Scientific Organising Committee : J.P. Beaulieu (co-chair), T. Guillot, H. Lammer, D. Latham, D. Lin, J.P. Maillard, I. Ribas (co-chair), J. Schneider, F. Selsis, J. Tennyson, G. Tinetti (co-chair), S. Udry.
Local Organising Committee : S. Dieters, V. Batista, D. Kipping
Location : Salle Cassini, Observatoire Paris, Paris, France.
Date : November 19-21, 2008
Going to the workshop
Entry: 77, Avenue Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris
Tel: 01.40.51.22.21 — Fax: 01.43.54.18.04 —
The observatory is located in 14th district of Paris.
Longitude: 2°20 ’ East, Latitude: 48°50 ’ North
Going there :
By Bus: line 38, 83 or 91 stop(ruling) Observatoire-Port Royal
By Subway: stations Port Royal or Denfert-Rochereau. You can see these stationson a map
From the airport of Roissy Charles de Gaulle: take the RER B to Denfert Rochereau
Observatoire de Paris, Salle Cassini November 19-20-21, 2008
The workshop will start at 0810 and finish at 1900.
Wednesday November 19th
Registration opens at 8:00.
0845-0900 : D. EGRET Welcome to Obs de Paris.
0900-0930 : SCHNEIDER Molecules in exoplanets: beyond the standard view
1a) Exoplanet atmospheres from transit observations (Chair : TINETTI)
09:30-10:00 : CHARBONNEAU, review + The Small Star Opportunity to Explore Super-Earth Atmospheres
10:00-10:30 : HARRINGTON, review on secondary transit + new results
10:30-11:00 : SWAIN, Methane Detected in an Extrasolar Planet Atmosphere (emphasis on spectroscopy)
--coffee break 11:00-11:40---
11:40-12:10 : VASISHT, Infrared Spectrophotometry of Exoplanets with the Hubble Space Telescope
12:10-12:40 : KNUTSON, Temperature Inversions in the Atmospheres of Hot Jupiters: Origins, Characteristics, Consequences.
1b) Exoplanet atmosphere dynamics (Chair : TERQUEM)
12:40-13:10 : SHOWMAN, Atmospheric circulation of hot Jupiters
14:15-14:45 : CHO, Some crucial aspects of atmospheric dynamics for circulation and characterization
14:45-15:05 : AYLWARD, Introduction to thermosphere and exosphere of extrasolar planets
1c) Contributed talks, exoplanet atmosphere dynamics (Chair SHOWMAN)
15:05-15:25 : IRO, atmosphere of extrasolar planets on eccentric orbits
15:25-15:45 : LEWIS, Atmospheric Dynamics of Two Eccentric Transiting Planets: GJ436b and HD 17156b
15:45-16:05 : KOSKINEN, A 3D Model for the Upper Atmosphere and Ionosphere of Extrasolar Giant Planets
-----tea break---- 16:05-16:35-----
1d) Contributed talks, transit observations (Chair : VASISHT)
16:35-16:55 : BENDER, Direct spectroscopic characterization of non-transiting exoplanets
16:55-17:15 : BARNES, Detecting H_2O and CO in the atmospheres of close orbiting extrasolar giant planets using high resolution spectroscopy
17:15-17:35 : SNELLEN, Groundbased detection of Sodium in the transmission spectrum of HD 209458b
17:35-17:55 : CARTER, NICMOS spectrophotometric observations of HD 149026b
17:55-18:15 : KIPPING, IRAC data on HD209458b
18h25-18:45 : Poster Speed Session
Thursday November 20th
1d) Contributed talks, transit observations (Chair : VASISHT)
08:15-08:35 : ANDERSON, WASP planets and their characterisation
08:35-08:55 : DESERT, Space-based search for molecules in exoplanetary atmospheres.
