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DIAGNOSIS REPORT OF THE NARTA AREA

Conservation of Wetland and Coastal Ecosystems in Mediterranean Region
FLORA AND VEGETATON

Murat Xhulaj* & Alfred Mullaj**

* Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania.

** Institute of Biological Researches, Academy of Sciences, Tirana, Albania.


1.INTRODUCTION.

From the physic – geographical point of view the Narta area is belongs to the Myzeqeja of Vlora Region. It includes the area from the Vjosa Mouth till Triport Cape.

The area from the Vjosa Mouth, including Bishan-Novosela-Cerkovina-Panaja – Narta – Triport Cape and Adriatic Costa cover a total surface about 15 000 ha.

The area is characterized by the dominance of the coastal, alluvial plain, which lied along the low sandy coasts, often interrupted from the hill massifs of Dajlani (47 m) and Pllaka (81 m).

The Narta ecosystem includes, different types of habitats, where the most important are: Narta Lagoon, Vjosa Mouth, Salt marshes of Zhuka-Gryke Pishe, Sand dune, Mediterranean pine forest, Old flow of Vjosa and mud sand flats of the Dajlan-Zvernec – Triport.Cape zone.
1.1 SUMMARY ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING INFORMATION OF THE NARTA AREA
For the compilation of this Report we have relied on:

-The field trips for this purpose (20 days, June- September).

-The research studies of Albanian botanist much as Paparisto, Qosja, Demiri, Lako, Mullaj, Hoda, Ruci, Vangjeli, Xhulaj, Buzo etc.

-The research studies of foreign botanists on this region as: Baldacci, Degen, Goelz & Reinhard etc.

The most essential publications used for this purpose are:


  1. The Flora of Albania, 1,2,3 vol., 1988, 1992, 1996. Tirana. Albania

  2. The Red Book. Flora. 1995. Tirana. Albania.

  3. The Red Book 1997. Tirana. Albania.

  4. Tutin. T.G. & etc. Flora European, 1-5 vol. Cambridge.1964-1980.

  5. Mullaj.A. & etc. Flora and vegetation of Vlora Bay, Biological Studies, Nr.1\1999 Tirana. Albania

  6. Baldacci, A. 1893. Un escursione botanic allo scoglio di Sazan. Firenze, Bol. De Soc. Bot. It., pg.80.Italy.

  7. Baldacci, A, & Beguinot, A. 1918 – Contributo alla flora autumnale ed invernale e dei dintorni di Valona. Nuove Giorn. Bot. It.

  8. Golz, P & Reinhard, H. R, 1984 – Die Orchideen Flora Albaniens. Baden- Wurtt.

  9. Mullaj, A. 1989- The Coastal vegetation of Albania. PHD Thesis, Tirana.

  10. Paparisto, K. & etc. 1983. – A new subspecie of Leucojum genus in Albania. Bul. SH..N.Nr.1|1983. Tirana. Albania

  11. Buzo, K. Flora e vegetazione al delta Vjosa. Villagio Globale, trimestrale di ecologia. Dossier Albania. Nr.10., pg. 103-108.Giugno 2000. Bari. Italy.

  12. Mullaj, A., Ruci, B., Vangjeli, J. La vegetacione Costiera. Villagio Globale, trimestrale di ecologia. Dossier Albania. Nr.10., pg. 99-102.Giugno 2000. Bari. Italy.


1.2 RELEVANCE OF THE NARTA AREA.
The studies mentioned above, even current data reflect, that the Narta area is a very important zone, especially by the presence of special flora and a diversity of habitats.

This is reason why this area is dominated by various plant communities.

The flora and vegetation of this area is very interesting. It is very rich in plant species.

All these plant species make up a great national asset with economic and scientific values. Some of them are extremely rare, some others have scientific values, most of them make up widely used economic groups such as the medicinal, aromatic, industrial alimentary and decorative plants.



2. S P E C I E S.
2.1. Endemic species.
1.Orchis albanica Goelz & Reinhard

2.Orchis x paparisti Goelz & Reinhard


2.2 Rare species.
1Ephedra distachya L.

2.Marsilea quadrifolia L.

3.Narcissus poeticus L

4.Nymphaea alba L.

5.Nuphar lutea (L). Sibth.& Sm.

6.Nymphoides peltata O.Kuntze.

7.Baldellia ranunculoides (L.) Parl.

8.Desmazeria marina (L.) Drude.

9.Pancratium maritimum L.
2.3. Noteworthy species.
1.Agrimonia eupatoria L.

2.Agrostis stolonifera L

3.Ajuga reptans L.

4.Alkanna tinctoria.L

5.Alisma plantago-aquatica L.

6.Alnus glutinosa L.(Gaerth)

7.Althea officinalisL.

