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Kingdom Taxon Dispersal events


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Kingdom

Taxon

Dispersal events

W Indian Ocean Diversity

Reference

animals

Hemicordulia dragonflies

2

5

Dijkstra (2007)

animals

Scops owls (Otus)

3

7

Fuchs et al. (2008)

animals

Parrots

1

9

Hume (2007)

animals

Parrots

4

7

Schweizer et al. (2010)

animals

Hawksmoth genus Hyles

1

2

Hundsdoerfer et al. (2009)

animals

Oscine passerine birds

1

n/a

Jonsson and Fjeldsa (2006)

animals

Golden orb spider (Nephila inaurata)

numerous

1

Kuntner and Agnarsson (2011)

animals

Colotis butterflies

6

7

Nazari et al. (2011)

animals

Pteropus fruit bats

8

8

O'Brien et al. (2009)

animals

Drongos (Dicruridae)

6

4

Pasquet et al. (2007)

animals

Carpenter bees (Ceratinini)

2

?

Rehan et al. (2010)

animals

Allodapine bees

2

35

Schwarz et al. (2006)

animals

magpie robins (Copsychus)

1

2

Sheldon et al. (2009)

animals

Canthonini and Dichotomiini (Scarabaeinae)

n/a

n/a

Sole and Scholtz (2010)

animals

Scarabaeini beetles

1

3

Sole et al. (2011)

animals

White-eye songbirds (Zosterops)

8

15

Warren et al. (2006)

animals

Parrots

1

n/a

Wright et al. (2008)

animals

Starlings and mynas (Sturnus, Acridotheres)

1

6

Zuccon et al. (2008)

animals

Rattus rattus

n/a

1

Tollenaere et al. (2010)

animals

Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

0

1

Virgilio et al. (2010)

animals

Anelosimus spiders

4

12

Agnarsson et al. (2010)

animals

Mormopterus bats

?

2

Goodman et al. (2008)

animals

Rousettus bats

2

2

Goodman et al. (2010)

animals

Chaerephon bats

1

2

Goodman et al. (2010)

animals

Hermit spiders (Nephilengys)

3

4

Kuntner and Agnarsson (2011)

animals

Drosophila mauritiana

1

1

Legrand et al. (2011)

animals

Triaenops bats

2

4

Russell et al. (2008)

animals

Scotophilus bats

2

4

Trujillo et al. (2009)

animals

Miniopterus bats

below

below

Weyeneth et al. (2008)

animals

Miniopterus bats

2

2

Weyeneth et al. (2011)

animals

Zaprionus (Diptera)

2

7

Yassin et al. (2008)

animals

Geckos, skinks

2

3

Arnold and Bour (2008)

animals

Leiolopisma skinks

2

3

Austin and Arnold (2006)

animals

Slit-eared skinks

2

3

Austin et al. (2009)

animals

Haemadipisdae leeches

3

8

Borda and Siddall (2010)

animals

Ranid frogs

3

270

Bossuyt et al. (2006), Vieites et al. (2009)

animals

Freshwater crabs

below

below

Cumberlidge (2008)

animals

Seychellum alluaudi freshwater crab

below

below

Daniels (2011)

animals

Freshwater crabs

3

15

Daniels et al. (2006)

animals

Homopholis and Blaesodactylus gekkos

2

4

Greenbaum et al. (2007)

animals

Day geckos (Phelsuma)

10

49

Harmon et al. (2008)

animals

Day geckos (Phelsuma)

above

above

Raxworthy et al. (2007)

animals

Pristionchus pacificus nematode

?

1

Herrmann et al. (2010)

animals

Knifefishes (Notopteridae)

0

0

Inoue et al. (2009)

animals

Gecarcinucoidea freshwater crabs

5

19

Klaus et al. (2006)

animals

River snails Pachychilidae

1

5

Kohler and Glaubrecht (2010)

animals

Oplurin iguanas

1

7

Munchenberg et al. (2008)

animals

Stenophis and Lycodryas snakes

8

82

Nagy et al. (2010)

animals

podocnemid turtles

0

1

Noonan and Chippindale (2006)

animals

iguanid lizards

0

7

Noonan and Chippindale (2006)

animals

Boid snakes

0

3

Noonan and Chippindale (2006)

animals

Agamidae

0

0

Okajima and Kumazawa (2010)

animals

Chamaeleonidae

0

80

Okajima and Kumazawa (2010)

animals

Plated lizards (Gerrhosauridae)

