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Jatropha: next generation susstainable fuel


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JATROPHA: NEXT GENERATION SUSSTAINABLE FUEL

Prof.Banshidhar Sahu,

Krupajal Engineering College, Bhubaneswar
INTRODUCTION:

Dr. Rudolf Diesel built the first diesel engine in the date back in 1885 ,but in 1912 he stated “…the use of vegetable oil for engine fuels may seem insignificant to-day . But such oils may in the course of time become an important as petroleum and coal tar products of present time.” Scientists discovered that the viscosity of vegetable could be reduced in a simple chemical process. In 1970, it is discovered that the vegetable oil could work well as diesel fuel in modern engine. Since then the technical development have largely been completed. Plant oil is highly valued as Bio fuel “Diesel” and transformed in to Bio Diesel in most industrialized.

India which has a population of more than a billion faces problems in regard to the fuel requirement for increased transportation demand and now imports about 70% of its petroleum requirement . Widely fluctuating world price of oil have long been a destabilizing element for country’s balance of payments. The petroleum import bill is now about $13 billion forming about 30% of the national import bill and expected to reach $15.7 billion by end of 2007. The current yearly consumption of diesel is about 40 million tonnes forming 40% of the total petroleum product consumption. This is expected to reach 52.32 million tonnes by the end of 2007 growing at about 5.6 % annually. India’s vehicular pollution is estimated to have increased eight times over the last two decades. This source alone is estimated to contribute about 70% to the total air pollution. With 243.3 million tonnes of carbon released from the consumption and combustion of fossil fuels in 1999, India ranked fifth in the world behind U.S., China, Russia and Japan. India’s contribution to world carbon emissions is expected to increase in the coming years due to rapid pace of urbanization , shift from non commercial to commercial fuels, increased vehicular usage and continued use of older and more inefficient coal –fired power plants.

Improper land use and population pressure over several years has resulted the extensive degradation of agricultural land . Of the estimated 130 million hectares of waste land in India, about 33 million hectares are available for reclamation through the tree plantation , according to Planning Commission figures. The answer to the above requirement is to search for an alternative to the natural resources of the fossil fuel that could be produced by mankind and that too on waste lands or lands that cannot be cultivated. Out of above available waste lands, Orissa has about seven million hectares of waste land under sub-humid climatic conditions. These waste lands can be used to produce jatropha on large scale by providing income and employment to the rural people.



Bio diesel from jatropha: Bio diesel is a non toxic , biodegradable replacement for fossil diesel. Bio diesel is made from vegetable oil, recycled cooking oil and tallow. Bio diesel belongs to a family of fatty acids called methyl esters. Chemically bio diesel is described as a mono alkyl ester. It can be described as follows:

  • This vegetable oil be used as it is crushed i.e. unrefined in the engine of cars.

  • The vegetable can be blended with normal diesel and used in cars.

  • This vegetable can be refined and sold as pure diesel.

  • Refined it can be exported as a clean fuel to the any where in the world

Bio diesel is a substitute for , or an additive to the diesel that derived from the oils and fats of the plants either from edible oil like cocoanut , maize, cotton, coffee or from non edible oils such as jatropha, castor, mahua, linseed, pongomia, neem.

It can be seen that edible oils can be costlier in comparison to non edible oil in case of bio diesel production. The oil concentration and jatropha production are higher than any other non edible oils. A table will be show the concentration and oil production in case of non edible oil are given below.



Non edible oil concentration & oil production

Table no.1



Species

Oil concentration %

Oil in liters /hectare

Jatropha

50-60

1892

Castor

45-50

1413

Mahua

35-40

1350

Sal

10-12

1230

Linseed

35-45

735

Pongomia

30-40

1380

Neem

20-30

1310



Utilization of Jatropha:

It is found that jatropha is used universally mainly in production of bio diesel .But every part of Jatropha Curcas plant is used to utilization of human & animal benefit as given below .



  • Jatropha extracted oil are used as Bio diesel , Varnishes, illuminants, soap, pest control, medicinal for skin diseases.

