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Gef medium Sized Project Grant Proposal sustainable land management in the zambian miombo woodland ecosystem


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Conservation Farming System


































Assumptions:








































Farmers have a 1 ha plot for continuous cultivation, and a 1 ha plot for other activities, such as agroforestry.



















year ->








































plot

0

1

2

3

4

6

7

8

9

10

11

12







1

20

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0







2

20

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5







3 tm 28

520

520

520

520

520

520

520

520

520

520

520

520







Total:

560

525

525

525

525

525

525

525

525

525

525

525




















































Total average carbon content for 28 ha: 525 tonnes

Average per ha :

18.8 tonnes






































































Comparison chitemene system with the conservation farming system









































































Average per ha carbon storage under the Chitemene system:




13.1

tonnes C/ha



















Average per ha carbon storage under the Conservation farming system:

18.8

tonnes C/ha



















Difference:



















5.7

tonnes C/ha
































































Assuming that 6,000 farmers, each using 28 ha of woodlands to sustain 1 ha of cultivated land, shift from chitemene to

conservation farming, the total amount of carbon to be sequestered amounts to :
6,000 * 28 ha * 5.7 tonnes C/ha = 958,000 tonnes of C
Figure 1. Carbon contents of a 28 ha plot of Miombo woodlands under different ecosystem management systems.


Appendix 5. Some Technical Characteristics of Conservation Farming and Integrated Ecosystem Management


The project will not give farmers any prescriptions. In the FFSs, farmers will experiment themselves with a variety of conservation farming (CF) and integrated ecosystem management (IEM) techniques in order to determine the techniques best adapted to their needs and local environment. The techniques to be tested in the FFSs will be determined in the first year of the project on the basis of the baseline studies, the results from the first year of the targeted research programme (Activity A3), and the try-out FFS (under Activity B2).
On the basis of a first inventory of CF and IEM technologies suitable for Mkushi and Serenje districts, as carried out during project preparation, it is possible to provide a preliminary list of subjects that will be addressed in the FFS: (i) the role of organic matter in soils; (ii) soil nutrient management including biological nitrogen fixation; (iii) the consequences of soil acidity; (iv) liming; (v) crop rotation; (vi) cover crops; (vii) zero-and minimum tillage; (viii) the impact of crop residue burning; (ix) agroforestry; and (x) community management of biodiversity. The farmers will test some of the CF techniques on a number of plots in their fields, and the IEM techniques on a community owned area.
A potential farming system on 1 ha that farmers may want to test in the FFS could have the following characteristics1:

  • Crop rotation in four years, with 0.25 ha of maize, 0.25 ha of legumes (such as soybean and/or groundnut), 0.25 ha of tubers (e.g. sweet potato or cassava) and 0.25 ha of improved fallow (e.g. with sunhemp or cowpea) in every year. Maize is the preferred staple crop for most farmers, whereas tubers are particularly useful for food safety purposes (or for cash).

  • Planting in permanent planting stations, in an adapted form of the ‘holey ground’ method. Farmers will, with a hoe, dig 25 cm deep holes, fill the holes with 5 to 10 cm of soil, apply a combination of lime, manure and/or fertiliser, fill with another 5 to 10 cm of soil, plant the crop seeds, and fill the planting station up to field level. This reduces the required application rates of inputs, reduces labour inputs, and gives farmers the opportunity to plant the seeds directly after the onset of the rains (the holes should be prepared during the dry season). Water logging is avoided by total refill of the hole, and by giving plants the chance to mature before the start of the heaviest rains in January. Lime is required to correct the pH, and should be applied about once every four years (application rates could be around 0.2 to 0.3 tonne/ha).

  • Mulching. Plant residues are not burned at the end of the growing season but left on the field, or, in case of large fire risks, lightly covered with soil. Farmers can supplement crop residues with biomass from agroforestry species planted near the plots.

  • Use of cover crops. In order to reduce the growth of weeds under maize, farmers can use leguminous cover crops, such as sunhemp. Sunhemp can be sown after the first weeding and does not substantially compete with the maize. The biomass of the sunhemp can be used as mulch.

These on-farm techniques could be supplemented with the following IEM measures:



  • Community fire control regulations. These regulations could include allowed times of the year for burning of fields, measures to be taken to avoid the burning of adjacent fields, and punishments for offenders. Traditionally, local chiefs were responsible for fire control measures. Even though, in some areas, the influence of the chiefs may have declined in recent years, it would be recommendable to implement fire control regulations in accordance with traditional rules and in co-operation with traditional authorities.