8.Bellis perennis L.

9 Bromus hordeacus Beck.

10.Capsella bursa- pastoris (L.) Med

11.Centaurium umbellatum (Swarz)Druce.

12.Cichorium intybus L

13.Clematis vitalba L.

14.Cornus mass L.

15.Crataegus oxyacantha L.

16.Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

17.Cynodon dactylon Pers.

18.Dactylis glomerata L.

19.Datura stramonium L.

20.Ecballium elaterium (l.) A.Richard.

21.Equisetum arvense L.

22.Gratiola officinalis L.

23.Hedera helix L.

24.Hypericum perforatum L.

25 Lamium purpureum L.

26. Laurus nobilis L.

27.Lolium multiflorum Lam.

28.Lolium perenne L.

29.Lotus corniculatus L.

30.Malva sylvestris L.

31.Melissa officinalis L.

31.Melilotus officinalis L.

32.Mentha piperita L.

33.Myrtus communis L.

34.Ononis spinosa L.

35.Origanum vulgare L.

36.Papaver rhoeas L.

37.Pistacia lentiscus L.

38.Plantago major L.

39.Plantago lanceolata L.

40.Poa pratensis L.

41.Prunella vulgaris L.

42.Prunus spinosa L.

43.Punica granatum L.

44.Rosa canina L.

45.Rumex pulcher L.

46.Salix alba L.

47.Sambucus ebulus L.

48.Sambucus nigra L.

49.Spartium junceum L

50.Sonchus oleraceus L.

51.Taraxacum officinale Web.

52.Teucrium chamaedrys L.

53.Teucrium polium L.

54.Thymus longicaulis C.Presl.

55.Trifolium pratense L.

56.Trifolium repens L.

57.Trifolium resupinatum L.

58.Trifolium subterraneum L.

59.Tussilago farfara L.

60.Ulmus campestris L.

61.Urtica dioica L.

62.Verbena officinalis L.

63.Vitex agnus-castus L.

64.Vitis sylvestris Gmel.

65.Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F.Gray.

66.Xathium spinosum L.

67.Xanthium strumariumL


2.4. Threatened species according to IUCN categories.
Latine Name Threatened degree according to IUCN
Agrimonia eupatoria L. E.

Anacamptis pyramydalis (L.)Rich. E

Ammophila arenaria (L.) Lb. E

Baldellia ranunculoides (L.) Parl. V

Butomus umbellatus L. V

Cladium mariscus (L.) Pol. V

Desmazeria marina (L.) Drude. E

Elymus farctus P.B. E

Ephedra distachya L. (E)

Hydrocotile vulgaris L. E

Hypericum perforatum L. E

Laurus nobilis L. E

Marsilea quadrifolia L. V

Nymphaea alba L. V

Nuphar lutea (L). Sibth.& Sm. V

Nymphoides peltata O.Kuntze. V

Orchis albanica Goelz & Reinhard. E

Orchis x paparisti Goelz & Reinhard E

Orchis coriophora L. E

Origanum vulgare L. E

Pancratium maritimum L. E

Quercus robur L. Ex ?

Serapias lingua L E

Spiranthes spiralis Koch. E

Stachys maritima L. E

3. VEGETATION COMMUNITIES.
3.1.Introduction.
Dynamics and evolution of vegetation in the region and site.
The natural ecosystem of Narta is characterized by a rich diversity of habitats:
- lagoon

- delta of Vjosa river,

- salt marshes,

- sand dunes,

- pine forest,

-islet of Zverneci.

The relations between these various types of habitats is of great ecological importance.

Specific habitats factors in this relatively narrow transitional zone between sea

and land include:

- gradients from marine to terrestrial conditions

-transition from salt to fresh water.

-In the vast variety of habitats many of the plant and animal species that occur are specialists, uniquely found in the coastal zone. Not just for those, but also for many less characteristic species the natural ecosystem of Narta is an important area.

The importance of this area is illustrated by the fact that many of the threatened plant species in the Red Book of Albania occur in this area.

In general, the natural ecosystem of Narta can be been as an essential part of Europe’s natural heritage.

The most important environmental problems along the Narta area include:
- Development of tourism.
Today, the scale of this process is most extensive in Old beach of Vlora. Habitat loss is probably the most important effect. A number of coastal plant species are now believed to have become extinct due to total destruction of their habitats, especially sand beaches and dune areas
- Urban development.

Urbanization is a major space consuming process, still continuing in Soda forest.


- Intensification of traditional use.

Ecological values can be affected seriously by stronger forms of intensification on fishery and water culture, hunting, agriculture, production of salt, etc.


- Reclamation of land and cultivation.
In the past, reclamation was carried out on a large scale in this area.

