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The European Lizard Snake Malpolon monspessulanus (Hermann 1804)

Diagnosis. TL to 255 cm. Diurnal, very quick and elusive opisthoglyphe snake that can lift the front body impressively. Typical for this species is the deepened head in front of the eyes as well as on the forehead.. The dorsalia have a longitudinal groove. The shape of some head scales is also typical, particularly the Praeocular whose top is very wide and extends to the top of the head where there is a seam with the frontal (Fig. 115), and alongside the edge of the longest part of the very sharp canthus rostralis. The eye is large, with a round pupil; there is a flap on the outer nostril; the hemipenis is very thin and rather short, macroscopically completely smooth; no sexual dimorphism in the tail thickness and relative tail length, in contrast to all other snakes in Europe.

The only other Malpolon-species, M. moilensis (NW Africa to the Middle East), is related to M. monspessulanus, but certainly not closer than it is to other Psammophiini. Especially the threatening behavior which is connected with the connected the with ultrastructure of the neck rib musculature indicates that this species should be classified in a separate genus (see BRANDSTÄTTER, 1995, 1996).

Description. Measurements: except for to the maximum size (255cm) after Barbadillo (1987*), males are usually not longer than 190cm, and females not longer than 140cm, usually only up to 125cm (DE HAAN unpubl.). In correspondence, Salgues (1937*) reported only 7 specimens over 2 m long (the longest GL 204 cm) among 654 specimens in Provence. And this at a time when anthropogenic counteraction against large growth rate (such as shortage of resources through loss of habitat, or road traffic) was still less important than today.

Fig. 1: Lateral and dorsal view of the head of Malpolon monspessulanus (original by Ph. Geniez)

The largest specimen actually caught by MOURGUE (1909) in Orange, France, measured 222.3 cm total length, with a 22 cm circumference at mid body and weighing nearly 3 kg (see also DOTTRENS 1963*. SALVADOR 1985*). A total length of 250 cm, as is indicated in some field guides, seems possible, but is is given only as an estimation in original literature (see MAYET 1898, 1903, MOURGUE 1908, 1909). BARBADILLO (1987 *) mentions a total length of ‘at least up to 255 cm’ without explanation and documentation.
The tail length (TaL) is 19-29% of the total length (TL), independent of gender (perhaps somewhat more for ♀, on average). In Europe, the TaL is usually 20-23% of the TL, and 25-30% of snout-vent-length (SVL). For further measurements see Table 1 and Figure 125 and 126.
External characteristics: Body rounded, but at rest also partially or completely horizontally flattened. Very large adults vary from slender to heavy and strong..


The head, normally just a little broader than the neck, narrow but high, with often strongly pointed snout, seems more lizard- than snake-like (“Lizard Snake”: WAGLER 1824, cf. GADOW 1901*). CHPAKOWSKY and CHNÉOUR (1953 *) compare the head shape to that of a frog, and the Spanish common name "Bastarda" probably also refers to the barely snake-like head shape. The eye is large, with a yellow or reddish-bordered, nearly round pupil in a dark brown iris. It is bordered on the upper edge by a protruding rim, proceeding from the rostral over the prefrontal, the pre- and supraocular to the outer edge of the parietal shield. This rim is striking, mainly due to the height and the angular structure of the preocular. As a result there is an accentuated lateral recess in the head in the area of the loreal shield which protects the eye from impact and allows a good forward look. Also, the forehead area is from the internasals to the parietals moderately to strongly deepened, the frontal shield is in the front about as wide as l supraocular, but tapers remarkably to the rear, giving room to supraocularia twice as wide (Fig. 115).

The expression of the eyes created by the above mentioned prominent rim is considered in almost the entire literature as the most striking feature of M. monspessulanus. Above all, the large and single preocular deserves closer attention here: it runs over a sharply outward-facing fold far over the top of the head, even forming a suture with the frontal.