  • Agroforestry activities. These could include the planting of trees for soil fertility management, fruits, firewood, or for charcoal production. The planting of trees for fruits, firewood or soil fertility management may be done best by individual farmers; they would receive the benefits and would be responsible for tending the trees. However, planting trees for charcoal production has an important benefit to the community as a whole. Charcoal production is a major cause of deforestation in the parts of the districts that are accessible by road, with substantial consequences for the community in terms of reduced availability of firewood, fodder, and mulch. Therefore, a programme to stimulate the planting of charcoal trees could be accompanied by community based restrictions on logging of trees for charcoal production.

  • Community control of excess hunting. The FFS will include a session on sustainable hunting levels, as well as on the practical aspects of community regulation of the hunting pressure. Possible measures that the community may want to pursue are a ban on hunting of specific species in certain seasons, or regulation of the total quantities of a species that has particularly declined in number in recent years to be hunted.

The experiences with FFS in Zambia and in other countries have shown that many farmers and local communities continue improving their agricultural system in the years following the FFS, and that they often come up with their own priorities and ideas to be tested in follow-up activities. The project would provide support for such additional community activities in CF and IEM, for as long as the project's duration of four years permits, through the block and camp officers. For additional technical support on specific matters, the project would be able to draw on funds made available under Activity C4, as well as co-funding resources from the ASIP successor programme.


Appendix 6. Description of the Approach Envisaged to Enable Farmers to Obtain the Required Inputs for CF and IEM.


Lime. Lime is a prime requirement for abandoning the slash-and-burn chitemene farming system; one of the main purposes of the burning of biomass in the chitemene farming system is to increase the pH. Good quality, pure agriculture lime deposits (dolomite) are available in Mkushi district. A plant has recently been opened to prepare lime in a powder form, suitable for agricultural applications. At the moment, only large-scale farmers are purchasing lime from the plant. The price at which the lime is sold, in bulk, is US$ 17 per tonne. The project will seek, in partnership with the Mkushi Agricultural Co-operation and Hi-Qualime (the owner of the lime quarry and crushing facility), to secure the supply of lime in bags at competitive prices in depots in Mkushi and Serenje towns. Mkushi Agricultural Co-operation has indicated its willingness to co-operate in the bagging and distribution of lime. The project will purchase 160 tonnes of bagged lime to be used in the try-out and regular FFSs (0.5 tonne/FFS), and will provide a 50% matching grant to farmers purchasing lime in the year following the FFS, thus (i) providing the farmers with the opportunity to shift from the chitemene system towards a more productive and sustainable farming system based on CF and IEM principles; and (ii) stimulate the demand of bagged lime in the start-up period. In order to avoid market distortions and dependency of farmers on grants, the grant will be given only in the first year after the FFS. Research has shown that the lime will be active for a period of two to four years, and farmers should, with the additional yields obtained, be able to purchase the inputs required in the subsequent years. It is anticipated that, once farmers are aware of the need to regularly supply a small amount of lime on their fields (in the order of once every 4 years a spot application of 0.2 to 0.3 tonne/ha), the demand for bagged lime will be sufficient to ensure the supply through the Mkushi Agricultural Co-operation.
Tools. The principal method of CF currently envisaged to be suitable for the high rainfall zone of Zambia is an adapted form of the ‘holey ground’ method, planting in permanent planting stations with spot application of lime, manure and/or fertilisers (see Appendix 5). This is basically a no-tillage system, in line with the current, very limited, availability of animal draught power and tools other than hand hoes. However, an additional tool that may be useful for improvement of farming systems in northern Zambia is the ‘Magoye’ ripper, a minimum tillage implement that can be used on the same frame as a conventional plough. The Magoye ripper is used to prepare planting lines (an alternative to planting in permanent planting stations) and, during periods of heavy rainfall, to open up the soil for aeration purposes (with minimum disturbance of the soil). The project will therefore supply, only in the first year after the FFS, a 50% matching grant for the purchase costs of tools such as the Magoye ripper to the farmers group, with a maximum of US$ 50 per FFS. In order to avoid market distortions and dependency of farmers on grants, the grant will be given only in the first year after the FFS.
Agroforestry seedlings. Continuous farming systems, based on CF practices, may also include an agroforestry component. Agroforestry species can be used in an improved fallow system, and for the supply of mulch, fruits, firewood and wood for charcoal production. Potentially suitable agroforestry species include Cajanus cajan, Sesbania sesban, Sesbania macrantha, Tephrosia vogelii, and Leucaena leucocephala. The FFS will include sessions on both agroforestry and nursery management, and seeds and seedlings of the most promising species (as identified in Activity A2) will be supplied for the FFS. As agroforestry species tend to be easily multipliable, farmers will be able to use the same species in the following years, either through direct sowing or through the establishment of a village level nursery (at their own expense). Besides supply of the seeds and seedlings during the FFS by the facilitator, no additional support for agroforestry is foreseen.