08:55-09:15 : SING, HST/Nicmos narrow band photometry of HD 189733b
2b) Planets in the Solar System: overview (Chair : COUSTENIS)
09:15-09:55 : LELLOUCH, The composition of planetary atmospheres: a historical perspective
09:55-10:35 : YUNG, Photochemistry in the Atmosphere of Exoplanets
10:35-11:05 : CHASSEFIERE, upper atmosphere of Venus, Earth, Mars
-----coffee break--- 11:05-11:35-------
11:35-12:05 : MAILLARD, Observations of H3+ in emission in planetary atmospheres
12:05-12:35 : MILLER, The role of H3+ in planetary atmospheres
12:35-12:55 : HOCHLAF, Ionic Chemistry in Titan: C2N2++ dication formation and fragmentation
12:55-13:15 : LEACH, VUV spectroscopy and photophysics of prebiotic molecules
2c) Molecular data-lists (Chair : BEZARD)
14:15-14:55 : ROTHMAN, Spectroscopic Parameters for the Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets
14:55-15:15 : (Miller/Aylward for Tennyson), Molecular linelists for extrasolar planets
15:15-15:35 : ROUEFF, Visible-Optical to near InfraRed (VOIR) Emission of electron excited H2
Special session (Chair : BEAULIEU)
15:35-15:55 : CLAMPIN, Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light years from Earth
15:55-16:15 : DOYON, Direct imaging of Multiple planets orbiting HR8799
-------tea break ------16:15-16:35----
2d) Brown dwarfs (Chair : MAILLARD)
16:35-17:15 : BURGASSER, The Brown Dwarf-Exoplanet Connection and (for MARLEY) The Importance of Non-equilibrium Chemistry: Lessons for Exoplanets from Brown Dwarfs
17:15-17:35 : ALLARD F., Cloud formation in the atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Giant Planets
17:35-17:55 : MENARD, Linear Polarisation of ultra cool dwarfs
19:30-23:00 : Reception with dinner cocktail, and wine tasting.
Friday November 21th
08:10-08:30 : HOMEIER, Mixing and CE departures in ultracool atmospheres
08:30-08:50 : FREYTAG, Radiation hydrodynamics simulations of dust clouds
3b) Terrestrial exoplanets (modelling, habitability, detection of biosignatures) (Chair : RIBAS)
08:50-09:10 : COUDE' DU FORESTO, The Blue Dot Team: pathways to habitable planets.
09:10-09:30 : LAHAV, ExoFit: Orbital Parameters of Extra-solar Planets from radial velocities
09:30-09:50 : SELSIS, Characterizing habitable planets around M stars with the JWST
09:50-10:20 : STAM, Polarimetry of Exoplanets in Theory and in Practise
10:20-10:40 : PALLE, The transmission spectra of planet Earth
10:40-11:10 : TRAUB, Transit Spectra of Super-Earths
----coffee break ----11:10-11:40
11:40-12:00 : LAMMER, The loss of N2-rich atmospheres from Earth-like planets within M-star habitable zones
12:00-12:20 : GRENFELL, SIMULATING BIOSIGNATURES FROM TERRESTRIAL PLANETS
12:20-12:40 : HEDELT, Characterization of atmospheres of extrasolar terrestrial planets: Predictions of spectral appearance
3c) The future: short and long term missions and instruments to characterise exoplanet atmospheres. (Chair : COUDE DU FORESTO)
12:40-13:10 : BOCCALETTI, A review of direct detection programs
13:10-13:30 : SWINYARD, SPICA
14:15-14:45 : CASH, High Quality Spectroscopy of Exoplanets Using the New Worlds Observer
14:45-15:05 : CLAMPIN, Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope for Transit Observations
15:05-15:35 : SERABYN, interfero/corono from the ground
15:35-16:05 : ENYA, SPICA for the exo-planet observation (coronograph)
16:35-17:05 : BEUZIT, EPICS & SPHERE
17:05-17:35 : OLLIVIER, Spectral analysis of atmospheres by nulling interferometry
17:35-1755 : DOYON Detecting and Characterizing Exoplanets with the JWST Tunable Filter Imager
17:55-18:25 : BAUDOZ, SEE-Coast
3d) General discussion and conclusions.
ALLARD France, CRAL, FRANCE (Oral).
