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Field Staff: Demand is lowered because of limited existing product marketing and sales, rich variety of skills and strong drive required to achieve success, rising technology production costs, input sourcing issues, and competition.

Owners: Seed availability is a major concern and operation exertion is high. No existing information about marketing, packaging, sales. Adding a marketing component would make it even better.

Retailers: Market demand issues for oil impacted sales of the technology. No product promotion and competition from cheaper imitations. Only groups and NGOs have purchased the products – no individuals.

FINCA Uganda Staff: Concerns about seed availability and competition.

CRITERION #2: FINANCIAL RISK TO FRANCHISEES

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 2.6

2.0 (Management) + 2.25 (Field Staff) + 2.8 (Owners) + 3.9 (Retailers) + 2.0 (FINCA Clients)



Positive:

Management: Recognition of the improvements necessary to bolster the model may motivate KickStart to more actively engage with FINCA in tackling these issues.

Field Staff: Access to microcredit significantly reduces the financial risk that most owners have been facing as they start their press businesses.

Owners: No input availability problem expressed in owner location. Pricing consistent with our numbers. Group purchase reduces financial risk. Training good on production, input sourcing, bookkeeping. Income improvement seen. Active marketing efforts by owners. Clients with fewer business skills get more support.

Retailers: MFIs sometimes buy presses to sell to their clients. No repayment issues among customers who chose to pay for the presses gradually on a layaway plan. . Product quality and guarantee lowers risk.
Neutral:

Retailers: Long-term risk of market saturation means careful vetting of potential technology purchasers necessary from the start. Saturation is not a short-term risk.

FINCA Clients*: Based on comments only.
Negative:

Management: Seed sourcing issues, current training gaps, market access, and competition from cheap imports all increase financial risk.

Field Staff: Seed availability, competition, skill variety needed to be successful, access to market information, and vulnerability to natural disasters can all add to financial risk.

Owners: Market prices and inputs may differ in Uganda. Limited seed availability and exertion levels are reducing production. No marketing, packaging or sales training. Oil prone to spoiling without proper storage. Buyers may not differentiate oil quality. No quality control or packaging standards.

Retailers: Even with more support, training is limited.

CRITERION #3: MODEL REPLICABILITY

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 3.0

2.1 (Management) + 2.7 (Field Staff) + 2.6 (Owners) + 3.75 (Retailers) + 4.0 (FINCA Staff)



Positive:

Management: Significant existing experience setting up retailers will help with Uganda expansion. Huge untapped demand in urban areas to support model replication and clear understanding of issues that need to be addressed.

Field Staff: Retail staff and the training they receive from KickStart will be a key resource for setting up local training and providing product support. Microfinance is easily integrated into the model and will solve key financing problems.

Owners: An existing product demonstration program means that fewer changes will have to be made to the model. Training is solid on production, input sourcing, and bookkeeping.

Retailers: Precedent set for integrating with microcredit. Likely to be compatible and increase sales. Presence of existing training program.

FINCA Uganda Staff: No major concerns about adjustments to be made to loan terms. Just slight variations from the norm.
Neutral:

Owners: How will seeds be sourced in Uganda? (Note: This is a question that arises from owner comments about conditions in Kenya. It is not a comment made by Oilseed Press owners.
Negative:

Management: Will need to build market research into the model, since KickStart doesn’t have any. Limited product marketing at present. Need to significantly enhance training effort and materials. Need to develop a new supply chain to take advantage of urban demand.

Field Staff: New marketing materials must be developed, M&E strategy and execution for the presses must be revived, training must be expanded.

Owners: Location for operation may require renting a space. Most current owners use savings or donations to purchase the presses, not loans. No training exists in marketing, packaging or sales.

Retailers: Training program needs to be enhanced and systematized.

CRITERION #4: POVERTY/HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IMPACT ON FRANCHISEES

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 3.5

3.75 (Management) + 3.3 (Owners)



Positive:

Management: KickStart’s impact assessment helps it monitor and improve poverty and human development among product purchasers, which could be redirect toward FINCA clients who purchase the presses. Presses have shown the capacity to significantly raise incomes for owners under the right conditions.