  • Jatropha seed and saplings can be sold

  • Dark blue dyes and wax can be produced from bark of jatropha plants

  • Jatropha plant stem can be used as a poor quality wood

  • Leaves help in dressing the wound

  • Jatropha roots help in making yellow dye

  • Juice of the flower & jatropha stems have very good medicinal properties

  • Pounded seeds are used in tanning

  • Press cakes received from chemical reaction of producing bio diesel become organic fertilizers & used as soil improving agents as it contains rich in nitrogen

  • The seed husk can be used into a high density brick for burning as fuel

  • Jatropha can grow even marginal/saline acidic/ alkaline soils and sloppy lanes and even on dry land and survive in drought conditions

  • Provide live hedge for firms to arrest the menace of stray cattle

  • Create green cover for long term ecological benefit

  • It can be used for candle making, cosmetic industry & for herbal application

  • Like all trees, Jatropha removes carbon from atmosphere , stores in the woody tissues and assists in building up of soil carbon. It is environment friendly.

Cultivation of Jatropha:

Jatropha can be grown in areas of low rain fall ranging from 500 to 1000 mm per year and problem soils. In high rain fall and irrigated areas too it can be grown in most part of the country. It can be grown in desert areas with the help of drip irrigation system with more expenses. It can grow in dry ,semi dry , stony , sloppy and all kind of soil .It can grow even in the crevices of rock. The jatropha can be planted at 2m x 2m in a pit of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm depth filled with 2kg of organic manure and 2500 plants can be grown in a hectare. The jatropha can be planted from the seeds , 3 months old seedlings and vegetative from cuttings. Use of branch cutting for propagation is easy and results in rapid growth, but has no tap root. It makes plant weak. The land does not require tillage. The jatropha can be planted in the canal banks, roads, railway tracks , on the boarders of farmers’ fields as a boundary fence areas. It can be planted in the forest to reclaim the waste land. There are 143 types of jatropha which they may can be hybridized for higher out put. There are jatropha plants with yellow, pink or green corolla, with red or green leaves with dark or light big or small , non poisonous or highly poisonous seeds , various plodded grades and different fatty acid types. With good irrigated land & having good crops, jatropha will give 2kgkgs of seed per tree. In relative poor desert soils such as Kutch in Gujrat the will be 1 kg per plant. In below ,the yield and income from a hectare of land is given below assuming that seed of jatropha per kg will be Rs.5/-

TABLE-2


Year after planting

Expected yield /hectare in kg

Expected income/hectare in Rs.

1st

250

1250

2nd

1000

5000

3rd

2500

12500

4th

5000

25000

5th

8000

40000

6th & onward

12000

60000

The jatropha if gets good environment will be flowering towards the end of 1st year and seeds will be produced. The initial years , the income will be low , after 6th year onward , the income will be multiplied. Its water requirement is extremely low i.e. 1 liter per plant per day and can be provided once in 15 days which costs Rs.20/- per hectare for each watering and it can stand long period s of drought by shedding most of the leaves to reduce transpiration loss. Jatropha Curcas is also suitable for preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand dunes. Besides no watch man is required for watching the field from cattle ,goats or any other animals as those animals do not graze the plants. Assuming that one hectare of land will be planted with jatropha plants , the expenditure and employment potentials are given below.



TABLE-3

EMPLOYMENT GENERATION & INVESTMENT IN PLANTATION OF ONE HECTARE OF LAND


Sl.no.

Item

Cost in 1st

Year (Rs)



Cost in 2nd year (Rs)

Employment in mandays 1st year

Employment in mandays 2nd year

1.

Site preparation i.e. cleaning& leveling-10 mandays

600

-

10

-

2.

Alignment and staking -5mandays

300




5




3.

Digging of pits (2500 nos.)of (30cmx30cmx30cm)size @30 pits per mandays -50 mandays

3000




50




4

Cost of manure (including transport) 2kg per pit during 1st year , 1kg per pit during 2nd year onward @Rs.400/MT

3000




20




5.

Cost of fertilizer @Rs.8/kg (50gm per plant during 1st year & 25 gm from 2nd year onward and 2mandays for each application

1000

500

2

2

6.

Mixing of manure , insecticide, fertilizer and refilling of pits @100 pits per manday -25 mandays

1500




25




7.

Cost of plants including (including carriage) 2500 nos during 1st year & 500 nos of plants during 2nd year for replanting @Rs.4/plant

10000

2000

100

20

8.

Cost of planting & replanting @100 per man day -25 man days & 5 man days respectively

1500

300

25

5

9

Irrigation-3 irrigation during 1st and one irrigation during 2nd year @Rs.500/per irrigation

1500

500

5

2

10.

Weeding & soil working 10 mandays X 2times for 2 years

1200

1200

20

20

11.