Appendix 7. Detailed Budget




Component

Unit costs

Units

Total costs

GEF funding requested

Government contribution (in kind)

ASIP funding

Component A. Supporting studies







89,000

49,000

40,000




A1: Assessment of sustainable farming techniques

US$ 2,000 / month

2 man-months

4,000

4,000







A2: Assessment of potential community-based ecosystem management techniques

US$ 2,000 / month

10 man-months

20,000

20,000







A3: Targeted research







65,000

25,000







- Implementation of participatory research trials

lumpsum




15,000

15,000







- Provision of technical and institutional support by MAFF central and district staff

US$ 2,000 / month

20 man-months

40,000




40,000




- Organisation of farmer visits to disseminate the outcomes of the research

lumpsum




10,000

10,000







Component B. Capacity building







161,000

116,000

45,000




B1: Start-up workshop

lumpsum




6,000

6,000







B2: Training of trainers







145,000

100,000

45,000




- Input from master trainers (development of course programme and teaching)1

US$ 2,000 / month

17 man-months

34,000

34,000







- Lodging, food and DSA for master trainers

US$ 25 / day

40 staff-weeks2 (of 5 days each)

5,000

5,000







- Transport for master trainers

US$ 30 per return trip

40 return trips Lusaka- Mkushi/Serenje

1,200

1,200







- Lodging, food and DSA for extension staff during training

US$ 15 / day3

50 participants, for a total of 10 weeks = 50 days

37,500

37,500







- Transport for extension staff

On average US$ 9 per return trip

50 participants, 10 trips

4,500

4,500







- try-out FFS

25

US$ 300 / FFS

7,500

7,500







- logistical and secretarial support

lumpsum




25,000




25,000




- Provision of training facilities (classrooms, equipment, etc.)

lumpsum




20,000




20,000




- miscellaneous

lumpsum




10,000

10,000







B3: Curriculum development workshops

lumpsum




10,000

10,000







Component C. Promotion of sustainable land management in Mkushi and Serenje districts







355,000

302,000

53,000




C1: Workshops on integrated ecosystem management at the district level

2 workshops

2,500 / workshop

5,000

5,000







C2: Implementation of FFS







231,000

178,000

53,000




- FFS

300

US$ 350 / FFS4

105,000

105,000







- Costs of inputs to the FFS (lime, tools, seeds and seedlings)

300

US$ 75 / FFS

23,000

23,000







- Support from resource persons

US$ 2,000 / month

10 man-months

20,000

20,000







- logistical support for extension staff (including fuel and repair and maintenance of bicycles and motorbikes)

lumpsum




30,000

30,000







- salaries of extension staff5

see footnote 1

see footnote 1

53,000




53,000




C3: Enabling farmers to obtain the required inputs







79,000

79,000







- Support to set-up the bagging facility and the lime depots

lumpsum




30,000

30,000







- Matching grant to farmers for lime

US$ 17 / tonne1

0.3 tonne / farmer; 6500 farmers

33,000

33,000







- Matching grant to farmers’ groups for tools and implements

US$ 50 per farmers group

325

16,000

16,000







C4: Support to communities in implementing integrated ecosystem management

lumpsum




40,000

40,000







Component D. Scaling up of the sustainable land management approach







360,000

10,000




350,000

D1: Sustainable land management workshop.







10,000

10,000







- Assessment and publication of the first results of the project

lumpsum




4,000

4,000







- Workshop

lumpsum




6,000

6,000







D2: Promotion of sustainable land management in other parts of the Miombo woodlands

lumpsum




350,000







350,000

Component E. Project management, monitoring and evaluation and information dissemination







385,000

270,000

115,000




E1 Project management







285,000

170,000

115,000




- salary project manager, including allowances

US$ 20,000 / year

4 years

80,000

80,000







- car + maintenance

lumpsum

1

60,000

60,000







- office equipment

lumpsum




10,000

10,000







- office housing and secretarial support project manager

lumpsum




50,000




50,000




- salary part time project co-ordinator

US$ 10,000 / year

4 years

40,000




40,000




- office spacing and secretarial support project co-ordinator

lumpsum




25,000




25,000




- miscellaneous2 (workshops, consultancies, transport, maintenance)

lumpsum




20,000

20,000







E2. Monitoring and Evaluation







70,000

70,000







- monitoring

lumpsum




25,000

25,000







- mid-term evaluation (international consultant)3

US$ 15,000 / month

2 months

30,000

30,000







- final evaluation (international consultant)

US$ 15,000 / month

1 month

15,000

15,000







E3: Information dissemination

lumpsum




30,000

30,000







Total







1,350,000

747,000

253,000

350,000


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