Cloud formation in the atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Giant Planets
Dust cloud formation occurs in the atmospheres of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs at gas temperatures of less then 1800K for pressures between 1 and 10 bars, i.e. in the line forming region of these atmospheres. Recently, we have been modeling cloud formation via 2D multi-group Radiation Hydro-Dynamical (RHD) simulations of convection, leading to the discovery of gravity waves as the leading mixing mechanism responsible for cloud formation in these objects. While conditions clearly favor cloud formation in brown dwarfs, irradiation from a close parent solar type star makes this situation unclear in the case of short-period gas giant exoplanets for which spectroscopic observations are available: chemical equilibrium calculations, for instance, indicate that favorable conditions are barely met in their photosphere. If present however, clouds can modify if not completely prevent the detectability of molecular and biosignatures. In this paper, we investigate the formation of clouds in close-in extrasolar giant planets, using non-grey RHD simulations, accounting for impinging radiation from the star. Implications for the spectroscopic properties of exoplanets are discussed.
ALLARD Nicole, Observatoire de Paris, FRANCE (Poster)
Collisional line profiles of alkalis perturbed by molecular hydrogen
An accurate determination of the complete profile including the extreme far wing is required to model the contribution of strong alkali resonance lines to brown dwarf spectra. A unified theory of collisional line profiles has been applied for the evaluation of the absorption coefficients of alkalis perturbed by helium and molecular hydrogen. Results are reported here for a study of the core and near wings of Na~I and K~I resonance line profiles perturbed by H2.
ANDERSON David Keele University, UK (Oral)
WASP planets and their characterisation
The current status of the WASP project will be presented. The prospects among WASP planets for the detection of atmospheric signatures, determination of composition, and observation of evaporation will be summarised.
ANGERHAUSEN Daniel, University Cologne-NASA JPL / Caltech (Poster)
Ground based phase-differential imaging spectroscopy of extrasolar planets
Transiting exoplanets provide a unique opportunity for follow up exploration through
phase-differential observation of their emission and transmission spectra. From such spectra immediate clues about the atmospheric composition and the planets chemistry can be drawn. Such information is of imminent importance for the theory of the formation of planets in general as well as for their particular evolution. Ground-based spectroscopy of exoplanet transits is a needful extension of results already obtained through space-based observations. We present results of an exploratory study to use near-infrared integral field spectroscopy to observe extrasolar planets. We demonstrate how adaptive optics-assisted integral field spectroscopy compares with other spectroscopic techniques currently applied. An advanced reduction method using elements of a spectral-differential decorrelation method is also discussed. We have tested our concept with a K-Band time series observations of HD209458b and HD189733b obtained with SINFONI at the VLT and OSIRIS at Keck during secondary transits at a spectral resolution of R=3000.
AYLWARD Alan, UCL, UK (Oral)
Introduction to thermosphere and exosphere of extrasolar planets
BARNES John, University of Hertfordshire, UK (Oral)
Detecting H2O and CO in the atomspheres of close orbiting extrasolar giant planets using high resolution spectroscopy
Space based broadband infrared observations of close orbiting extrasolar giant planets at transit and secondary eclipse have proved a successful means of determining spectral energy distributions and molecular composition. I will discuss near infrared ground based high resolution spectroscopic efforts to detect and characterise the molecular composition of these objects. Studies of a number of systems indicate that species such as H_2O and CO, which are present in current models, do not match observations at high resolution.
BAUDOZ Pierre, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, FRANCE (Oral)
BEAULIEU Jean-philippe, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, FRANCE, (Poster)
CRIRES search for water and methane
BENDER Chad, Naval Research Lab, USA, (Oral)
Direct spectroscopic characterization of non-transiting exoplanets
I will describe a ground-based program using high-resolution spectroscopy in the thermal infrared to characterize the atmospheres of the close-in exoplanet population, concentrating on non-transiting planets. Our observations target the strong methane and carbon monoxide absorption features, at 3.3 microns and 4.6 microns respectively, that result from these planets' high equilibrium temperatures. Using the NIRSPEC spectrometer on the Keck II telescope, we obtain R~25000 spectroscopy with very high signal-to-noise, which contains the blended light of a parent star and its known close-in planet companion. We precisely model both components and recover the planet contribution through a correlation analysis. I will present early efforts to detect methane absorption from the nearby exoplanet 55 Cancri b.