As elsewhere in coastal region of Albania even in Narta area, forestation with maritime pines (Pinus maritima, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea), has had a major impact on much of the dune landscape throughout the area.

More than 60% of dunes are now forested. In some cases the dune systems in this area have been forested (especially the first belt) with the use of non- native trees Acacia saligna and Agave americana (Zvernec Beach).

The process of forested of the dune systems started 3-4 decades earlier.


3.2. VEGETATION STRUCTURE.
The main units of the vegetation in the natural ecosystem of Narta area are:
RUPPIETEA

Ruppietalia

Ruppion maritimae

Ruppietum cirrhosae


ZOSTERETEA

Zosteretalia

Zosterion

Zosteretum noltii


CAKILETEA

Cakiletalia maritimae

Salsolion kali

Cakilo-Xanthietum italici



AMMOPHILETEA

Ammophiletalia

Ammophilion

Ammophiletum

Sporoboletum
THERO-SALICONIETEA

Thero-Salicornietalia

Thero-Salicornion

Arthrocnemetum glauci

Artemisietum

Limonio-Halocnemetum strobilacei

Parapholidi-Spergularietum

Salicornietum europaeae

Salicornietum fruticosae

Salicornietum radicans

Salsoletum sodae.
JUNCETEA MARITIMI

Juncetalia maritimi

Juncion maritimi

Juncetum acuti

Juncetum maritimi

Juncetum maritimi – acuti

Plantaginion crassifoliae

Holoschoenetum romani

Schoeno-Erianthetum
PHRAGMITETEA

Phragmitetalia

Phragmition

Bolboschoenetum maritimi

Cladietum marisci

Phragmitetum

Scirpetum lacustris

Typhetum angustifoliae

Typhetum latifoliae
TAMARICI-PLATANETEA ORIENTALIS

Planetalia orientalis

Tamaricion parviflorae

Vitici-tamaricetum dalmaticae


SALICETEA PURPUREAE

Salicetalia purpurea

Salicion albae

Salicetum albae-fragilis albanicum


Aquatic vegetation.
These plant communities cover important surfaces in the bottoms of the Narta Lagoon (Ruppietum cirrhosae, Zosteretum noltii). The main species, which participate in the forming of the so-called “Aquatic Bed “of the Narta Lagoon are Zostera noltii and Ruppia cirrhosa. More widely in the lagoon is distributed Zostera noltii, giving the physiognomy the “ Aquatic Bed “ and covering 30-40 % of the total surface of the mudded bottoms of this lagoon.

Both, these species, together with the ecological groups of the accompanied species (mainly algae) represent for the Narta Lagoon one of the most important biocenosis.

The greatest threat to the “Aquatic bed “ is provided by industrial installations for salt production in the surroundings. The marshy area was transformed in salt production fields by reclamation.
Sandy dunes vegetation.
Extensive dunes occur on exposed coastline of Narta area from Vjosa delta till Old Beach of Vlora. This region in particular has some of the largest dunes anywhere in Albania, with one of the largest expanses at “ Zverneci hills “. Their altitude varies from 1-2 m to 4-5 m.

The sandy belt along the coastline is completely bare of vegetation to a length sometimes extending up to 30 m. The lack of vegetation in this belt corresponds to an active life of different animals.

The Phanerogamy vegetation appears after this in mudded belt, in a sandy belt already washed away by the considerable amounts of salt as a result of rain waters.

Pioneer species, Cakile maritima, Xanthium strumarium subsp. italicum, Salsola kali, at the beginning isolated become more frequent when leaving the coastline. The vegetation of this sandy belt belongs to the pioneer association Cakilo-Xanthietum italici.

Gradually going away from the coastline and as the high of sandy dunes is increased, the physiognomy of vegetation is imparted by the species Ammophila arenaria subsp arundinaceae, Elymus farctus, Echinophora spinosa etc. On sand dunes, these species are important dune building plants.

Ammophila arenaria subsp. arundinacea represents the characteristic specie of the association Ammophiletum.

The degradation of sandy dunes and formation of depressions is accompanied by a different vegetation, dominated by Sporobolus punges, characteristic specie of the association Sporoboletum.



Ammophiletum association constitutes the last most evolved phase of the vegetation of sandy dunes or the borderline between dune vegetation and the Mediterranean pine forests. These forests occupy a considerable part of the Narta area, extending parallel with dune systems of this area. These forests are relatively going, cultivated (30-40 years ago) recently in order to stabilize the sandy dunes and protect the agricultural lands.

The physiognomy of this formation is imparted by the species Pinus maritima, P.pinea, P. pinaster (tall ligneous, the height of 10 years about 5-7 m and the cover about 70-80% of total area).

