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VEGETATION OF THE PANTANA AREA AT KAŠTELA BAY AND ITS PROTECTIONS PROBLEMS
( VEGETACIJA OBMOČJA PANTANA OB KAŠTELSKEM ZALIVU IN PROBLEMI NJEGOVEGA VAROVANJA )

JURAJ KAMENJARIN

Department of Biology

Faculty of Natural Science

University of Split

Teslina 12

HR-21000 Split

Croatia


E-mail: juraj.kamenjarin@st.hinet.hr
ZINKA PAVLETIĆ

Dunjevac 2

HR-10000 Zagreb

Croatia


E-mail: zinka.pavletic@st.hinet.hr

IZVLEČEK
Područje Pantane smješteno je u zapadnom dijelu Kaštelanskog zaljeva i obuhvaća nekoliko km2 . Pod utjecajem blagoslane izvorske vode te plime i oseke razvila se specifična močvarna i halofitna vegetacija. Na osnovu fitocenoloških i sintaksonomskih istraživanja determinirano je za područje Pantane 6 biljnih zajednica: Limonio-Artemisietum coerulescentis, Salsoletum sodae, Juncetum maritimo-acuti, Rupietum maritimae, Phragmitetum australis and Bolboschoenetum maritimi.

Ove biljne zajednice mozaično su raspoređene u skladu s mozaičnim rasporedom glavnih ekoloških faktora (dubina i salinitet vode, izmjena plime i oseke kao i tekstura tla).

Ukupno su zabilježene 42 biljne vrste.

Područje Pantane je pod jakim antropogenim utjecajem koji u zadnje vrijeme postaje sve jači. Zato ova istraživanja ukazuju na veliki biodiverzitet ovog područja i na potrebu za konkretnim mjerama zaštite.
Ključne riječi: Kaštelanski zaljev, Pantana, močvarna vegetacija, halofitna vegetacija.

ABSTRACT


The Pantana area is situated in the western part of the Kaštela Bay occupying an area of several square kilometers. Here, under the influence of the slightly saline spring water and tidal movements a specific marsh and halophytic vegetation is developed. Based on the phytosociological and syntaxonomic research, for the Pantana area 6 plant associations have been determined: Limonio-Artemisietum coerulescentis, Salsoletum sodae, Juncetum maritimo-acuti, Rupietum maritimae, Phragmitetum australis and Bolboschoenetum maritimi.

These plant associations are distributed in a mosaic manner, in conformity with the equally mosaic distribution of major ecological factors (water depth and salinity, high and low tide, soil texture).

A total of 42 plant species has been registered.

The Pantana area is under a strong anthropogenetic impact which lately has become even stronger. Therefore, this research has to show both the great biodiversity of this area and the necessity to take certain protective measures in it.


Key words: the Kaštely Bay, Pantana, marsh vegetation, halophytic vegetation.
INTRODUCTION

The Pantana (Pantan) marshland is situated in the western part of the Kaštela Bay near Trogir, extending over an area of several square kilometers. The spring with slightly saline water is in the close vicinity of the road leading from Trogir to Split. Additional water brackishness results from a slightly higher position of the spring in relation to the sea level, so depending on whether the tide is high or low the brackishness increases or decreases. Near the spring there is a water-mill from the 13th century, and on the mouth the remnants of the tower from the same period . The water-mill is presently under reconstruction because of the intention to include it in the tourist and catering offer. Between the spring and the mouth there are old fish-ponds, which have not been used for several years now. In its eastern part, the marsh has become a rubbish and construction waste dump. A slaughterhouse is there, too. From the eastern and north-western sides filling of the marsh is done for the purpose of extending farmlands. The earlier urban development plans of Trogir even anticipated a part of the marsh to be filled for housing construction.

As far back as in the 15th century the laws forbidding fishing with fishing nets in this area were in force. Wading on muddy land, as well as cutting of reed and grass were forbidden, too (Fisković, 1981; Babić, 1984; Cvitanić, 1996, 1998; Sučević et Dujmov, 1998).