These can be between 0.1 and l times as long as the width of the narrow frontal part; most frequently their length lies between 0.3 to 0.5 times of said factor (De Haan unpubl.). The extreme values ​​of 0.1 (only a point of contact) and l (a distinct suture) are often combined with abnormal head shield modifications. The sharp "fold" of the praeocular runs caudally almost to the level of the middle eye and usually ends there as an almost slightly protruding ridge of a very sharp eyebrow (cf. BOULENGER 1913*: pl XI, BANNIKOW et al 1977 *: fig . 4, NAULLEAU 1984*. fig 17-21, BRODMANN 1987*: 8-9). There are usually two small loreal shields, the front one being smaller and higher. Crespo (1972*) shows a specimen with a single loreal and an abnormal praeocular. Postocularia usually 2; ESCARRÉ and VERICAD (1981*) show a specimen with three. As temporals BANNIKOW et al. (1977 *) give 2+2 or 2+4, SALVADOR (1985*) 2+2 or 2+3. PLEGUELOS & MORENO (1989) found in 171 specimens from the south-east of Spain specimens with 2+3 (93%), 2+2 (2%) and 2+4 (5%) temporals. Supralabials usually 8, rarely 9; LANZA and BRUZZONE (1960*) describe a northwestern Italian specimen with on both sides 7, with which is in fact a fusion of the 7th and 8th supralabial (DE HAAN unpubl.) .
The 4th and 5th supralabials touch the eye. The number of infralabials is usually 11, often 10 and seldom 9 (PLEGUEZUELOS & MORENO 1989).

The large, square nostril is completely enclosed by the nasal shield and can be fully closed by it. This shield has a diagonal split in the hind part, in connection with the lower, small part of a two-part nostril valve(see Figure 115). The upper, large part of the valve contains the opening of a relatively tiny outlet for the special nasal gland (see DAREWSKIJ 1956, see section "Behaviour"). The front edge of the nostril, i.e. the vertical part of the main valve-side end, ends sometimes at the internasal. In that case one can speak of a "divided" Nasal. The seam between the 2nd supralabial and the two Lorealia appears as a deep furrow if the overlying, special nasal gland is swollen.

Some authors give incorrect drawings of the head shields, especially at the expense of the actual complex and vivid looking form of the preoculars. Good pictures of the head with correct proportions are given by BOULENGER (1913*), BANNIKOW et al. (1977*), and MAUGERI BRUNO (1977*), BARBADILLO (1987*) and in this paper (Fig. 115).

The number of dorsal scale rows in the central region of the body is usually 17 in the southern European populations and 19 in the southwestern European populations. The population from Lampedusa which belongs to the eastern, North-African population group, has usually 19 dorsal scale rows.

The lateral scales are diamond-shaped, with rounded end and smooth, possibly with a weak longitudinal groove, in that case not medial.

The dorsal scales are elongated, stronger tapered and with a distinct, in front of the apex ending longitudinal groove and a single little apical groove, visible with 20x magnification.

All dorsolateral scales are strongly overlapping; the smallest are not fully adjacent but, especially in the neck region of older animals, even a little convex or curling inward.

Some authors declare, probably after reading SCHREIBER (1912*) that the scale grooves are absent in juveniles. One can easily be convinced of the contrary using a magnifying glass.

The tail is slender, gradually tapered and has a very pointed, conical ending scale. A conical tail can also be caused by a regeneration after a mutilation (brandstÄtter 1996).

The anal is divided, and the number of ranges between 157 and 200 The values Subcaudalia ​​vary between 68-104 pairs. The total number of ventrals plus subcaudals varies strangely enough less than the values ​​of its individual components.

M. monspessulanus is a snake without much gloss, it is more satin glossed, the dorsal colour is even somewhat dull. The "concave” scales, with their longitudinal groove, reflect little light.


The ventrals and the lower rows of large dorsal scales can shine stronger because of their smooth surface.

Pattern and coloration are extremely variable and highly dependent on sex, age and geographical origin.

The geographically correlated variation was described in an excellent way by MERTENS (1925*) and LANZA and BRUZZONE (1960*), but (unintendedly) too much restricted to adult ♂.

The sexual dimorphism was excellently described by KRAMER and SCHNURRENBERGER (1963*), but only for eastern, North African and South European populations.

Age-related variation was (unintentionally) incompletely described by several authors, who considered the strongly marked individuals of approx. 1 m TL explicitly or implicitly as juvenile males or females from the southwest-European form, or as (sub)adult males of the South-Eastern European form. The combination of the results by KRAMER and SCHNURRENBERGER (1963*) and DE HAAN (1984 and this paper) point out that the individuals in question probably represent only adult females (regardless of their geographic origin).
The following description of the color and pattern is for the sake of clarity structured by gender, age (better: size class) and geographical origin; it is summarized in Table 3 (see section "Trait variation").