The shrub layer is represented by typical Mediterranean species such as Pistacia lentiscus, Erica manipuliflora, Myrtus communis etc, characteristic species of the Class Quercetea ilicis.(cover 40-50 % of total area, shrub < 2 m ). At the soda forest the shrub layer totally absents. The reason is a very high density of woody layer. These forests appear also very danger in many sectors (old beach of Vlora. Special interest in this formation present the endemic species

such as Orchis albanica Goelz & Reinhard as well as a hybrid form Orchis x paparisti.

Between these plant communities (sandy dunes vegetation and Mediterranean Pine forests) is cultivation belt, dominant by introduced species such as Acacia saligna (a large part of this belt burning last year, near of Vjosa delta river), and a belt about 200 m at Zverneci beach by Agave americana.
Salt marshes Vegetation:
This vegetation is distributed widely in the Natural ecosystem of Narta. Salt marshes and their associated plant communities are found extensively around the coastline of Narta Lagoon, in southern part of Vjosa river (mostly near the mouth of Vjosa river or estuary) in both sides inlets canals ulrich connect or sea water between Lagoon and Sea.

Large areas of salt marshes vegetation are also in depressions behinds sand dunes and low-being alluvial plain (Panaja).

Salt marshes and their complex and often highly productive mosaic habitats support large populations of migrating and wintering waterfowl, which is the most obvious manifestation of their conservation interest.

Salt marshes are component of sequences of plant communities tolerant of different degrees of submergence by the tide. Species composition of these plant communities, from mud (sand floats to low-mid marsh, is relatively simple with only a few species able to tolerate the stressful conditions.

Species which occur in these zones, such as Salicornia spp., Arthrocnemum spp., Salsola soda, Limonium spp., are often present in mono specific stands. However, as the number of tides covering the marshes is reduced as its height increases, the species composition becomes increasingly complex and more variable. There many often be mosaics of different community types within a small area.

The distribution of the plant communities does not follows a linear scheme such as in that of sandy dunes vegetation. Due to a further erosion and the last decrease of the depressions, it happens an increase of the salt degree. The plant communities of the class Thero- Salicornietea and Juncetea maritimi covered a large surface in these stations.

These communities, where the predominant species are Arthrocnemum fruticosum, A. perenne, A. glaucum, salicornia europea, Salsola soda, Juncus acutus, Juncus maritimus, Inula crithmoides, Limonium vulgare, Artemisia coerulescens, Halimione portucaloides, are distributed widely in the saltmarshes of the Narta area.

The cover of the vegetation in these stations is generally high (70-80 % of the total surface). On sand flats (behind Pine forests) occur in large areas flats association Schoeno- Erianthetum dominated by Erianthus ravennae, Schoenus nigricans etc. (vegetation cover 50-60 %).

There occur, also (on sand and mud flats), but in small areas the associations Holoschoenetum romani (dominated by Scirpus holoschoenus), Schoeno-Plantaginetum crassifoliae, (dominated by Plantago crassifolia, Schoenus nigricans, etc.) ( vegetation cover 30-40 %) and Vitici-Tamaricetum dalmaticae (dominated by Tamarix dalmatica).
The Hydro – hygrophilic vegetation.
This vegetation type is spread mainly along the flow of the Vjosa river, on the banks of the different channels, etc.

The main species, which participate in the forming of the hydro - hygrophilic vegetation are Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia, T. latifolia, Scirpus lacustris, S.maritimus and Salix spp.

The communities dominated by Phragmites australis are distinguished for a wider ecological amplitude in the direction of the salt scale.

Their distribution is fragmental and often without any visible role in the general plant physiognomy of the natural ecosystem of Narta.

The plant communities dominated by the species mentioned above are: Phragmitetum communis, Typhetum angustifoliae and latifoliae, Scirpetum lacustris, Bolboschoenetum maritimi, Salicetum albae – fragilis albanicum. This plant communities belong to the class Phragmitetea and Salicetea purpureae. (vegetation cover about 70 –80 % ).

They often have the monophytic tendencies and without any visible role in the general plant physiognomy of the natural ecosystem of Narta.


The Zverneci islet vegetation.
Zverneci islet in the south of the lagoon is covered with evergreen forest of Cupressus sempervirens (no exact data exist for the cultivation period).

The woody layers is dominated by Cupressus sempervirens (90- 95 %) of total surface and in a low scale by the species such as Qurcus ilex, Quercus pubescens and Pinus spp.

The vegetation cover is very dense. It cover about 90-100 % of total surface and about 8-10 m height. The shrub layer is dominated by the species such as: Myrtus communis, Pistacia lentiscus, Laurus nobilis, Rubus spp., Phillyrea angustifolia, Olea olaster, etc. The vegetation cover 50 – 60 % and 1 – 2 m height.

