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Две культуры и две системы мышления: сравнение американцев и жителей юго-восточной азии1


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ДВЕ КУЛЬТУРЫ И ДВЕ СИСТЕМЫ МЫШЛЕНИЯ: СРАВНЕНИЕ АМЕРИКАНЦЕВ И ЖИТЕЛЕЙ ЮГО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ АЗИИ1

2011 г.Ричард Нисбетт*, Кейпинг Пенг**, Инчеол Чой***, Ара Норензаян****



*профессор Мичиганского университета, США

e-mail: nisbett@umich.edu

**профессор Калифорнийский университета, Беркли, США

e-mail:kppeng@berkeley.edu

***профессор Сеульского национального университета, Корея

e-mail: ichoi@snu.ac.kr

****профессор Университета Британской Колумбии, Ванкувер, Канада



e-mail: ara@psych.ubc.ca

Перевод с английского М. С. Жамкочьян***** под ред. В. С. Магуна******



*****психотерапевт, научный консультант журнала Psychologies (Психология)

******кандидат психологических наук, зав. сектором исследований личности Института социологии РАН

e-mail: maghome@yandex.ru
Предлагается теоретическая схема, которая показывает, как на базе разных культурных практик возникают различные системы мышления, и объясняет существенные различия между мыслительными процессами представителей восточно-азиатской и западной культуры. Представители Восточной Азии обладают мышлением холистского характера, они принимают во внимание целостное поле и приписывают именно ему причины событий, сравнительно мало используют категории и формальную логику и полагаются на «диалектическое» мышление. Западные люди более аналитичны, сосредоточены по преимуществу на конкретном объекте и на категориях, к которым его можно отнести. Чтобы понять поведение объекта, они опираются на правила, включая правила формальной логики. Описываемые типы когнитивных процессов являются частью более широкой наивной метафизики и имплицитной эпистемологии, характерных для представителей указанных культур. Высказывается гипотеза о том, что первопричина подобных когнитивных различий восходит к принципиально разным социальным системам, в которых они первоначально сформировались. Приведенные в статье теоретический подход и факты заставляют усомниться в укоренившихся представлениях о базовых (и универсальных) когнитивных процессах и даже об уместности разведения когнитивного процесса и когнитивного содержания.

Ключевые слова: мышление, когнитивные процессы, картина мира, культурные различия, аналитическое и холистское мышление, социально-когнитивные системы, психический процесс и содержание.

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1 Статья публикуется с разрешения авторов. Вариант данной статьи на английском языке опубликован в журнале Psychological Review, 2001, vol. 108, pp. 291-310. Подготовка русской версии осуществлена при поддержке Центра фундаментальных исследований Государственного университета – Высшая школа экономики.

Проект, на котором основана данная статья, поддержан грантом SBR 9729103 от National Science Foundation. Авторы выражают признательность за критику и советы своим коллегам: Dan Ames, Scott Atran, Patricia Cheng, Marion Davis, Eric Knowles, Trey Hedden, Lawrence Hirschfeld, Lijun Ji, Gordon Kane, Beom Jun Kim, Shinobu Kitayama, Ulrich Kühnen, Jan Leu, David Liu, Geoffrey Lloyd, Hazel Markus, Ramaswami Mahalingam, Taka Masuda, Coline McConnell, Donald Munro, Denise Park, Winston Sieck, David Sherman, Michael Shin, Edward E. Smith, Stephen Stich, Sanjay Srivastava, Timothy Wilson и Frank Yates.



Перевод с английского М. С. Жамкочьян (психотерапевт, научный консультант журнала Psychologies), под ред. В. С. Магуна (кандидат психологических наук, зав. сектором исследований личности Института социологии РАН, e-mail: maghome@yandex.ru)



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