Until the discussion about the available names and the subspecies that are valid, the terms "western form" and "eastern form with 17 DoR” are used as operational terms for the population groups in the following text, with which are meant the south-western respectively the eastern European populations, including the subsequent North-African and Western-Asiatic populations. For the Eastern, North-African populations, the term "eastern form with 19 DoR" is used.

- Adult ♂ form the western form (Fig. 116): top of the head, and neck and front side of back and flanks (up to 2-3 head lengths behind the head) usually colored yellowish-gray-green, less often beige or light brown. This is followed by a dark dorsal zone about 2-4 head lengths ("saddle-like patch" after Mertens 1925 *), which continues in two longitudinal bands only along the flanks on the lowest 2-4 scale rows, extending to the tail. Within this so-called "saddle patch complex" almost all the scales are more or less black, but depending on the individual each scale shows a greenish, gray or pale sky blue "nuclear stain." On the lateral scales the nuclear patch is the largest, so that it can sometimes even repress the black (Fig. 116). For individuals prone to melanism, it is however rather lateral on the smallest and most strongly repressed.


The rest of the upper body, especially after the saddle patch, is uniformly colored, but in a darker green or brown than before the saddle (see MATZ and WEBER 1983*. Pl. 37; FRETEY 1987*: 197; BRODMANN 1987*: 8). These colors fade with aging of the epidermis and are at their brightest just after the shedding.

SALGUES (1937) rightly observed color changes through iridescence, depending on the incidence of light.

In specimens with entirely black lowest 3-4 scale rows the nuclear spots are located in the higher dorsalia. VALVERDE (1967*) described ♂ of more than 110 cm total length from the south of Spain, whose entire back behind the saddle patch is grayish black. From Portugal, adult ♂ with irregular dorsal spots behind the saddle patch are known, which are colored in the same way. There are also specimens in Portugal, with a saddle patch that extendeds forwardly over the head, while the back beyond the saddle is normal green colored. In the specimens with greenish centre spots on each scale in the saddle area, greenish is also the basic color of the rest of the back. In animals with light gray or blue dorsal nuclear spots the ground color of the back is yet green; they probably belong to the "variety" occidentalis Werner (MERTENS 1925*). Some specimens sometimes encountered within "normal" populations, show a surprising coloration: a bright green upper side interrupted by a blue-black saddle, below this, running along the flanks to the tail, chainlike bright blue striping, sharply contrasting with the brilliant lemon-yellow upper lateral edge of the ventrals. The bright blue-yellow contrast is sometimes tempered by a chain pattern formed by the black front edges of the ventrals and the lower lateral scales. This effect changes the appearance of the animal on the outside and inside of the body bends, so that a slowly in a wide arc creeping, big ♂ belonging to this type is highly impressive (see STEMMLER 1958).

Rostrals, supralabials and preoculars with cream coloured or blue-white spots, surrounded by gray-green or yellow-gray-brown of the top of the head. Rarely these spots have dark edges (which is rather typical for females!); in southern Spain less rare than elsewhere (fide VALVERDE 1967* Pl. 4; PLEGUELOS and MORENO 1989, see also "feature variation").

Underside of head and neck yellowish. Wit spots, often partly blue-grey on the infralabials (see Pl. 120). Rest of ventral side usually pale yellow, with or without indistinct, dark spots on a wide median stripe. Usually a black transverse stripe on the front edge of each ventral scale, just vaguely recognizable because of the overlapping arrangement with the semitransparent posterior part of the previous scale. In larger individuals that tend to melanism the middle and back parts of the body can be ventrally and

lateral mainly black, with ventromedian and around the anal plate arranged yellowish spots. The upper side of the tail is coloured like the last part of the back, but the saddle complex nuclear spots are usually reduced completely.

- Adult ♂ of eastern morph: top almost uniform, light gray-green, pale greenish-brown, gray or pale blue, becoming lighter on the sides. No trace of saddle marking! Belly pale yellow (especially in the population group with 19 dorsalia rows, see the section "subspecies") or ivory white (especially in the "17-DoR-group", see ibid), uniform or with indistinct dark spots or yellowish or reddish spots, spread evenly, or limited to a median strip. Especially with the "17-DoR-group" the brightest shade from the abdominal side often enters the flanks, in the form of a light strip, cord-like along the zigzag border of the two lowest dorsalia, bordered above by a fine dotted line. In the "19-DoR-group" the tendency for longitudinal stripes on the flanks is significantly lower. Often there is along the back on each greenish scale a light gray kernel patch that however does not affect the single-color impression of the back. The basic color of head and neck upper side is usually yellow-gray-green, as in the western form; in dorsolateral typically blue-gray specimens the greenish head is particularly striking. Throat and labials often, upper head shields only occasionally show as such recognizable remains of the juvenile marking that are characteristic, but then stronger pronounced, for females. I have no knowledge of specimens that tend to melanism , but see below the description of the nine adult females of the eastern form.
- Young males from western and eastern morph: upper side of the hatchlings fairly strong to almost not marked.