Plant protection measure

300




1







Sub Total

23900

4500

263

49




Contingency @10% of above

2390

450










GRAND TOTAL

26290

4950

263

49

Assuming that 2000 hectares of land to be covered for jatropha plantations, 7500 tons of seed can be collected, 1mt/day whose capital cost is Rs.100000 one modern oil expeller can be utilized for extraction of bio diesel oil.

The seed of the jatropha contains the following:



JATROPHA SEED CONTENTS

TABLE-4

Moisture 6.20%

Protein 18.00%

Fat 38.00%

Carbohydrates 17.00%

Fibre 15.5%

Ash 5.30%

The oil content is 50-60% in the seed & extraction of oil is in the order of 98%. There are some chemical elements in the seed , cursin which are poisonous and render the oil not appropriate for human consumption.



BIO DIESEL PRODUCTION :

The production of bio diesel or alkyl esters from jatropha seeds is well known. There are three basic routes to ester productions from oil or fat.



  • Base catalyzed transesterification of the oil with alcohol

  • Direct acid catalyzed esterification of the oil with methanol

  • Conversion of the oil to fatty acids and then to alkyl esters with acid catalyst

The majority of the alkyl esters produced to day are done with the base catalyzed reaction because it is the most economic for several reasons.

  • Low temperature of 1500F and pressure 20 psi processing

  • High conversion of 98% with minimal side reactions and reaction time

  • Direct conversion to methyl esters with no intermediate steps

  • Exotic materials of construction are not necessary

The general process is described below, The oil is reacted with an alcohol like methanol in the presence of catalyst such as Sodium Hydroxide or Potassium Hydroxide to produce to produce glycerin & methyl esters or bio diesel. The methanol is charged in excess to assist in quick conversion and recovered for reuse.

TABLE-5

Input side = Output side

Alcohol= 12% Alcohol = 4%

Catalyst=1% Fertilizes = 1%

Oil =87% Glycerin =9%

Methyl Esters =86%

Nothing is wasted.

PROCESSING & FULLY UTILIZATION OF JATROPHA OIL IN TO BIO DIESEL & OTHER PRODUCTS


Fatty Acid

Bio diesel is generally is known as Methyl Esters whose formula is C14 –C24. It has boiling point is >4000 F & Vapour pressure is <5mm Hg @ 720 F The production of Methyl Ester can be done with base catalyst transesterification of oil with methanol at low temperature of 1500F & pressure 20 psi ( 1.37kg(f)/cm2) & it yields conversion of 98% with minimal side reactions & reaction time. The first thing is to prepare the Methoxide. Methoxide is mixing of NaOH/ KOH with methanol which acts as catalyst . The transesterification can be done in the following way:

O



---COCH2



O O HOCH2

catalyst ║ I

---COCH + 3 CH3OH -------------► 3……….COOH2 + HOCH

O I


Methanol Methyl ester HOCH2

---COCH2



Vegetable oil Glycerol

100 kg oil +12 kg of methanol +2.5 kg of NaOH

98.5 kg bio diesel +15 kg glycerin+1kg fertilizer

. The transesterification reaction is usually conducted with a molar ratio methanol / vegetable oil of 6:1 based on kinetic mechanistic studies. Modification in kinetics of the reaction would not have any major influence on reaction monitoring. It is said that presence of “insert co solvent” such as tetrahydrofuran and methyl tert-butyl ether and increasing the methanol /vegetable ratio considerably accelerates the transesterification reaction ,leading to cost and efficiency improvements.. The analysis of bio diesel for various contaminants is usually conducted by gas chromatography or Near –infrared spectrography.



COMPARISON OF PROPERTIES OF JATROPHA OIL, TRANSESTEREFIED JATROPHA OIL & STANDARD FOSSIL DIESEL

Raw Jatropha oil can be used directly used as a fuel, but transesterified jatropha oil is equivalent to standard fossil diesel fuel. It also has less emission than fossil diesel. So the whole world has eagle’s eye on the cultivation and production of bio diesel from jatropha. Below are given a comparison of raw jatropha oil, transesterified jatropha oil and standard fossil diesel.


