlets, shoot formation is promoted by higher level of cytokines relative to axons.

  4. The reverse promotes the development of roots.

Applications of tissue culture:

Tissue culture is used in agriculture.

  1. It helps in rapid vegetative multiplication.

  2. It is used to develop disease free plants.

  3. By tissue culture haploid plants can be developed by androgen sis, somatic hybridization can be performed.

  4. e.g. from protoplast of tomato and potato somatic hybrid called potato is obtained.

Comparison between traditional and modern agriculture :

Traditional Agriculture

Modern Agriculture


In this method bullock carts are used for agriculture.


In this method tractors are used for agriculture.


In this method traditional tools and implement are used which is made by wood.


In this method modern tools and implements are used which is made up by metals such iron.


In this method water is given to the land bullock and pump sets.


In this method water is given to the land by sprinkler and trickle.


In this method biological fertilizer are used such as manure.


In this method chemical fertilizes are used such as N,P,K.


In this method pest is controlled by mechanical control and cultural control.


In this method pest is controlled by chemical control and different modern methods.


In this method traditional seeds are used.


In this method genetically improved seeds are used.


In this method production of crop was very less.


In this method production of crop is more.


By this method more time is spend.


By this method less time is spend.


It is very cheap method.


It is very cost method.

Present study is based on the comparison of traditional and modern agricultural practicals.So to analyze this comparison a study was carried out at ‘DHUDHGOAN’, TAL.-Miraj, DIST.-Sangali. The study was carried out by survey method by adopting informal interview with the farmers and studying their current agriculture practice.
A study of project is based on comparison between traditional and modern agriculture practices.
The survey was carried out at,



We study that what types of fertilizers, pesticides, implements & tools, seeds etc are used for both agriculture practices.

The survey was carried out at,




From the survey we conclude that,50% farmers are used traditional method of agriculture& 50% farmers are used modern method of agriculture.

1. Text Book of Botany

2. Environment Book

3. Environmental Engineering

Peavy Rowse(McGraw-Hill Publications)



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