The bright spots on the edges of the scales of the 2-4 dorsal scale rows show a much clearer tendency in the eastern morph toward forming a continuous longitudinal lines than in the western morph. During the first year the intensity of the markings sometimes increases, but thereafter they fade again, so that after 3-5 years a more or less monochromatic upper side is reached.

In the western morph appears a conspicuous appearance of the ‘saddle mark complex’, already described for adult males, starting when the animals reach a TL of 75 cm, regardless of their age (see Character Variation).

The front of the head is not (Fig. 118) or hardly marked in the western morph, but quite clearly marked in the eastern morph, but in all cases less contrasting than in female juveniles of the same litter (see Fig. 117 and 11 M). The latter also applies to the upper and lower sides, but here the


specimens of the western morph are more strongly marked than those of the 17-DoR-eastern morph. The under side of the latter can be uniformly yellowish-white.

The dark brown line along the edge of the shields on the frontal part of the head, if present in male hatchlings, often will disappear in the western morph (and probably in the 19-DoR-eastern form) within the first two years of their life, as is the case with most of the symmetrical spots of the middle and the back parts of the head - regardless of their growth rate.

In the 17-DoR eastern morph, possibly existing spots on the middle and back of the head disappear quickly, but the frontal head markings are normally still well recognisable although the animals have become fully uniformly coloured dorsally. Male hatchlings probably always will have black, or at least grey lines along the white markings on the throat, the labials, temporals and preoculars, but these disappear in the long run likewise. This pattern will normally have faded in males of the western morph at a total body length of about 75 cm. In the 17DoR eastern morph it will have faded only at 140 cm TL, in the 19-DoR eastern morph probably at 75-100 cm TL.

Other variants of colour and pattern as in young males but also in adult females, are dependant of the length of the animal: the smaller the individual, the bigger the chance that it shows the characteristics of a ‘typical female’.
- Juvenile and adult ♀ of the western and eastern morph: juveniles always, adults usually heavily marked. Often contrastingly coloured, but usually in mainly brownish hues, more or less symmetrically patterned with black and white (or yellow) lines and sketchings, on light grey, greyish green or reddish background. Individual variation in pattern and colouration throughout the species area is extremely large; regionally more restricted but still significant, even in clutch siblings.
On the internasals, the prefrontals, the anterior (seldom on the whole) frontal, the upper part of the preoculars and the back side of the supraoculars, there is an often black margined but always sharply edged spot, rarely uniformly light brown, but usually yellowis white with a brown nucleus (cf. Pict. 119, resp. 117). Sometimes there is no such spot on the internasalia and/or Praeocularia, but the supraoculars may be double spotted. On larger adults the spots are often brownish grey instead of yellowish white. Between and behind these usually complex and rarely uniform spots, the head is usually dark brown, sometimes dark green. The parietal area becomes lighter when the animals age, the supraocular becomes darker, in some old females even black 'flamed'.

From the middle or the end of the frontal shield, of which the seams are overlapped, there is a (not always overt) V-marking, in the western morph up to the middle of the parietals, in the eastern morph up to their back border. Behind the parietals the upper side of the head is colored like the body itself: for instance light grey. On this part there is more or less symmetric, dark brown, black edged and often divided occipital spot, differently formed for each individual, and connected along a narrow median line with the darker area of the middle of the head. Often is this spot continuously united with an always present oblong, dark brown and mostly black edged temporal spot.

For 9 of the 19-DoR-eastern form (see section "trait variation") a double V-drawing ("chevrons") on the head is perhaps indicative; the 17-DoR-eastern form other hand, seems to have a more variable head marking, which undoubtedly also applies to the Western form.
Supra- and infralabialia have ivory white, sometimes a little yellowish, with greenish or reddish mottled spots that are completely or partially bordered with a darker, sometimes deep black edge. Such white spots also show on the non-frontal part of the preoculars; in both eastern forms it is usually wider than high, in the western form taller than wide, and sometimes even almost merged with the high white spot of the third supralabial.