BOCCALETTI, Anthony, Observatoire de Paris, FRANCE, (Oral)
A review of direct detection programs
With the ever-growing number of exoplanets detected, the issue of characterization is becoming even more critical. Direct imaging is certainly the most efficient but the most challenging tool to probe the atmosphere of exoplanets and hence in turns determine the physical properties and refine models. A number of instruments optimized for exoplanets imaging are now operating or planned for the short and long term both on the ground and in space. We will review in an exhaustive fashion these instruments and their characteristics/capabilities.
BONAVITA, Mariangela, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova – INAF ITALY, (Poster)
High contrast imaging: a view on extrasolar planetary systems beyond the snow line
Although very successful (more than 350 planets discovered up to now) indirect methods for extrasolar planet detection (radial velocity, transits) are sensitive to planets quite close to their hosts. Moreover, accurate studies of planet characteristics are feasible only for a subset of object which are strongly irradiated. Standing at this point, any information about the exoplanets in wide orbits (more than 5-10 AU) is missing. High contrast imaging could be the key to open us a door to an unesplored region of star planet separation and to shed light on these unknown far away worlds. But it's not just a matter of detections. In fact coupling integral field spectrographs to extreme adaptive optic modules at the focus of 8m class telescopes (SPHERE for VLT and GPI for South Gemini), and in the future to ELTs (EPICS), would allow us to perform a first order characterization of the exoplanets themselves. Here we present the potential of the high contrast imaging technique, comparing it's capabilities with the ones of the indirect methods.
BONNEFOY Mickaël, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (LAOG) FRANCE (Poster)
The young, tight and low mass binary TWA22AB: a new calibrator for evolutionary models ?
Tight binaries discovered in young, nearby associations, with known distances, are ideal targets to provide dynamical mass measurements. Combined with independent estimations of temperature, gravity and luminosity, mass provides a precious benchmark for evolutionary models that remain to be calibrate at young ages for M<0.5 Msol. We use the adaptive optics (AO) assisted imager NACO to monitor the companion orbit in the infrared of the tight (~100 mas) TWA22 AB system, probable member of the TW Hydrae association (age ~8 Myr). The SINFONI AO-assisted integral field spectrograph was employed to resolve the system. We obtain independent medium resolution spectra (R=1500-2000) for each component in the J, H and K bands. A deconvolution algorithm was applied on NACO images to retrieve the positions and the magnitude difference of the companion relative to the primary at each observation epochs. Armed with an accurate distance to the system (17.53 ± 0.21 pc), we fitted the orbit and obtained the total mass of the system (Mtot=220 ± 21 MJup). 2MASS magnitudes in the J, H and Ks bands were extracted for our sources and converted to luminosity. We employed spectral indexes, equivalent widths and least squares to compare our spectra to empirical spectral libraries of field and young dwarfs. We derived a M6V ± 1 spectral type for both the objects. Spectral templates of the GAIA COND v2.6 library were used to estimate the temperature and the gravity of our objects. To conclude, we found an inconsistency between our observations and model predictions at the age of the young (age ~ 8 Myr) TW Hydrae association. This leads us to either question the age and the association membership of TWA22 AB or to the conclusion that current evolutionary model predictions could underestimate masses of young, very low mass stars close to the substellar boundary.
BRIOT, Danielle, Observatoire de Paris, FRANCE (Poster)
Molecules corresponding to a volcanic activity in atmospheres of Super-Ios and Hyper-Ios
The detection of a volcanic activity on Io by Voyager was very surprising when detected. Other volcanic activities in the solar system have been discovered since then. Super-Earths are very promissing extra-solar planets. If a volcanic activity similar to that of Io occurs in Super-Earths, these objects would correspond to Super-Ios and even more Hyper-Ios. They would present very interesting observational features. We investigate the conditions of a possible atmosphere and its properties, especially the molecules corresponding to a volcanic activity.
BURGASSER, Adam, MIT, USA (Oral)
The Brown Dwarf-Exoplanet Connection
Brown dwarfs have long been referred to as a bridge between the lowest-mass stars and giant planets, in terms of mass, physical size and atmospheric properties. There already exists considerable overlap in atmospheric temperatures between the coldest brown dwarfs (of spectral classes L and T) and the hottest exoplanets. Importantly, brown dwarfs are frequently identified in isolation, so their atmospheric, structural and tempOral characteristics can be studied in considerable detail. In this talk I will review our current observational understanding of brown dwarf atmospheres, focusing in particular on the cloud properties and dynamical processes inferred from spectroscopic and photometric studies. I will make the case that brown dwarfs provide useful, albeit imperfect, templates for studying the atmospheric properties of exoplanets, particularly widely-separated exoplanets which are most amenable for direct detection studies.
