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the
Large
Hadron
Collider

project

CERN

CH-1211 Geneva 23


Switzerland
LHC Project Document No.

LHC-

CERN Div./Group or Supplier/Contractor Document No.

-

EDMS Document No.

-







Date: 2002-03-13




sss

Functional Specification

Measurement of the beam losses in the LHC rings

Abstract

This functional specification is dedicated to the beam loss monitoring system (BLM) of the LHC main rings. Its use, both for machine protection and for machine operations and studies is considered. Taking into account the uses and the available information on quench and damage limits, the functional requirements are deduced.



Prepared by :

Bernard JEANNERET

Bernard.Jeanneret@cern.ch

and

Helmut Burkhardt

Checked by :








History of Changes

Rev. No.

Date

Pages

Description of Changes

0.1

April 2001

xx-11-2001

15-12-2001

19-03-2002

20-03-2002

11-04-2002

29-05-2002

06-06-2002






First brain-storming on the subject, followed by 2 drafts: BLMC’s by JBJ and BLMA’s by HB

Initial spec written by JBJ + HB for BLMA’s

Reworked by JPK

Quantitative information added by JBJ + some changes

Comments received from RS, JW, BD, HB included

Include conclusions in BISPEC meeting of the 20-03-2001+ further comments by CF and HB.

Serious revision of quantitative information by JBJ + various improvements

Integrate all comments of BISpec meeting + RS+HB+JJG+some improvements, JPK




Table of Contents (not compulsory, can be removed)

1. Scope 5

2. Introduction & Goals 5

3. Beam loss scenarios 5

4. Protons versus ions 6

5. use of the Blm’s for machine protection 6

6. Use of the blm’s for machine operation and studies 9

6.1 Help in commissioning 9

6.2 Measurement of the transient azimuthal losses 9

6.3 Setting of collimators and other movable targets 9

6.4 Probing the machine with lower intensity beams 9

6.5 Operations safeguard 10

6.6 Monitoring of the steady losses 10

6.7 Beam and machine studies 11

6.8 Post-Mortem analysis 11

7. beam losses: dynamic range and time constants 11

7.1 Definition of the observable 11

7.2 Assumed Collimation efficiencies 11

7.3 steady losses 12

7.3.1 Sources 12

7.3.2 azimuthal distribution 12

7.3.3 loss rates 12

7.4 transient losses 13

7.4.1 Injection errors in IR2 and IR8 13

7.4.2 Asynchronous kick by the Dump kickers in IR6 14

7.4.3 fast growth of the beam Amplitude 14

7.4.4 Beam manipulations and measurements 14



8. Assumed Quench and damage thresholds 15

8.1 Quench limit 15

8.1.1 Limit to the Local heat deposition 15

8.1.2 Limit to the heat deposition per cell 15

8.2 Damage limit 15

9. Functional requirements for the BLM system 16

9.1 Logical structure of the BLM system 16

9.2 Layout & number of locations to be monitored 16

9.3 geometrical Acceptance of the monitors 17

9.4 Dynamic range and response time (new) 17

9.5 Precision and calibration 19

9.5.1 Absolute precision or Calibration of the loss scale 19

9.5.2 Resolution and Relative Precision of the MONITORS 19

9.6 Signal separation 20

9.6.1 Beam 1/beam 2 discrimination 20

9.6.2 Collimator to collimator discrimination 20

9.7 data and data handling 20

9.7.1 Data processing for quench prevention 20

9.7.2 Data for the control room and the logging system 20

9.8 Post-mortem analysis 20

9.9 Reliability and Radiation resistance 21



10. References 21


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