Table-6

Some important parameters of raw .& transesterified Jatropha oil

Parameter

Jatropha oil raw

Jatropha oil transesterified

E DIN 51606 Standard

Density(g/cm3 at 200 C

0.920

0.879

0.875-0.890

Flash point in 0 C

236

191

>110

Cetane no. ( ISO 5165)

23-41

51

>49

Sulphated ash (%)

-

0.014

<0.03

Methanol

-

0.06

<0.3

Viscosity (mm2/s at 300 C)

52

4.84

3.4-5 at 400C

Neutralization number KOH/g

0.92

0.24

<0.50

Total glycerin (%)

-

0.088

<0.250

Free glycerin (%)

-

0.015

<0.02

Phosphorus (ppm)

290 (17 in de gummed oil)

17.5 (negligible when de gummed oil used)

<10


NORMS FOR EMISSION OF DIESEL VEHICLES OF GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

The recommendation based on Mashelkar Committee report, the auto fuel policy is launched in the country for the improvement of air quality. In 2010 , Bharat Stage –IV equivalent to Euro-IV is envisaged. These are introduced such that the change over is gradual & smooth- first in the metros and after a gap of specified time , extended to vehicles plying all over India. Necessary components are upgraded to accommodate the emission norms . They are three way catalytic converter to reduce HC, CO, NOx in a single step, an electronic fuel injection (EFI) system through a oxygen sensor in exhaust with a feed back to correct the air-fuel ratio.

The new vehicles except 2 & 3 wheelers are manufactured according to the compliance of Bharat Stage II emission(B.S-II) norms has been enforced for the entire country from 1.4.2005 & Euro III equivalent norms Bharat Stage III (B.S.III) by1.4.2010. In addition to 4 metros where Bharat Stage II norms are already in force, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur, & Agra are enforcing this norms from 1.4.2003. The 4 metros & other seven cities should comply with Euro III & Euro IV equivalent norms from 1.4.2005 & 1.4.2010 respectively. The 2 & 3 wheelers should conform to Bharat Stage II norms from 1.4.2005 all over the country & Bharat Stage III preferably from 1.4.2008.
Table-7

Pollutants

B.S-II (W.e.f. 1.4.2005)

B.S.III (w.e.f 1.4.2010)

CO (g/kwh )

4.

2.1

HC(g/kwh)

1.1

0.7

NOx (g/kwh)

7.0

5

PM (g/kwh)for engines with power exceeding 85 KW

0.15

0.10

PM (g/kwh)for engines with power not exceeding 85 KW

0.15

0.13

*PM-Particulates matters







The industry has acquired , developed and adopted new technology and reengineered it self to produce increasingly cleaner vehicles – Emission control vehicles (ECV), Low Emission vehicles (LEV) ,and Ultra Low Emission Vehicles (ULEV) onward from 2000. The total emission has come down severely .

REDUCTION OF EMISSION DUE TO BIO DIESL USES IN VEHICLES

The bio diesel can be blended with petroleum diesel. B20 is a blend of 20% bio diesel with 80% of petroleum diesel which is approved by EPA Act (Energy Policy Act). B100 is a pure 100% bio diesel . Both B20 & B100 are tried in diesel vehicles and found that emissions have been reduced drastically of the following amounts.



Table-8

REDUCTION OF EMISSION ON BIO DIESEL

Emission B100 B20

Carbon Monoxide -43.2% -12.6%

Hydro Carbon -56.3% -11.0%

Particulates -56.4% -18.0%

Nitrous Oxide +5.8% +1.2% (can reduced by catalyst converter)

Air toxic -80%-90%,-12%-20%

Mutagen city -80%-90%,-20%



Of CO2 in atmosphere
As the vehicle population is increasing by 5% per annum and to-day population have 60 million, it is essentially required that the emission should considerably be less for the existence the human kind. Though the emission of diesel vehicles have been reduced by 61% from the pre-89 level, still many a miles have to go.

GOVERNMENT POLICY FOR BIO FUEL :

  • The Central Government of India and various state Government have visualized the great prospects of Bio diesel in this country. Hyderabad Natural Bio energy has started the production of bio diesel at its plant Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh from 13.10.2007 with a annual target of 30 million gallon tied with US & Europe for export.

  • The Energy Policy Committee will finalize its report on specific proposals to the Energy Co-ordination Committee for final accepted by Government.

  • It is hoped the Government will have zero excise duty for Bio diesel . The Government will assist and will encourage states to promote Jatropha cultivation for bio diesel production in the country under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme according to Rajya Sabha report.

