Информативный материал, который можно использовать для конструирования уроков английского языка в старших классах лицеев и гимназий.
Материал представлен учителем английского языка высшей квалификационной категории
Саблиной Ларисой Михайловной, МОУ «Лицей-интернат№1» город Владимир.
World Architectural Treasures in Vladimir and Canterbury.
History in stone is the memory of passed times. These stone man-made creations have been keeping generations’ history. The Golden Gate, the Assumption Cathedral, St. Dmitri Cathedral in Vladimir, Westgate, Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, England. On the one hand, these are the cultural heritage of our mother land, on the other hand, these are “stone” treasures of the country the language of which are spoken all over the world. One may ask a question, “Why should we find any differences or similarities in the above mentioned historical buildings?” The beauty is that the time when they were built coincides. Both the Golden Gate and Westgate used to be a fortress to defend the towns against invaders. Magnificent walls adjusted to the Gate look ad if built by the same people. The Gate seems as if to have been “brothers” on the guard, ready not to let
As far as the Cathedrals are concerned, it should be firstly mentioned that the word “Cathedral” comes from the Greek word “kaphedra” which meant “throne” and Canterbury Cathedral is where the leader of the Church of England, the Archbishop of Canterbury, seats.
Beautiful town Vladimir is in the very centre of Russia on high hills over the river Klyazma. Its history numbers over 1000 years. It was the capital of Rus in the 12th-14th centuries and the Muskovy was founded on its political and religious basics. Many world-famous masterpieces of ancient Russian white stone-work which are preserved in Vladimir delight and amaze people with their astonishing beauty. Assumption and St. Dmitri cathedrals, the Golden Gate are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List and under its protection as outstanding monuments of world architecture.
The Assumption Cathedral was built on the order of Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky (the God-lover) in 1158-1160. The Assumption Cathedral was constructed by joint efforts of local Vladimir, neighboring Galich, North-Italian and German craftsmen. They introduced architectural skills typical for Middle European architectural tradition of construction out of natural stone typical to the 12th century.
In 1185-1189 the cathedral was rebuilt after fire on the order of Prince Vsevolod (the Big Nest). External walls of the cathedral were placed inside the new building. In1161-1189 the cathedral was painted. In 1408 the cathedral was painted by St. Andrei Rublyov.
The Golden Gate.
The Golden Gate is the main stone gate of the wooden fortification constructed under Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky. It was the front entrance to the town. Construction of the gate was finished in 1164. It is a high tower with a 14-meter high vault and a straight arch in the middle. Oaken gate bound with gilded copper were fixed under the vault. Above the gate there was a miniature Church of the Deposition of Robe of the Mother of God in Vlakhern. A stairway inside the walls led to the church. The area around the church was encircled with an indented wall and as the second fighting positions. The Golden Gate took its name because of nature of the doors closing the aperture. They were bound with copper sheets covered with golden drawings. In the southern niche of the gate there is a Prince’s sign. In 1238 Tatars managed to penetrate into the town through a breach in the wooden wall but not through the gate. The Golden Gate also had a triumphal role. Ambassadors and eminent guests were welcomed here, soldiers were seen off to war for the protection of Motherland. Princes’ armed forces returning from campaign passed under the vault of the
gate. Alexander Nevsky and Dmitri Donskoy’s solemn accessions to the throne were commemorated here.
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. It is the cathedral of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the leader of the Church of Christ at Canterbury in England and the worldwide Anglican Communion. Its formal title is the Metropolitan Cathedral.
Foundation by Augustine
The cathedral's first archbishop was St. Augustine of Canterbury, previously abbot of St. Andrew's Benedictine Abbey in Rome. He was sent by Pope Gregory the Great in AD 597 as a missionary to the Anglo-Saxons. Augustine founded the cathedral in 602 AD and dedicated it to St. Savior. Archaeological investigations under the nave floor in 1993 revealed the foundations of the original Saxon cathedral, which had been built across a former Roman road.
Augustine also founded the Abbey of St. Peter and Paul outside the city walls. This was later rededicated to St. Augustine himself and was for many centuries the burial place of the successive archbishops. The abbey is the part of the World HeritageSite of Canterbury, along with the ancient Church of St. Martin. Later Saxon and Viking periods.
A second building, a baptistry or mausoleum, was built on the exact same axis as the cathedral by Archbishop Cuthbert (740-758) and dedicated to St. John the Baptist.
Two centuries later, Oda (941-958) renewed the building, greatly lengthening the nave.
During the reforms of Archbishop St. Dunstan (909-988), a Benedictine abbey named Christ Church Priory was added to the cathedral. But the formal establishment as a monastery seems to date to 997 and the community only became fully monastic from Lanfranc's time onwards (with monastic constitutions addressed by him to prior Henry). St. Dunstan was buried on the south side of the High Altar.
The Saxon cathedral was badly damaged during Danish raids on Canterbury in 1011.
Priors of Christ Church Priory included John of Sittingbourne (elected 1222, previously a monk of the priory) and William Chillenden, (elected 1264, previously monk and treasurer of the priory). The monastery was granted the right to elect their own prior if the seat was vacant by the pope, and — from Gregory IX onwards — the right to a free election (though with the archbishop overseeing their choice). Monks of the priory have included Æthelric I, Æthelric II, Walter d'Eynsham, Reginald fitz Jocelin (admitted as a confrater shortly before his death), Nigel de Longchamps and Ernulf. The monks often put forward candidates for Archbishop of Canterbury, either from among their
number or outside, since the archbishop was nominally their abbot,
this could lead to clashes with the king and/or pope should they put forward a different man — examples are the elections of Baldwin of Exeter and Thomas Cobham.
After the Norman conquest in 1066, Lanfranc (1070-1077) became the first Norman archbishop. The new cathedral was dedicated in 1077.
Archbishop St. Anselm (1093-1109) greatly extended the quire to the east to give sufficient space for the monks of the greatly revived monastery. Beneath it he built the large and elaborately decorated crypt, which is the largest of its kind in England.
Though named for the 7th century founding archbishop, The Chair of St. Augustine may date from the Norman period. Its first recorded use is in 1205.
West Gate Towers.
West Gate Towers, marking the entrance to Canterbury since the medieval period when pilgrims flocked through it on the way to Thomas Becket's tomb, is an important landmark in Canterbury alongside the Cathedral.
Remarkably preserved considering its age - six centuries old, inside the West Gate Towers Museum you climb a narrow winding staircase to reach the displays of various armaments. Look for the Murder holes and explore the turrets from which there are superb panoramic views of Canterbury.
«MY ANCIENT CITY»
I like Vladimir very much
As if I ate my tasty lunch
I like its streets
I like its parks
In spring I like its trees and arcs.
You’ll see museums, rivers, churches,
Ponds, theatres, cinemas, birches.
Assumption Cathedral is nice too.
Cathedral to Dmitri, well, older.
They lived many centuries through
Despite hot weather or colder.
The centre takes the Golden Gate,
It used to be a fortress.
Vladimir loves, Vladimir hates,
Like God and pretty Goddess.