1

19

Raselimanana et al. (2009)

animals

Cetartiodactyla

1

3

Yoder and Nowak (2006)

animals

Eulipotyphla

1

1

Yoder and Nowak (2006)

animals

Rodents

1

27

Yoder and Nowak (2006)

animals

Carnivora

1

9

Yoder and Nowak (2006)

animals

Afrotheria

1

30

Yoder and Nowak (2006)

animals

Perissodactyla

0

0

IUCN

animals

Pholidota

0

0

IUCN

animals

Onychoprion

frequent

1

IUCN

animals

Pantala

annual

1

Anderson (2009)

animals

Primates

below

below

Heads (2010)

animals

Primates

1

94

Yoder and Nowak (2006)

animals

Coastal lizards (Cryptoblepharus)

5

Unresolved

Rocha et al. (2006)

animals

Mabuya lizards (Scincidae)

4

14

Rocha et al. (2010)

animals

Streptaxid land snails

12

240

Rowson et al. (2011)

animals

Crayfishes (Parastacidae)

0

6

Toon et al. (2010)

animals

Archaius (Calumma) chameleons

1

1

Townsend et al. (2011)

animals

Polystomatid flatworms (amphibian parasites)

2

13

Verneau et al. (2009)

animals

Blindsnakes (Typhlopidae)

1

14

Vidal et al. (2010)

animals

Giant pill-millipedes (Sphaerotheriida)

0




Wesene and VandenSpiegel (2009)

animals

Giant pill-millipedes (Arthrosphaeridae)

0

60

Wesener et al. (2010)

animals

Caecilian amphibians

0

6

Zhang and Wake (2009)

animals

Hemidactylus geckos

2

11

Carranza and Arnold (2006)

animals

Chamaeleo monachus

0

1

Macey et al. (2008)

plants

Coffea (Rubiaceae)

below

below

Anthony et al. (2010)

plants

Coffea (Rubiaceae)

below

below

Maurin et al. (2007)

plants

Coffee family (Rubiaceae)

30

803

Wikstrom et al. (2010)

plants

Chrysophylloideae (Sapotaceae)

4

40

Bartish et al. (2011)

plants

Lilaeopsis (Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae)

0

1

Bone et al. (2011)

plants

Vanilla

3

10

Bouetard et al. (2010)

plants

Sapindaceae (Molinaea, Neotina, Tina,Tinopsis)

4

100

Buerki et al. (2011)

plants

Palm tribe Chamaedoreeae

3

5

Cuenca et al. (2008)

plants

Scaly tree ferns

8

56

Janssen et al. (2008)

plants

Hibisceae (Malvaceae)

5

86

Koopman and Baum (2008)

plants

Fern genus Platycerium

4

6

Kreier and Schneider (2006)

plants

Euphorbs

1

11

Kulju et al. (2007)

plants

Dombeyoideae (Malvaceae)

15

273

Le Pechon et al. (2009)

plants

Dombeyoideae (Malvaceae)

above

above

Le Pechon et al. (2010)

plants

tropical Anagallis (Myrsinaceae)

2

10

Manns and Anderberg (2011)

plants

Hernandiaceae

2

4

Michalak et al. (2010)

plants

Angraecoid orchids

20

321

Micheneau et al. (2008)

plants

Calyptrochaeta moss

3

1

Pokorny (2011)

plants

Monimiaceae

6

63

Renner et al. (2010)

plants

Lomariopsis ferns

3

7

Rouhan et al. (2007)

plants

Cucurbitaceae

14

90

Schaefer et al. (2009)

plants

Ferns (Lindsaeaceae)

n/a

31

Lehtonen et al. (2010)

plants

Warneckea (Melastomataceae)

1

20

Stone and Andreasen (2010)

plants

Aerva (Amaranthaceae)

5

8

Thiv et al. (2006)

plants

Baobab Adansonia digitata

1

1

Tsy et al. (2009)

plants

Diospyros (Ebenaceae)

2

14

Venkatasamy et al. (2006)

plants

Euphorbia

5

110

Zimmermann et al. (2010)

plants

Echidnopsis (Apocynaceae)

1

5

Thiv and Meve (2007)

plants

Thamnosma (Rutaceae)

1

2

Thiv et al. (2011)

1. Agnarsson I, Kuntner M, Coddington JA, Blackledge TA (2010) Shifting continents, not behaviours: independent colonization of solitary and subsocial Anelosimus spider lineages on Madagascar (Araneae, Theridiidae). Zoologica Scripta 39: 75-87.