Today, the Pantana marshland has been proclaimed a special ichthyologic and ornithological reserve of nature in order to prevent hunting of birds which rest here during their migration and catching of fish and fish fry using fishing tackle and explosive. Despite of the protection by law, due to the lack of control the destruction by farmland extending and by filling with construction waste continues. Unfortunately, the vegetation is not included in the protection, although some vegetation researches were made (Bedalov et Šegulja, 1990). However, as these researches have never been published fully, the need is felt for a new vegetation reseach with the aim to protect the flora and vegetation.

MATERIAL AND METHODS
The vegetation researches carried out in the Pantana area in the spring, summer and autumn of 2001 are based on the combined estimation according to the Zürich-Montpellier school, while the syntaxonomic analysis is presented according to Horvatić (1963) and Polidini et al. (1999).

In the researched area, the individual plant associations are distributed in a mosaic-like manner and are not separated sharply between them. The reason is in the analogue, namely mosaic distribution of the most important ecological factors (water depth and salinity, the high and low tide, soil texture). Therefore, in the preparation of phytosociological records, relatively small areas had to be taken for analysis. Thus, the vegetation is in fact developed as one mosaic complex. However, some plant association in the researched area are developed fragmentarily only, and, therefore, they were analyzed accordingly.


To save space, in tables the following abbreviations are used:

Ass. = characteristic species of association

All. = characteristic species of alliance

O. = characteristic species of order

Cl. = characteristic species of class

Comp. = accompanying species

RESULTS
On the basis of phytosociological research, the marsh and halophilic vegetation in the Pantana area in terms of the syntaxonomy could be shown in the following way:
I. Cl. Salicornietea Br.-Bl. et Tx.1943

O. Salicornietalia Br.-Bl. 1931

Al. Thero-Suaedion Br.-Bl. 1931

1. Ass. Salsoletum sodae Pignatti 1953

Al. Salicornion fruticose Br.-Bl. 1931

2. Ass. Limonio-Artemisietum coerulescentis H-ić 1934


II. Cl. Juncetea maritimi Tx. 1951

O. Juncetalia maritimi Br.-Bl. 1931

All. Juncion maritimi Br.-Bl. 1931

3. Ass. Juncetum maritimo-acuti H-ić 1934


III. Cl. Rupietea Tx. et Preising 1960

O. Rupietalia J.Tüxen 1960

All. Rupion maritimae Br.-Bl. 1931

4. Ass. Ruppietum maritimae Br.-Bl. 1931

IV. Cl. Phragmitetea Tx. et Preising 1942

O. Phragmitetalia W.Koch 1926

All. Phragmition (W.Koch 1926) Br.-Bl. 1931

5. Ass. Phragmitetum australis (W.Koch 1926) Schmale1939

6. Ass. Bolboschoenetum maritimi Br.-Bl. 1931
1. Ass. Salsoletum sodae Pignatti 1953

The ass. Salsoletum sodae is developed in the area of the low gravelly seashore and the small islands at the mouth. It builds the first, outer vegetation zone, characterized by the humid and markedly saline soil. Its floristic composition is shown in Table 1 made on the basis of 9 phytosociological records. A total of 26 species has been registered. The association, although fragmentarily developed, occupies relatively large areas, and inside it the elements of ass. Euphorbio-Glaucietum H-ić 1950 and ass. Salicornietum fruticosae Br.-Bl 1931 grow fragmentarily.