CARTER, Joshua, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA (Oral)
NICMOS spectrophotometric observations of HD 149026b
I will present spectrophotometry of a transit of the 'Super Neptune' HD 149026b, using HST/NICMOS with a wavelength coverage of 1.1-2.0 micron. The bandpass-integrated signal allows for improved determinations of the basic system parameters, including the stellar mean density and the planetary radius. I will also show results from 10 independent wavelength channels, with the aim of identifying variations in transit depth that can be attributed to absorption features in the planetary transmission spectrum. In particular the rotational-vibrational transitions of water should appear in this wavelength range. I will compare the new near-IR results with previous results obtained in the optical and mid-infrared bands. Emphasis will be placed on the techniques used to account for instrumental systematic effects, and to estimate the model parameters and their uncertainties.
CASH, Webster, University of Colorado, USA (Oral)
High Quality Spectroscopy of Exoplanets Using the New Worlds Observer
The New Worlds Observer is a mission concept now under study by NASA for implementation in the coming decade. The use of an external occulter can allow direct observation of even Earth-like planets out beyond 15pc. The system is highly efficient, so high quality spectra of the discovered exoplanets can be captured. The system works best in the visible band, but can be extended into the near infrared under some circumstances. Detailed studies of the chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres and surfaces should become possible.
CHARBONNEAU, David, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA (Oral)
The Small Star Opportunity to Explore SuperEarth Atmospheres
Studies of the atmospheres of extrasolar gas giant planets have flourished because of the existence of both a fleet of humble discovery instruments on the ground and an ultra-precise infrared photometer in space. We now must export this success to the study of the atmospheres of terrestrial exoplanets. Stars smaller than 0.3 solar radii present a particular opportunity for the detection of such planets, since the transit signal would be detectable with the millimagnitude precision permitted with ground-based photometry. I will review the status of the MEarth Observatory, a facility consisting of 8 identical 40-cm telescopes dedicated to the survey of 2000 nearby late M-dwarfs for SuperEarth exoplanets orbiting within their stellar habitable zones. I will describe the specific opportunities for atmospheric studies of these worlds with Spitzer (cold or warm) and JWST, including the determination that an atmosphere is present or absent, and whether or not there exist signs of biological activity on the surface it enshrouds.
CHASSEFIERE, E., IPSL, Paris, FRANCE (Oral)
Atmospheric escape on Mars and Venus : present state and past evolution
CHO, James, Queen Mary, University of London, UK, (Oral)
Some crucial aspects of atmospheric dynamics for circulation and characterization
CLAMPIN, Mark, NASA/GSFC, USA (Oral)
1) Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light years from Earth
2) Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope for Transit Observations
CLAUDI, Riccardo, INAF Astron. Obs. of Padova, ITALY (Poster)
High Contrast Imaging: a new frontier for Exoplanets Search and characterization
The discovery of 51 Peg b in 1995 initiated the search for extrasolar planets with radial velocity. Since then, more than 286 exoplanets have been discovered with this successful technique. After a more 'timid' start, the search for extrasolar planets with the transit method has begun to collect very promising results (~51 planets discovered up till now). COROT, Kepler, TESS and ground-based surveys will provide many more candidates in a short term future. Moreover, for a selected sample of transiting exoplanets it is already possible to probe their atmospheres. Although very successful, both these methods are sensitive to planets which orbit quite close to their parent star. High contrast imaging will be the new frontier for exoplanet search and characterization. This technique will provide the opportunity to explore planets orbiting at larger separation from their parent star, especially in the habitable zone. The possibility to couple an integral field spectrograph to a module for extreme adaptive optics and a 8m class telescope (SPHERE for VLT and GPI for South Gemini) or in the future to ELTs (EPICS), will allow to characterize the atmospheres of the observed exoplanets with low-resolution spectroscopy. Here, we present the advantages and limits of the high contrast imaging technique to detect and characterize exoplanets in the short and long term future, especially compared to the RV and Transit methods.