The herbs layer is more rare and the most distributed species are: Chrysopogon gryllus, Asparagus acutifolius, Dactylis glomerata, Desmazieria rigida etc.

Under this zone dominated by Cupressus sempervirens (from 1 –2 m till 20 m above sea-level) the cliffs (soft rock) support a plant community dominated by halophylic species much as: Suaeda maritima, limonium oleifolium. Limonium vulgare, Arthrocnemum glaucum, Halimione portulacoides, Elymus pycnanthus, the characteristic species of the association Suaedetum maritimae.

A medieval monastery of cultural and historical values is located on its south edge.


3.4.

Within the Narta area we suggest to elaborate a ecological network.

The first step in establishing a ecological network might be the identification of no called ecological core areas. These core areas (estuaries, lagoon, salt marshes, dune areas) are ecologically interconnected by migration routes of birds.

A next step in establishing the network is the identification of ecological rehabilitation areas.

Along large sections of the Narta area the natural environment is damaged. This, vital ecological relations are affected. Many of these areas still have potentials for recovery.

A third step in building the ecological network is the identification of landscape features, which have a function as ecological corridors. This structures are important for dispersal, migration and genetic exchange of species.

The identification of an ecological network is just one of the steps that need to be taken.
4. ANALYSIS
4.1 Ecological interest of the Narta Area
The ecosystem of Narta area is characterized by a rich diversity of habitats:

Estuaries, lagoon, river delta, tidal mud flats, salt marshes, sand dunes and beaches, island, cliffs and a pine forest occur in all kinds of combinations and qualities. In many cases the relations between these various types of habitats is of great ecological importance. All of these areas are specific to the Narta area and cannot be found anywhere else. Ecologically they form a pathway for dispersion and migration of plant and animal species.

The natural function of dune areas in coastal defend is of vital importance in low – lying areas where the sand volume forms a “ strategic reserve against sea level rise.

The plants of sand beaches and dunes consist largely of specialist species. Sand dunes in Narta are very rich in plant species and breeding birds.

The “ aquatic” vegetation is important for many fish species, both for typical coastal fish and for many fish of the open sea that pass their first life stages in miseries of the coastal zone.

Salt marshes are characterized by very specific plant species, especially dominated by the succulent species.

In pine forest two endemic plant species are found: Orchis albanica and Orchis x paparisti.

Many rare and threatened plant species occur inside the arThe Zverneci islet in the south of the Lagoon is covered with evergreen forest of Cupressus sempervirens, a unique forest in Albania.

4.2.Needs for further studies


  • The need for further studies in Narta area is a high priority. The lack of studies of many plants groups (mostly phytoplancton etc) and low scale of knowledge of a considerable part of plant species (mostly low species such as Mosses, Algae, Mushrooms, Lichens, etc) call for more and better research support in this area.As a first step, a map of most sensitive habitats should be prepared ( within first 2 years), and later for the rest of area (within first 5 years).

  • Within this activity is proposed the mapping of sand dunes, and those environments with endemic species (Orchis albanica and Orchis x paparisti) and rare and threatened plants species:

  • Establishment of a database on flora and fauna.

4.3. Priority objectives for protection.


The natural ecosystems of Narta area constitutes a valuable heritage not only for Albania, but also for the Mediterranean region.

This heritage must be protected and managed in a way that it will promote sustainable economic development in the future.

The priority objectives for protection of the species and habitats in the Narta area are:


  • Critically endangered species and habitats of global, regional or national importance.

  • Habitats distinguished for their endemic species or biodiversity.


List of species:

Endemic species:

Orchis albanica

Orchis x paparisti

Rare species:
1Ephedra distachya L.

2.Marsilea quadrifolia L.

3.Narcissus poeticus L

4.Nymphaea alba L.

5.Nuphar lutea (L). Sibth.& Sm.

6.Nymphoides peltata O.Kuntze.

7.Baldellia ranunculoides (L.) Parl.

8.Desmazeria marina (L.) Drude.

9.Pancratium maritimum L.
Threatened species:
Agrimonia eupatoria L. E.

Anacamptis pyramydalis (L.)Rich. E

Ammophila arenaria (L.) Lb. E

Baldellia ranunculoides (L.) Parl. V

Butomus umbellatus L. V

Cladium mariscus (L.) Pol. V

Desmazeria marina (L.) Drude. E

Elymus farctus P.B. E

Ephedra distachya L. (E)

Hydrocotile vulgaris L. E

Hypericum perforatum L. E

Laurus nobilis L. E

Marsilea quadrifolia L. V

Nymphaea alba L. V

Nuphar lutea (L). Sibth.& Sm. V

Nymphoides peltata O.Kuntze. V

Orchis albanica Goelz & Reinhard. E

Orchis x paparisti Goelz & Reinhard E

Orchis coriophora L. E

Origanum vulgare L. E

Pancratium maritimum L. E

Quercus robur L. Ex ?