2. Anthony F, Diniz LEC, Combes MC, Lashermes P (2010) Adaptive radiation in Coffea subgenus Coffea L. (Rubiaceae) in Africa and Madagascar. Plant Systematics and Evolution 285: 51-64.

3. Arnold EN (2009) Relationships, evolution and biogeography of Semaphore geckos, Pristurus (Squamata, Sphaerodactylidae) based on morphology. Zootaxa: 1-21.

4. Arnold EN, Bour R (2008) A new Nactus gecko (Gekkonidae) and a new Leiolopisma skink (Scincidae) from La Reunion, Indian Ocean, based on recent fossil remains and ancient DNA sequence. Zootaxa: 40-50.

5. Austin JJ, Arnold EN (2006) Using ancient and recent DNA to explore relationships of extinct and endangered Leiolopisma skinks (Reptilia : Scincidae) in the Mascarene islands. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39: 503-511.

6. Austin JJ, Arnold EN, Jones CG (2009) Interrelationships and history of the slit-eared skinks (Gongylomorphus, Scincidae) of the Mascarene islands, based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear gene sequences. Zootaxa: 55-68.

7. Bartish IV, Antonelli A, Richardson JE, Swenson U (2011) Vicariance or long-distance dispersal: historical biogeography of the pantropical subfamily Chrysophylloideae (Sapotaceae). Journal of Biogeography 38: 177-190.

8. Bone TS, Downie SR, Affolter JM, Spalik K (2011) A Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Study of the Genus Lilaeopsis (Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae). Systematic Botany 36: 789-805.

9. Borda E, Siddall ME (2010) Insights into the evolutionary history of Indo-Pacific bloodfeeding terrestrial leeches (Hirudinida : Arhynchobdellida : Haemadipisdae). Invertebrate Systematics 24: 456-472.

10. Bossuyt F, Brown RM, Hillis DM, Cannatella DC, Milinkovitch MC (2006) Phylogeny and biogeography of a cosmopolitan frog radiation: Late cretaceous diversification resulted in continent-scale endemism in the family ranidae. Systematic Biology 55: 579-594.

11. Bouetard A, Lefeuvre P, Gigant R, Bory S, Pignal M, et al. (2010) Evidence of transoceanic dispersion of the genus Vanilla based on plastid DNA phylogenetic analysis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55: 621-630.

12. Buerki S, Lowry PP, Andriambololonera S, Phillipson PB, Vary L, et al. (2011) How to kill two genera with one tree: clarifying generic circumscriptions in an endemic Malagasy clade of Sapindaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 165: 223-234.

13. Cuenca A, Asmussen-Lange CB, Borchsenius F (2008) A dated phylogeny of the palm tribe Chamaedoreeae supports Eocene dispersal between Africa, North and South America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46: 760-775.

14. Cumberlidge N (2008) Insular species of Afrotropical freshwater crabs (Crustacea : Decapoda : Brachyura : Potamonautidae and Potamidae) with special reference to Madagascar and the Seychelles. Contributions to Zoology 77: 71-81.

15. Daniels SR (2011) Reconstructing the colonisation and diversification history of the endemic freshwater crab (Seychellum alluaudi) in the granitic and volcanic Seychelles Archipelago. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 534-542.

16. Daniels SR, Cumberlidge N, Perez-Losada M, Marijnissen SAE, Crandall KA (2006) Evolution of Afrotropical freshwater crab lineages obscured by morphological convergence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 227-235.

17. Dijkstra KDB (2007) Gone with the wind: westward dispersal across the Indian Ocean and island speciation in Hemicordulia dragonflies (Odonata : Corduliidae). Zootaxa: 27-48.

18. Fuchs J, Pons JM, Goodman SM, Bretagnolle V, Melo M, et al. (2008) Tracing the colonization history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls (Strigiformes : Otus) with further insight into the spatio-temporal origin of the Malagasy avifauna. Bmc Evolutionary Biology 8.