The marking of the rostral is either part of the supralabial or of the forehead marking pattern.

The first dorsal rows show on their lower part the bright color of the belly (white, rarely yellow in the west form; white or amber in the eastern form), but this belly colour is over the entire length of these rows separated from the flank colour (for instance beige-grey) in a straight line.

In the eastern form the upper edge of the first dorsal row as well as the lower edge of the second row are usually clearly white or yellowish; in the 17-DoR animals, there can be a second and sometimes even a third white line be present, each one a scale row higher. In the western form rarely a lighter line is present on the upper side the beige-grey stripes, most often it is a row of more or less lighter spots, one for each scale.

Bei allen geographischen Formen ist der Rücken ab dem Hinterhauptsfleck und oberhalb der untersten 2 Schuppenreihen je nach Exemplar verschieden gefärbt und gezeichnet: Die Grundfarbe ist oft beige-grau, heil grüngrau oder (besonders bei der Ostform mit 17 DoR) heil blaugrau und vermutlich sehr selten strohgelb, orange, rötlich oder dunkelbraun (man beachte aber, da6 eine altere Epidermis noch lange vor der Augentrübungsphase im Zuge der Häutung ohnehin alle hellen Farben zu braun verdunkelt). Über die Rückenmitte verlauft, speziell bei der Westform, eine Reihe von 70-80 recht großen, auf dem Vorderrücken meist zweigeteilte, heil- oder dunkelbrauner Flecken, die normalerweise 2 Dorsalschuppen lang und 5 breit sind (ungefähr gleichseitig). Bei anderen Individuen, speziell von der Balkanhalbinsel und vermutlich auch aus bestimmten Steppengebieten innerhalb der 17-DoR-Gruppe der Ostform (vgl. Abschnitt Merkmalsvariation") verlaufen über die Rückenmitte meist 2-3 Längsreihen kleiner, schwarzbrauner Flecken, die gewöhnlich durch ein gelbweißes Fleckchen am Oberrand einer Schuppe markiert werden. Bei vermutlich allen Individuen aller Formen stehen auf den Flanken l oder 2 Längsreihen schwarzer, oberseits öfters mit gelb markierte Fleck­chen (einem auf jeder zweiten Schuppe). Bei adulten ♀ der Westform sind meist auf dem Vorderrücken, d. h. dort, wo bei ♂ über 70 cm GL der Sattelfleck-Komplex liegt, die ursprünglichen Flecken mehr oder weniger in Umfang und Farbe verändert, unterscheiden sich also von den entsprechenden Flecken anderer Körperregionen; z. B. können vorher braune Flecken grau oder schwarz sein, kleine weiße Flecken können dort größer ausgebildet sein. Ein Westform-♀ ohne eine Spur dieser speziellen Färbungs- und Zeichnungsstruktur, dabei langer als 100 cm GL, ist mir bekannt und stellt vermutlich eine große Seltenheit dar; es könnte für ein adultes Ostform-♀ (19-DoR-Gruppe) gehalten werden. Manchmal zeigen adulte ♀ beider Formen dorsolateral große Ähnlichkeit mit den jeweiligen


