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Epidemiological Study of Some Barasitic Infections of Aquatic Birds Gallinula Chloropus (L.) in Basrah Marshes Hind Mahdi Jarallah, Auday m-h. Qasm and Antsir Kamel hameed


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Epidemiological Study of Some Barasitic Infections of Aquatic Birds Gallinula Chloropus (L.) in Basrah Marshes
Hind Mahdi Jarallah , Auday M-H. Qasm and Antsir Kamel hameed

Dep. Marine Vertebrate / Marine Science Center /Basrah Univ./ Iraq
Abstract

During the period of November and December 2010 a total of 31(18 males and 13 females) aquatic birds Moorhen Gallinula chloropus hunted from Basrah marshes were examined. Upon dissecting these birds, they were found to be infected with two species of digenetic trematodes (Echinostoma chloropodis and Echinostoma crecci), one species of nematodes (Amidostomum acutum)and genus nematode Tetrameres sp. The prevalence of infection with digenetic trematodes (80.6%) was more than nematodes (35.4%). The infection with these parasitic worms include both sexes males and females of aquatic birds Gallinula chloropus.



الخلاصة

خلال المدة مابين شهري تشرين الثاني وكانون الأول لعام 2010 ، تم اصطياد وفحص 31 طيراً مائياً (18 ذكور و 13 إناث) من دجاج الماء من اهوار البصرة. عند تشريح هذا الطيور تبين إصابتها بنوعين من المثقوبات ثنائية المنشأ ( Echinostoma chloropodis و Echinostoma crecci) ، ونوع واحد من الديدان الخيطية (Amidostomum acutum) وجنس واحد يعود للديدان الخيطية Tetrameres sp. . النسبة المئوية للاصابه بالديدان المثقوبة ثنائية المنشأ (80.6%)كانت أعلى من الديدان الخيطية .(35.4%) الأصابه بهذه الديدان الطفيلية شملت كلا الجنسين ذكور وإناث من طيور دجاج الماء Gallinula chloropus .

Introduction

The Moorhen Gallinula chloropus (L.) which belongs to the family of Rallidae (Heinzel et. al., 1974) was considered as one of the aquatic birds in Basrah marshes of Iraq. Aquatic birds are regarded as important food source for marshes people who are famous with fishing and hunting birds. Iraq has many types of aquatic birds which are not found in other areas of the world because our country has broad aquatic areas including marshes (Mahdi, 1982). The Moorhen Gallinula chloropus is one of many economic birds feeding on plants and animals. Recently, Mizhir (2002) demonstrated that aquatic birds which are found in Bahr Al-Najaf depression were infected with 13 species of parasitic worms. There are some factors which play important role in the differences of the type of parasitic infection in birds such as host feeding behavior, isolation from population and specificity of host (Alexander & McLaughlin, 1997; Mizhir, 2002). In Iraq, especially in Basrah province, there are many studies that were done about the diagnosis and description of parasitic infections in aquatic birds (Abdullah, 1988 ; Al-Mayah, 1990 ; Mhaisen et al., 1990 ; Al-Hadithi & Mustafa, 1991 ; Al-Mayah & Abdullah, 2001). In Basrah, Abdullah (1993) collected 37 bird of Gallinula chloropus from Zejri marsh and found that they are infected with four species of digenea that belongs to genus Echinostoma sp. The genus Echinostoma comprises 194 species trematodes parasitic on reptiles, birds and mammals, aquatic birds that were infected with 30 species which have 27-47 spines (Yamaguti, 1958 ; McDonald, 1981). The present study aimed to prevalence and evaluate the parasitic infections in Gallinula chloropus in Basrah marshes.




Materials and Methods

During the period November and December 2010, collected 31 aquatic bird Gallinula chloropus belong to the family Rallidae were examined. these birds were hunted from Basrah marshes and brought to the laboratory. The birds were sacrificed by chloroform and dissected to the examined for parasitic worms. The detected parasites were treated as explained by Garcia & Ash (1979). The taxonomy and diagnosis of the parasitic worms were depended on Yamaguti (1961); Soulsby (1968) and McDonald (1981). Prevalence and mean intensity of infection were calculated. Statistically, the Chi-square (χ2) test was used to compare the prevalence of infection between males and females, SPSS (1999).



Results

eresults of this study showed the infection of Moorhen Gallinula chloropus with digenea and nematodae parasites table (1). The percentage and mean intensity of infection for males and females aquatic birds are shown in table (2,3) and figure (1).