  • Andhra Pradesh State Government introduced Draft Industrial Policy for bio diesel to facilitate both investors and farmers to plant oil bearing trees in 1.5 million acre in the next few years. Also, a risk fund of Indian Rupees of 2 billion is expected to be created as loan to the state Government to support small and marginal farmers with maximum five acres land holding. There is also a proposal for constituting a biodiesel board which would be autonomous board for integrated development of jatropha cultivation and biodiesel oil in the state. The proposed board , having legal authority , will monitor the tripartite agreement signed between the stake holders, besides assisting , encouraging and promoting jatropha cultivation , according to the officials involved in preparing the draft policy said. Following the constitution of policy , the Government is determined to promote contact farming for buyback of jatropha seeds. The minimum buy back price will be fixed considering the different variables including the quality and quantity of the produce. A special department has been created namely “Rain Shadow Area Department” as a special purpose vehicle for planning , coordination, monitoring and implementation of the biodiesel program.

  • The Government of Orissa does not lag behind regarding the cultivation of jatropha and production of biodiesel. The first biodiesel processing plant will come out in the district of Ganjam. The Central Salt and Marine Chemical Research Institute (CSMCRI) , Bhabanagar in collaboration with the Institute of Mineral and Material Technology (IMMT), Bhubaneswar would undertake research for viable cultivation of jatropha . They may take up viable cultivation of jatropha in large numbers of used mines ,saline waste lands and water logged areas. IMMT has been doing research on 28 varieties of jatropha seeds and provided high yielding jatropha seeds to farmers for cultivation in about 2000 hectares in Kendrapada , Sambalpur, & Bhanjanagar areas. But their trust will be in waste land and marginal lands for growing jatropha. The state Government is enthusiastic about the above proposal and the chief minister has assured with subsidies and waste land to the farmers. Government of Orissa has decided on principle to run all the new heavy vehicles in bio diesel from recent month. In the district of Rayagada , they have taken the plantation of Jatropha nearly 5000 hectares and a plant is will soon process bio diesel very soon.

  • The Government of Chhatisgarh has planned has 80 million saplings of jatropha , a source of biodiesel , as the state attempt to tap non-conventional energy sources. It has set a target of cultivating jatropha plantations in one million hectares in 2006, covering 20000 hectares in the 1st phase. The government would work with NGOs for starting 350 jatropha nurseries each spread over a maximum of 500 hectares, in 2005.

  • Andhra Government has taken initiative to cultivate jatropha plantations in 728,000 hectares of waste land with the cooperation of Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) and Reliance Industries.

  • In Tamil Nadu, a Joint venture of Mohan Breweries & Distilleries & U.K. based D1 Oils Plc. have plans to cultivate one lakh hectares of land under jatropha cultivation.

  • Godrej Agrovet would invest Indian Rupees 5 billions in cultivating jatropha and palm oil in Mizoram & Gujrat in 10,000 acres.

  • Emami group is planning to set up to set up a biodiesel plant at Haldia in West Bengal at the cost of Rs.1.5 billions

  • Reliance is expected to start its projects on jatropha cultivation and bio diesel production in Maharastra, Gujrat, Rajsthan and Andhra Pradesh very shortly.

CONCLUSION:

Jatropha is a profitable business which could involve all sections of society starting from poor to rich including middle income group. This could stimulate rural development because the bio diesel will be generated from the jatropha and other types of edible and no-edible oils , they hold enormous potential for farmers. In near future , specially two third people of the developing world who derive their incomes from such types of agriculture. Initially, it is estimated that 100,000 hectares of jatropha farm will yield revenues of $100 million per annum. If the jatropha seed is collected @Rs.6/-per kg, , bio diesel will be available at a rate of Rs.25/- per liter including all the expenditures & all the taxes.

At the national level, producing more bio diesel will generate new industries, new technologies, new jobs and new markets. Bio diesel is the most valuable form of renewable energy that can be used directly in any existing unmodified diesel engine. The bio diesel can conserve the natural resources.

Over 30 million hectares planted jatropha can completely replace the current use of fossil fuel . The production jatropha can boost the rural economy which will bring more enthusiasm in more than one billion lives in the area.

So the jatropha will be the sustainable fuel for next generation & it will bring the smile to all. Our nation will not beg for fossil fuel from the abundant oil production countries.


Bibliography:

  1. The Cultivation of jatropha Curcas: by S.V.Lele

  2. Global Bio fuel from internet

  3. Bio diesel-The Hindu

  4. Times of India

  5. Bio diesel production: wikipedia.org


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