Serapias lingua L E

Spiranthes spiralis Koch. E

Stachys maritima L. E
List of habitats:


  • Pine forest where are distributed the endemic plant species (50 ha).

  • Sand dunes of the Triport Cape.

  • Delta of Vjosa river.

  • The belt of sand dunes from delta of Vjosa river till canal of communication between sea and Lagoon.



Zonation of the area.


  1. Reserve zones

It must includes:



  • A large surface of the pine forest (about 50 ha) where are distributed the endemic plant species of area.

  • Sand dunes of Triport Cape with very well developed psamophylic vegetation.

  • Delta of Vjosa river, the most important river deltas of the country.


2 Restricted access zones

  • The belt of sand dunes from Delta Vjosa river till canal of communication between sea and lagoon..


3 Open access zones


  • Narta lagoon and some unding habitats including salt marshes are an integral part of the overall wild life interest.


3.6. Monitoring
Monitoring is an important research priority, both for Biodiversity conservation and because plant and animal population serve as barometers of ecosystem integrity.

With respect to overall community and ecosystem properties, not all species are equal. Some may be good indicators of certain kinds of ecological impacts, others play a role in determining community composition etc.

Species classification from a monitoring viewpoint .

-Indicator species an serve such as:

1-have highly specific niche or marrow ecological tolerance (sand dunes species such as Ammophila arenaria).

2.are characteristic of a specific plant community, succession stage, or substrate (salt marshes plant species such as Salicornia europaea, Alnus glutinosa etc).

Vulnerable species:


  1. have small populations,

  2. exist in highly fragmented habitats and are poor disperses ,

  3. have marrow or highly specialized niches.

  4. Are vulnerable to human activities.

Economically important species.



  1. species that are harvested species (medicinal plants).


ANNEX 3
Brief description of the methodology followed in the field.

The selection of sites in done in the way that all types of plant communities of this area to be recognized.

The main plant communities of the area are identified , the sites of the relives varies from 0.25 m2 (for aquatic vegetation) to 200 m2 (for forest). For the floristic nomenclature and the threat degree we are respectively based on Flora Europaea (Tutin et al.1968-1980), Flora Albania (Paparisto et. al. 1983) as well as The red Book (Vangjeli etc 1996).

More than 50 relives are carried out on the area, according to the Zurich-Montpellier approach.

For every site we compiled;


  • a total floristic list of the site.

  • Dominant and co dominant species.

  • Vegetation cover, height of layers.