19. Gamble T, Bauer AM, Greenbaum E, Jackman TR (2008) Evidence for Gondwanan vicariance in an ancient clade of gecko lizards. Journal of Biogeography 35: 88-104.

20. Goodman SM, Buccas W, Naidoo T, Ratrimomanarivo F, Taylor PJ, et al. (2010) Patterns of morphological and genetic variation in western Indian Ocean members of the Chaerephon 'pumilus' complex (Chiroptera: Molossidae), with the description of a new species from Madagascar. Zootaxa: 1-36.

21. Goodman SM, Chan LM, Nowak MD, Yoder AD (2010) Phylogeny and biogeography of western Indian Ocean Rousettus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Journal of Mammalogy 91: 593-606.

22. Goodman SM, Vuuren BJ, Ratrimomanarivo F, Probst JM, Bowie RCK (2008) Specific status of populations in the Mascarene Islands referred to Mormopterus acetabulosus (Chiroptera: Molossidae), with description of a new species. Journal of Mammalogy 89: 1316-1327.

23. Greenbaum E, Bauer AM, Jackman TR (2007) Homopholis and Blaesodactylus (Squamata : Gekkonidae) revisited: new insights from a molecular phylogeny. African Journal of Herpetology 56: 101-114.

24. Harmon LJ, Melville J, Larson A, Losos JB (2008) The Role of Geography and Ecological Opportunity in the Diversification of Day Geckos (Phelsuma). Systematic Biology 57: 562-573.

25. Heads M (2010) Evolution and biogeography of primates: a new model based on molecular phylogenetics, vicariance and plate tectonics. Zoologica Scripta 39: 107-127.

26. Herrmann M, Kienle S, Rochat J, Mayer WE, Sommer RJ (2010) Haplotype diversity of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus on Reunion in the Indian Ocean suggests multiple independent invasions. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 100: 170-179.

27. Hume JP (2007) Reappraisal of the parrots (Aves : Psittacidae) from the Mascarene Islands, with comments on their ecology, morphology, and affinities. Zootaxa: 1-76.

28. Hundsdoerfer AK, Rubinoff D, Attie M, Wink M, Kitching IJ (2009) A revised molecular phylogeny of the globally distributed hawkmoth genus Hyles (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52: 852-865.

29. Inoue JG, Kumazawa Y, Miya M, Nishida M (2009) The historical biogeography of the freshwater knifefishes using mitogenomic approaches: A Mesozoic origin of the Asian notopterids (Actinopterygii: Osteoglossomorpha). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51: 486-499.

30. Janssen T, Bystriakova N, Rakotondrainibe F, Coomes D, Labat JN, et al. (2008) Neoendemism in Madagascan scaly tree ferns results from recent, coincident diversification bursts. Evolution 62: 1876-1889.

31. Jonsson KA, Fjeldsa J (2006) Determining biogeographical patterns of dispersal and diversification in oscine passerine birds in Australia, Southeast Asia and Africa. Journal of Biogeography 33: 1155-1165.

32. Klaus S, Schubart CD, Brandis D (2006) Phylogeny, biogeography and a new taxonomy for the Gecarcinucoidea Rathbun, 1904 (Decapoda : Brachyura). Organisms Diversity & Evolution 6: 199-217.

33. Kohler F, Glaubrecht M (2010) Uncovering an overlooked radiation: molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Madagascar's endemic river snails (Caenogastropoda: Pachychilidae: Madagasikara gen. nov.). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99: 867-894.

34. Koopman MM, Baum DA (2008) Phylogeny and biogeography of tribe Hibisceae (Malvaceae) on Madagascar. Systematic Botany 33: 364-374.

35. Kreier HP, Schneider H (2006) Phylogeny and biogeography of the staghorn fern genus Platycerium (Polypodiaceae, Polypodiidae). American Journal of Botany 93: 217-225.

36. Kulju KKM, Sierra SEC, Draisma SGA, Samuel R, van Welzen PC (2007) Molecular phylogeny of Macaranga, Mallotus, and related genera (Euphorbiaceae s.s.): insights from plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data. American Journal of Botany 94: 1726-1743.

37. Kuntner M (2006) Phylogenetic systematics of the Gondwanan nephilid spider lineage Clitaetrinae (Araneae, Nephilidae). Zoologica Scripta 35: 19-62.