(sub-)adulten ♂. Jedoch bleibt die Zeichnung der Labialia und der Kehl- und Halsregion bei beiden Formen stets als typisch „weiblich" erkennbar. Zwar kann sie verblaßt sein, ist aber vermutlich nicht mit der eines ♂ gleicher GL zu verwechseln (vgl. Abschnitt „Merkmalsvariation"). Die Ventralseite ab dem Hals bis zum Schwanz zeigt einen breiten gelben oder (besonders bei der Ostform) beigen Mittelstreifen, der meist übersät ist mit kleinen, mehr oder weniger deutlichen, mitunter in Längsreihen angeordneten braunen und rötlichen oder orange und grünlichen oder grauen und schwarzen Fleckchen. Beiderseits dieses Mittelstreifens ist der Bauch weiß (meist bei der Westform und 19-DoR-Ostform) oder gelblich (meist bei der 17-DoR-Ostform), aber die Außenrander der Ventralia tragen jedes ein schwarzes, braunes oder grünliches Querstreifchen, die zusammen eine Längslinie entlang der Bauchseite bilden. Diese Linie kann zwar ver­blaßt sein, aber nie, wie bei adulten ♂ stets der Fall, völlig verschwinden. Besonders altere 9 der 17-DoR-Ostform haben manchmal einen einfarbig gelbweißen Bauch. Bei 9 der 19-DoR-Ostform ist der Bauch oft überwiegend schwarz gefleckt auf grau-orangenem Grund, und bei 9 der West­form oft schwarz, grün und/oder rotbraun gefleckt auf blaulich- oder rötlich-weißem Grund. Vermutlich kommen die Färbungs- und Zeichnungs-Variationen bei allen 3 Gruppen vor, doch ist das Auftreten bestimmter Variationen pro Gruppe verschieden häufig. Der normalerweise schwarze Vorderrand der Ventralia erscheint teils grau, da er durch den transparenten Hinterrand des vorhergehenden Schildes überdeckt wird, teils wird er unsichtbar, wenn sich die Ventralia durch Biegungen des Körpers starker imbrikat überlappen. Auf der Halsunterseite befindet sich auf weißlichem Grund eine komplizierte, symmetrische oder auch asymmetrische Zeich­nung aus ganz schwarzen oder aus schwarz und grau abgesetzten braunen, orangenen und/oder akaziengrünen Streifen, die querstehend oder als Zickzackmuster, aber meistens als 2-3 Längsbahnen bis zur Kehle reichen (eine der vielen Varianten zeigt Abb. 121). Bei 9 mit einer einfarbig weiß-gelben Bauchseite ist die Kehl- und Halsregion dennoch gezeichnet, wie im Prinzip bei allen ♀ ungeachtet ihres Lebensalters. Dies steht in schroffem Gegensatz zu den adulten ♂ (s. Abb. 120). Auf dem Schwanz setzen sich die meisten Körperfärbungen fort, oft einigermaßen, seltener vollständig in Längsstreifen konzentriert.

Schädel: Es liegt keine detaillierte Beschreibung eines postembryonalen vollständigen Schädels vor. Die Entwicklung des Chondrocraniums wurde dagegen von EL-TOUBI et al. (1973) äußerst detailliert beschrieben. SZYNDLAR (1988*) bemerkte Unterschiede am Hirnschädel zwischen Ost- und Westform.

BOULENGER (1896*) bildete das Maxillare und das Mandibulare in schematisierter Lateralansicht ab, während PARKER und BELLAIRS (1971*: Fig. 294) ein Farbphoto dieser Kieferknochen (aber nicht mit sämtlichen Zähnen) abbildeten. Dieses Photo zeigt deutlich den besonders großen hintersten, vorn gefurchten Maxillarzahn, das stark nach unten gebogene vordere Drittel des Maxillare und die sehr scharfen, hakenförmigen Spitzen der langen, vordersten Mandibularzähne. BOULENGER (l.c.*) gibt für das Maxillare 10-17 ca. gleichgroße Zähne an, gefolgt von 1-2 größeren, gefurchten Giftzähnen. Die Zahnzahl für das Mandibulare gibt er nicht, aber auf seiner Fig. 8 sind 6 große, danach ca. 16 kleinere Zähne zu unterscheiden. DOUMERGUE (1901*) beschreibt akkurat Form und Lange dieser Zähne und


einiger Kieferknochen und notiert 11 Mandibular-, 10 Pterygoid- und 10 Palatinumzähne.

Der Oberschädel ohne zahntragende Knochen ist in Dorsal- und Ventralansicht bei SZUNYOGHY (1932*) abgebildet. Nach ihm sind „zwei sofort auffallende Eigenschaften charakteristisch: die besonders tiefe mediade Bogenlinie, die durch den Orbitalrand des Frontale beschrieben wird, die hierdurch erfolgte hochgradige Verengung hauptsachlich des mittleren Abschnittes der Frontalia und die ganz bedeutende Größe des Foramen opticum; letztere Eigenschaft ist für Malpolon besonders kennzeichnend. Träger wichtiger artlicher Merkmale sind noch folgende Knochen: Basisphenoid, Parietale, Nasale, Prämaxillare und Präfrontale" (l.c.*: 20). Beschrieben und abgebildet werden noch Intranasale, Vomer, Maxilla, Palatinum, Mandibel und Quadratum. Zählt man die Maxillar-, Palatinum- und Mandibularzähne der Abbildungen (l.c.*: Figs. 59, 71 bzw. 83), so erhalt man die Werte 13 (+2 gefurchte), 10 bzw. 12. Diese Werte sind, wegen nicht mitgezeichneter bzw. -gezählter fehlender Zwischenzahne, vor allem für den Unterkiefer sicher zu niedrig.

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