ANNEX 1
PTERIDOPHYTA
EQUISETACEAE

Equisetum arvense



POLYPODIACEAE

Adiantum capillus-veneris

Pteridium aquilinum
GYMNOSPERMAE
PINACEAE

Pinus halepensis

Pinus pinea

Pinus pinaster

CUPRESACEAE

Cupressus sempervirens

Juniperus oxycedrus
ANGIOSPERMAE
POSIDONIACEAE

Posidonia oceanica

TYPHACEAE

Typha angustifolia

Typha latifolia

SPARGANIACEAE

Sparganium erectum

POTAMOGETONACEAE

Potamogeton crispus

Potamogeton natans

Ruppia cirrhosa

Zanichella palustris

Zostera noltii

NAJADACEAE

Najas marina

JUNCAGINACEAE

Triglochin palustris

ALISMATACEAE

Alisma plantago-aquatica

BUTOMACEAE

Butomus umbellatus

IRIDACEAE

Iris germanica

POACEAE


Aeluropus litoralis

Aegilops truncialis

Agrostis stolonifera

Ammophila arenaria

Anthoxanthum odoratum

Arundo donax

Avena fatua

Brachypodium distachyon

Bromus hordeaceus

Calamagrostis epigeus

Crypis aculeata

Cynodon dactylon

Cynosurus echinatus

Dactylis glomerata

Dasypyrum villosum

Desmazeria marina

Desmazeria rigida

Erianthus strictum

Elymus farctus

Elymus pycnanthus

Gaudinia fragilis

Hainardia cylindrica

Hordeum marinum

Hordeum murinum

Holcus lanatus

Imperata cylindrica

Lagurus ovatus

Lolium multiflorum

Lolium perenne

Lophochloa cristata

Parapholis filiformis

Parapholis incurva

Phalaris arrundinacea

Phleum pratense

Phragmites australis

Piptatherum miliaceum

Poa trivialis

Polypogon monspeliensis

Saccarum ravennae

Sporobolus punges

Tragus racemosa

Vulpia ciliata

Vulpia fasciculata

CYPERACEAE

Acorellus pannonicus

Carex distans

Carex echinata

Carex extensa

Carex flacca

Carex muricata

Carex pendula

Cladium mariscus

Cyperus capitatus

Cyperus longus

Eriophorum angustifolia

Schoenus nigricans

Scirpus cernuus

Scirpus holoschoenus

Scirpus lacustris

Scirpus maritimus

ARACEAE

Arum italicum



LEMNACEAE

Lemna minor

JUNCACEAE

Juncus acutus

Juncus compressus

Juncus effusus

Juncus litoralis

Juncus maritimus

Luzula forsteri

LILIACEAE

Asphodelus aestivus

Asparagus acutifolius

Asparagus tenuifolius

Ruscus aculeatus

Smilax aspera

AMARYLLIDACEAE

Pancreatium maritimum

Narcisus poeticus

DIOSCOREACEAE

Tamus communis

ORCHIDACEAE

Anacamptis pyramidalis

Orchis albanica

Orchis paparisti

Serapias lingua

Spirantes spiralis

SALICACEAE

Populus alba

Populus nigra

Salix alba

Salix pupurea

BETULACEAE

Alnus glutinosa

FAGACEAE


Quercus robur

Quercus coccifera

Quercus pubescens

ULMACEAE


Ulmus campestris

MORACEAE


Ficus carica

Morus alba

CANNABACEAE

Humulus lupulus

URTICACEAE

Parietaria officinalis

Urtica dioica

SANTALACEAE

Osyris alba

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE

Aristolochia clematitis

Aristolochia rotunda

POLYGONACEAE

Polygonum aviculare

Polygonum lapathifolium

Polygonum maritimum

Rumex conglomeratus

Rumex sanguineus

Rumex pulcher

CHENOPODIACEAE

Arthrocnemum fruticosum

Arthrocnemum glaucum

Arthrocnemum perenne

Atriplex hastata

Atriplex tatarica

Chenopodium album

Chenopodium glaucum

Halimione portulacoides

Halocnemum strobilaceum

Petrosimonia oppositifolia

Salicornia europea

Salsola kali

Salsola soda

Saueda maritima

Saueda vera

AMARANTHACEAE

Amaranthus albus

Amaranthus retroflexsus

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

Cerastium brachypetalium

Hernaria hirsuta

Petrohagia prolifera

Sagina procumbens

Saponaria officinalis

Silene alba

Silene conica

Spergula arvensis

Spergula marina

Stellaria media

CERATOPHYLLACEAE

Ceratophyllum demersum

LAURACEAE

Laurus nobilis

RANUNCULACEAE

Anemone hortensis

Clematis vitalba

Clematis flamula

Consolida regalis

Ranunculus sardous

Ranunculus ficaria

Ranunculus velutinus

PAPAVERACEAE

Papaver rhoeas

CRUCIFERAE

Cakile maritima

Capsella bursa-pastoris

Maresia nana

Matthiola sinuata

Nasturtium officinale

Rapistrum rugosum

Sisymbrium officinale

ROSACEAE


Agrimonia eupatoria

Crataegus monogyna

Cydonia oblonga

Potentilla reptans

Prunus spinosa

Pyrocantha coccinea

Rosa semoervirens

Rosa canina

Rubus ulmifolius

Sanguisorba minor

CESALPINACEAE

Cercis siliquastrum

LEGUMINOSAE

Amorpha fruticosa

Colutea arborescens

Coronilla emerus

Dorycnium hirsutum

Dorycnium hebaceum

Galega officinalis

Lathyrus vulneraria

Lotus corniculatus

Medicago litoralis

Medicago lupulina

Medicago marina

Medicago minima

Melilotus alba

Melilotus officinalis

Ononis variegata

Ononis spinosa

Spartium junceum

Trifolium angustifolium

Trifolium campestre

Trifolium pratense

Trifolium repens

Trifolium resupinatum

Trifolium subterraneum

Vicia grandiflora