38. Kuntner M (2007) A monograph of Nephilengys, the pantropical 'hermit spiders' (Araneae, Nephilidae, Nephilinae). Systematic Entomology 32: 95-135.

39. Kuntner M, Agnarsson I (2011) Biogeography and diversification of hermit spiders on Indian Ocean islands (Nephilidae: Nephilengys). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 59: 477-488.

40. Kuntner M, Agnarsson I (2011) Phylogeography of a successful aerial disperser: the golden orb spider Nephila on Indian Ocean islands. Bmc Evolutionary Biology 11.

41. Le Pechon T, Cao N, Dubuisson JY, Gigord LDB (2009) Systematics of Dombeyoideae (Malvaceae) in the Mascarene archipelago (Indian Ocean) inferred from morphology. Taxon 58: 519-531.

42. Le Pechon T, Dubuisson JY, Haevermans T, Cruaud C, Couloux A, et al. (2010) Multiple colonizations from Madagascar and converged acquisition of dioecy in the Mascarene Dombeyoideae (Malvaceae) as inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequence analyses. Annals of Botany 106: 343-357.

43. Legrand D, Chenel T, Campagne C, Lachaise D, Cariou ML (2011) Inter-island divergence within Drosophila mauritiana, a species of the D. simulans complex: Past history and/or speciation in progress? Molecular Ecology 20: 2787-2804.

44. Macey JR, Kuehl JV, Larson A, Robinson MD, Ugurtas IH, et al. (2008) Socotra Island the forgotten fragment of Gondwana: Unmasking chameleon lizard history with complete mitochondrial genomic data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 1015-1018.

45. Manns U, Anderberg AA (2011) Biogeography of 'tropical Anagallis' (Myrsinaceae) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data. Journal of Biogeography 38: 950-961.

46. Maurin O, Davis AP, Chester M, Mvungi EF, Jaufeerally-Fakim Y, et al. (2007) Towards a phylogeny for Coffea (Rubiaceae): Identifying well-supported lineages based on nuclear and plastid DNA sequences. Annals of Botany 100: 1565-1583.

47. Michalak I, Zhang LB, Renner SS (2010) Trans-Atlantic, trans-Pacific and trans-Indian Ocean dispersal in the small Gondwanan Laurales family Hernandiaceae. Journal of Biogeography 37: 1214-1226.

48. Micheneau C, Carlsward BS, Fay MF, Bytebier B, Pailler T, et al. (2008) Phylogenetics and biogeography of Mascarene angraecoid orchids (Vandeae, Orchidaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46: 908-922.

49. Munchenberg T, Wollenberg KC, Glaw F, Vences M (2008) Molecular phylogeny and geographic variation of Malagasy iguanas (Oplurus and Chalarodon). Amphibia-Reptilia 29: 319-327.

50. Nagy ZT, Glaw F, Vences M (2010) Systematics of the snake genera Stenophis and Lycodryas from Madagascar and the Comoros. Zoologica Scripta 39: 426-435.

51. Nazari V, Larsen TB, Lees DC, Brattstrom O, Bouyer T, et al. (2011) Phylogenetic systematics of Colotis and associated genera (Lepidoptera: Pieridae): evolutionary and taxonomic implications. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 49: 204-215.

52. Noonan BP, Chippindale PT (2006) Vicariant origin of Malagasy reptiles supports late cretaceous antarctic land bridge. American Naturalist 168: 730-741.

53. O'Brien J, Mariani C, Olson L, Russell AL, Say L, et al. (2009) Multiple colonisations of the western Indian Ocean by Pteropus fruit bats (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae): The furthest islands were colonised first. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51: 294-303.

54. Okajima Y, Kumazawa Y (2010) Mitochondrial genomes of acrodont lizards: timing of gene rearrangements and phylogenetic and biogeographic implications. Bmc Evolutionary Biology 10.

55. Pasquet E, Pons JM, Fuchs J, Cruaud C, Bretagnolle V (2007) Evolutionary history and biogeography of the drongos (Dicruridae), a tropical Old World clade of corvoid passerines. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45: 158-167.

56. Pokorny L, Olivan G, Shaw AJ (2011) Phylogeographic Patterns in Two Southern Hemisphere Species of Calyptrochaeta (Daltoniaceae, Bryophyta). Systematic Botany 36: 542-553.