Tab. 1. Ass. Salsoletum sodae Pignatti 1953
2. Ass. Limonio-Artemisietum coerulescentis H-ić 1934

The ass. Limonio-Artemisietum coerulescentis continues to the ass. Salsoletum sodae toward the land, or it is developed on a somewhat higher gravelly soil, inside the wave spraying zone, too. Its floristic composition is shown in Table 2 made on the basis of 4 phytosociological records. A total of 17 species has been registered, among which dominant are Artemisia coerulescens and Inula chritmoides. This association covers relatively large areas with the covering of practically 100%, and inside it the elements of the fragmentarily developed ass. Salicornietum fruticosae Br.-Bl. 1931 occur.


Tab.2. Ass. Limonio-Artemisietum coerulescentis H-ić 1934

3. Ass. Juncetum maritimo-acuti H-ić 1934

The ass. Juncetum maritimo-acuti grows on both the seashore and the inner side of the small islands, on more or less saline, muddy and muddy-gravelly soils, where fresh and salt water mix. Its floristic composition is shown in Table 3 made on the basis of 8 phytosociological records. A total of 18 species has been registered. The association is developed on a relatively small space and inside it the elements of the class Ammophiletea Br.-Bl. ex Tx. 1943 and Salicornietea Br.-Bl ex Tx. 1952 occur.
Tab. 3. Ass. Juncetum maritimo-acuti H-ić 1934

4. Ass. Ruppietum maritimae Br.-Bl.1931

The ass. Rupietum maritimae grows at the mouth, in the lagoon closed from the sea by the low shore and the small islands. The vegetation grows on the muddy bottom at a depth of 5-40 cm, depending upon whether the tide is low or high. The water salinity also varies considerably according to the tidal movements.The floristic composition is given in Table 4 made on the basis of 5 phytosociological records. A total of 6 species has been registered.
Tab. 4. Ass. Ruppietum maritimae Br.-Bl.1931

5. Ass. Phragmitetum australis (W.Koch 1926) Schmale1939

The ass. Phragmitetum australis occupies the largest areas in the researched locality. It grows from the spring to the inner edge of the lagoon on the muddy bottom. Absolutely dominant is Phragmites australis. The floristic composition is given in Table 5 made on the basis of 8 phytosociological records. A total of 13 species has been registered, with Phragmites australis being absolutely dominant in this association. Such marked domination of reed proves this to be its optimal habitat, regardless of the presence of halophytic species among accompanying species.
Tab. 5. Ass. Phragmitetum australis (W.Koch 1926) Schmale1939

6. Ass. Bolboschoenetum maritimi Br.-Bl. 1931

The ass. Bolboschoenetum maritimi grows from the spring to the inner edge of the lagoon, on the muddy shore, following the ass. Phragmitetum australis. Absolutely dominant is Bolboschoenus maritimus. Its floristic composition is given in Table 6 made on the basis of 10 phytosociological records. A total of 12 species has been registered, with Bolboschoenus maritimus being absolutely dominant in the association.
Tab. 6. Ass. Bolboschoenetum maritimi Br.-Bl. 1931

List of plant species:



A list of plants, arranged in an alphabetical order, have been set forth.They have been recorded on the studied area and give a basis for further studiing.



Artemisia coerulescens

Juncus acutus

Aster tripolium

Juncus maritimus

Atriplex latifolia

Lactuca scariola

Beta maritima

Limonium serotinum

Bolboschoenus maritimus

Lophochloa cristata

Calistegia sepium

Lotus alionii

Carex extensa

Oenanthe silaeifolia

Ceramium rubrum

Parietaria judaica

Chaetomorpha sp.

Phragmites australis

Chritmum maritimum

Poligonum maritimum

Cladophora sp.

Puccinellia palustris

Datura stramonium

Pulicaria disenterica

Daucus carota

Rumex crispus

Ecbalium elaterium

Ruppia maritima

Elymus pycnanthus

Salicornia fruticosa

Enteromorpha linza

Salsola soda

Galium maritimum

Sonchus maritimus

Glaucium flavum

Suaeda maritima

Halimione portulacoides

Tamarix dalmatica

Inula chritmoides

Ulva rigida

Inula viscosa

Vitex agnus-castus
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