Vicia hisuta

GERANIACEAE

Erodium cicutarium

Geranium molle

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE

Tribulus terrestris

LINACEAE


Linum maritimum

Linum usitatissimum

Radiola linoides

EUPHORBIACEAE

Chozophora tinctoria

Euphorbia paralias

Euphorbia peplis

Euphorbia helioscopia

POLYGALACEAE

Polygala nicaeensis

ANACARDIACEAE

Pistacia lentiscus

RHAMNACEAE

Paliurus spina-cristi

Zizifus jujuba

VITACEAE


Vitis sylvestris

MALVACEAE

Althea officinalis

Malva sylvestris

HYPERICACEAE

Hypericum perforatum

CISTACEAE

Cistus incanus

Cistus salvifolius

Helianthemum nummularium

TAMARICACEAE

Tamarix dalmatica

Tamarix hampeana

LYTHRACEAE

Lythrum salicaria

Lythrum hissupifolia

PUNICACEAE

Punica granatum

ONAGRACEAE

Oenothea biennis

CORNACEAE

Cornus mas

ARALIACEAE

Hedera helix

UMBELLIFERAE

Apium graveolens

Crithmum maritimum

Daucus carota

Echinophora spinosa

Eryngium campestre

Eryngium creticum

Eryngium maritimum

Foenicum vulgare

Hydrocotile vulgaris

Oenanthe pimpinelloides

Orlaya grandiflora

ERICACEAE

Erica manipuliflora

PRIMULACEAE

Anagallis arvensis

Anagallis coerulea

Samolus valerandi

PLUMBAGINACEAE

Limonium oleifolium

Limonium sinuatum

Limonium vulgare

OLEACEAE

Fraxinus angustifolia

Ligustrum vulgare

Olea europea

Phillyrea angustifolia

GENTIANACEAE

Blackstonia perfoliata

Centaurium umbellatum

ASCLEPIADACEAE

Periploca graeca

Cynanchum acutum

CONVOLVULACEAE

Calystegia soldanella

Calystegia sepium

Convolvulus arvensis

Cuscuta europea

BORAGINACEAE

Alkana tinctoria

Anchusa azurea

Echium plantagineum

Heliotropium europaeum

Myosotis nemorosa

VERBENACEAE

Verbena officinalis

Vitex agnus – castus

LABIATAE


Ajuga reptans

Clinopodium vulgare

Lamium purpureum

Leonurus cardiaca

Marrubium vulgare

Mentha aquatica

Mentha piperita

Mentha pulegium

Melisa officinalis

Orriganum vulgare

Prunella vulgaris

Stachys maritima

Teucrium chamaedrys

Teucrium polium

Thymus capitatus

Thymus longicaulis

SOLANACEAE

Solanum nigrum

Datura stramonium

SCROPHULARIACEAE

Gratiola officinalis

Verbascum sinuatum

Verbascum phlomoides

Verbascum thapsus

Veronica beccabunga

Veronica anagallis-aquatica

Veronica chamaedris

Veronica persica

ACANTHACEAE

Acanthus spinosus

RUBIACEAE

Crucianella maritima

Galium aparine

Galium mollugo

Galium palustre

Rubia peregrina

Sherardia arvensis

PLANTAGINACEAE

Platago bellardi

Plantago coronopus

Plantago crassifolia

Plantago lanceolata

Plantago major

Platago maritima

Platago psyllium

CAPRIFOLIACEAE

Sambucus ebulus

Sambucus nigra

CUCURBITACEAE

Ecbalium elaterium

DIPSACACEAE

Scabiosa argentea

COMPOSITAE

Ambrosia maritima

Anthemis chia

Anthemis cotula

Artemisia vulgaris

Artemisa coerulescens

Aster squamatus

Aster tripolium

Bellis perenis

Centaurea sochifolia

Cichorium intybus

Cirsium vulgare

Conyza canadensis

Crepis foetida

Dittrichia viscossa

Erigeron canadensis

Inula crithmoides

Pulicaria dysenterica

Senecio vulgaris

Scolymus hispanicus

Sonchus oleraceus

Tussilago farfara

Xanthium spinosum

Xanthium strumarium

ANNEX 3.
Brief description of the methodology followed in the field.

The selection of sites in done in the way that all types of plant communities of this area to be recognized.

The main plant communities of the area are identified , the sites of the relives varies from 0.25 m2 (for aquatic vegetation) to 200 m2 (for forest). For the floristic nomenclature and the threat degree we are respectively based on Flora Europaea (Tutin et al.1968-1980), Flora Albania (Paparisto et. al. 1983) as well as The red Book (Vangjeli etc 1996).

More than 50 relives are carried out on the area, according to the Zurich-Montpellier approach.

For every site we compiled;


  • a total floristic list of the site.

  • Dominant and co dominant species.

  • Vegetation cover, height of layers.

BIBLIOGRAFIA



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  14. Kashta, L. 1988.Te dhena ekologjike dhe biogjeografike per algat e gjelberta te gjirit te Vlores. BSHN.Nr.1 ,97-103.

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  21. Mullaj, A., Ruci, B., Vangjeli, J. La vegetacione Costiera. Villagio Globale, trimestrale di ecologia. Dossier Albania . Nr.10., pg. 99-102.Giugno 2000. Bari. Italy.

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* Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania.

** Institute of Biological Researches, Academy of Sciences, Tirana, Albania.


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