Table (1): The total number of examined birds and class of infection with parasitic worms in Gallinula chloropus


No. of exam. birds

No. of infec.

birds

Class of parasitic worms


%

31

(18♂ + 13♀)



25

(15♂ +10♀)



Trematode


80.6

31

(18♂ + 13♀)



11

(7♂ + 4 ♀)



Nematodae

35.4

χ2= 18.24 p<0.05

Table (2): Percentage and intensity of infection with Trematode parasites in Gallinula chloropus


Females

Males


Parasites

Mean intensity of infec.

%

Total No.

parasites of infec. birds



No. of birds

Mean intensity of infec.

%

Total No.

parasite of infec. birds



No. of birds

Infec.

Exam.

Infec..

Exam.

2.7

76.9

27

10

13

2.8

83.3

43

15

18

* Echinostoma (E.) chloropodis (Zeder,1800)

1.25

30.7

5

4

13

3

38.8

21

7

18


E. crecci (Verma, 1936)
* χ2= 0.3 p>0.05

Table (3): Percentage and intensity of infection with nematodae parasites in Gallinula chloropus


Females

Males


Parasites

Mean intensity of infec.

%


Total No. parasites of infec. birds



No.of birds

Mean intensity of infec.

%

Total No. parasites of infec. birds


No.of birds

Infec.

Exam.

Infec.

Exam.

12

30.7

48

4

13

7.5

38.8

53

7

18

* Amidostomum acutum (Lundahl, 1848)

2.3

23

7

3

13

1.4

27.7

7

5

18

Tetrameres sp.


* χ2= 0.91 p>0.05





Figure(1): Percentage of infection with parasitic worms in males and females of Gallinula chloropus

Discussion

The results of this study showed that the percentage of infection with Digenea (80.6%) was more than the percentage of infection with Nematodae (35.4%) in Moorhen Gallinula chloropus birds. The variation in the prevalence of infection with parasites belongs to some reasons such as the availability of infected intermediate host, immunological a tornations and feeding behavior related host (Kennedy , 1969). Statistically there are significant differences (p<0.05) between digenea and nematode worms parasitic infection in Gallinula chloropus birds.. The results of this study showed the infection of Gallinula chloropus with the nematodae (Tetrameres sp. and Amidostomum acutum), this result agreed with Mizhir (2002) and trematodes (E. chloropodis and E. crecci), this result was agree with Abdulla (1988 & 1993). Mizhir (2002) recorded three new hosts for the nematodae Amidostomum acutum in Iraq, these hosts are Gallinula chloropus , Fulica atra and Anas strepera. Previously Echinostoma chloropodis and E. crecci have been recorded and described (Abdulla, 1988 & 1993). In the results, there are no differences between males and females infection of Gallinula chloropus with the parasitic worms, that may refer to the same type of food which is engulfed by both sexes, these results are well agree with Mustafa (1984) in her study about parasitic infections of males and females Streptopelia decaocto , but there are differences found between males and females in prevalence (percentage of infection), the prevalence of males (83 % , 34%) were more than females (77% , 31%) with E. chloropodis and E. crecci infection respectively. Also, the infection with nematodes, the prevalence of males (38.8% , 28%) was more than that of females (31% , 23%) with Amidostomum acutum and Tetrameres sp. respectively that may be due to the at that they engulfed more food that leads to increase the chance of infection. Al- Mayah and Abdullah (2001) demonstrated the males of Bubulcus ibis (L.) birds are more infected with digenetic trematodes parasites than his females. Statistically, there are no significant differences (p> 0.05) between males and females infected with digenea E. chloropodis and nematodes A. acutum. The nematodae Tetrameres sp. is recorded for the first time by Abdulla (1988) in three aquatic birds Gallinula chloropus, Fulica atra and burhan birds Porphyrio poliocephalus from Zejri marsh west Basrah in Iraq. The first record for the nematodae Tetrameres globosa was from Al-burhan bird Porphyrio poliocephalus which was collected from Zejri marsh in west Norhth of Basrah (Abdullah & Al-hadithi, 1992). The nematodae worm which belongs to Contracaecum genus and found in aquatic birds causing dangers on fishes, when the larval stages of this worm reach to the intermediate host (fishes) (Habish, 1977). Wehr (1971) refer to the nematodes that belong to Tetrameres genus that causes large harmful for infected wild birds because of these worms feeding on blood and their females live in the gland of anterior secretor stomach then leads to be confused in digestive, that may lead to death. The migration of larval worms which belong to species Tetrameres americana causes heavy irritation and inflammation (Soulsby, 1968). The tetrameriasis is dangerous disease which infect the birds and kill them (Wehr, 1971).
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