57. Raselimanana AP, Noonan B, Karanth KP, Gauthier J, Yoder AD (2009) Phylogeny and evolution of Malagasy plated lizards. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50: 336-344.

58. Raxworthy CJ, Ingram CM, Rabibisoa N, Pearson RG (2007) Applications of ecological niche modeling for species delimitation: A review and empirical evaluation using day geckos (Phelsuma) from Madagascar. Systematic Biology 56: 907-923.

59. Rehan SM, Chapman TW, Craigie AI, Richards MH, Cooper SJB, et al. (2010) Molecular phylogeny of the small carpenter bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Ceratinini) indicates early and rapid global dispersal. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55: 1042-1054.

60. Renner SS, Strijk JS, Strasberg D, Thebaud C (2010) Biogeography of the Monimiaceae (Laurales): a role for East Gondwana and long-distance dispersal, but not West Gondwana. Journal of Biogeography 37: 1227-1238.

61. Rocha S, Carretero MA, Harris DJ (2010) Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Mabuya spp. (Squamata: Scincidae) from western Indian Ocean islands. Amphibia-Reptilia 31: 375-385.

62. Rocha S, Carretero MA, Vences M, Glaw F, Harris DJ (2006) Deciphering patterns of transoceanic dispersal: the evolutionary origin and biogeography of coastal lizards (Cryptoblepharus) in the Western Indian Ocean region. Journal of Biogeography 33: 13-22.

63. Rouhan G, Hanks JG, McClelland D, Moran RC (2007) Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the fern genus Lomariopsis (Lomariopsidaceae). Brittonia 59: 115-128.

64. Rowson B, Tattersfield P, Symondson WOC (2011) Phylogeny and biogeography of tropical carnivorous land-snails (Pulmonata: Streptaxoidea) with particular reference to East Africa and the Indian Ocean. Zoologica Scripta 40: 85-98.

65. Russell AL, Goodman SM, Cox MP (2008) Coalescent analyses support multiple mainland-to-island dispersals in the evolution of Malagasy Triaenops bats (Chiroptera : Hipposideridae). Journal of Biogeography 35: 995-1003.

66. Schaefer H, Heibl C, Renner SS (2009) Gourds afloat: a dated phylogeny reveals an Asian origin of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae) and numerous oversea dispersal events. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 276: 843-851.

67. Schwarz MP, Fuller S, Tierney SM, Cooper SJB (2006) Molecular phylogenetics of the exoneurine allodapine bees reveal an ancient and puzzling dispersal from Africa to Australia. Systematic Biology 55: 31-45.

68. Schweizer M, Seehausen O, Guntert M, Hertwig ST (2010) The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54: 984-994.

69. Sheldon FH, Lohman DJ, Lim HC, Zou F, Goodman SM, et al. (2009) Phylogeography of the magpie-robin species complex (Aves: Turdidae: Copsychus) reveals a Philippine species, an interesting isolating barrier and unusual dispersal patterns in the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. Journal of Biogeography 36: 1070-1083.

70. Sole CL, Scholtz CH (2010) Did dung beetles arise in Africa? A phylogenetic hypothesis based on five gene regions. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56: 631-641.

71. Sole CL, Wirta H, Forgie SA, Scholtz CH (2011) Origin of Madagascan Scarabaeini dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): dispersal from Africa. Insect Systematics & Evolution 42: 29-40.

72. Stone RD, Andreasen K (2010) The Afro-Madagascan genus Warneckea (Melastomataceae): Molecular systematics and revised infrageneric classification. Taxon 59: 83-92.

73. Thiv M, Thulin M, Kilian N, Linder HP (2006) Eritreo-Arabian affinities of the Socotran flora as revealed from the molecular phylogeny of Aerva (Amaranthaceae). Systematic Botany 31: 560-570.

74. Thiv M, van der Niet T, Rutschmann F, Thulin M, Brune T, et al. (2011) Old-New world and trans-African dijunctions of Thamnosma (Rutaceae): intercontinental long-distance dispersal and local differentation in the succulent biome. American Journal of Botany 98: 76-87.

75. Tollenaere C, Brouat C, Duplantier JM, Rahalison L, Rahelinirina S, et al. (2010) Phylogeography of the introduced species Rattus rattus in the western Indian Ocean, with special emphasis on the colonization history of Madagascar. Journal of Biogeography 37: 398-410.

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