Owners: Pricing consistent with the encouraging numbers we used in our revenue estimates. Some income improvements seen, and the groups showed much improvement in access to food and children’s education.
Negative:

Owners: Income improvement slower than anticipated, production rates lower than expected, and the current system includes no poverty and human development monitoring.

CRITERION #5: PROJECT VISION AND DESIGN SYNERGY WITH PARTNER

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 3.2

3.4 (Management) + 2.7 (Field Staff) + 2.75 (Owners) + 3.5 (Retailers) + 3.75 (FINCA Uganda Staff)



Positive:

Management: Significant mission overlap, compatibility and ability to enhance program with microfinance, interest in partnership and collaboration by KickStart, potential shown based on past experience to invest more in training, input sourcing, or access to markets if it had a partner committed to the products.

Field Staff: Providing access to credit would complement a constraint faced to date by KickStart, retailers and buyers. Retailer education and product knowledge is consistent with FINCA’s commitment to maximizing client success and an important resource for establishing appropriate linkages to make partnership a success.

Owners: Existing product demonstration program, training solid in production, input sourcing and bookkeeping, and presence of a monitoring and evaluation system to build on.

Retailers: Worked with MFIs and developed successful repayment plans, increasing sales and customer success.

FINCA Uganda Staff: One staff member believed FINCA would be very interested – little problem with inputs, agriculture-based economy, and recognition of available markets.
Neutral:

FINCA Uganda Staff*: This score was taken from responses to questions about FINCA Uganda’s capacity and interest in launching a project with this partner.
Negative:

Management: Not seen by KickStart as a potential growth area, as explained by the lack of existing product support, which may put more responsibility into FINCA’s hands.

Field Staff: Monitoring of presses is more limited than before and monitoring in general may be compromised in practiced, which is not consistent with FINCA vision. FINCA would prefer a partner that provided much more support than KickStart currently does for the presses in all phases of the business.

Owners: No training in marketing, packaging and selling, M&E program needs more on poverty and human development impact, KickStart is not currently conducting monitoring and evaluation or offering ongoing support, and the press seems more easily used by men, who aren’t FINCA targets.

Retailers: One retailer only saw donations pay for purchase; training revisions and greater KickStart participation necessary

FINCA Uganda Staff: One staff member was concerned about the lack of a guaranteed market.

CRITERION #6: MARKET DEMAND FOR PRODUCT

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 3.0

2.25 (Management) + 2.75 (Field Staff) + 4 (FINCA Uganda Staff) + 3.0 FINCA Clients



Positive:

Management: Untapped demand in urban areas, strong press sales in Uganda despite lack of retail presence or marketing support suggests that demand could be strong there.

Field Staff: Ongoing demand for the presses at retail suggests there must be some product demand.
Neutral:

FINCA Uganda Staff: This score was taken from a composite of responses to questions about staff perceptions of client demand for each opportunity, for each opportunity among youth, and for staff interest and capacity to launch the project as well as some general comments.

FINCA Clients*: Based on comments only.
Negative:

Management: Input supply, import competition, and poor seed quality have all cut into market demand.

CRITERION #7: PARTNER BUSINESS PLAN DESIGN

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 2.6

2.7 (Management) +2.3 (Field Office) + 2.5 (Retailers)



Positive:

Management: Strong effort to maximize efficiency and lower costs in the production process, no concern that KickStart will saturate the market with technologies, strong plan compatibility with microfinance, M&E program that improved internal performance, identification of key issues in the existing model.

Field Office: Strong presence of retail sales force provides an important resource for FINCA to tap into – for knowledge as it looks to improve the model and develop the pilot project, as well as presence of staff to provide training to FINCA staff and clients.

Retailers: Existing knowledge and information sharing among retailers; product quality and guarantee, and evidence of strong business plan.
Neutral:

Field Staff: There is lack of marketing and support provided with the presses, but they both continue to sell well in some high traffic areas and are selling well in Uganda.
Negative:

Management: Support for the presses has been nearly abandoned although it benefits from some piggybacking on irrigation pump support. Need to significantly bolster market research, input sourcing, training, client support, establishing markets despite lack of current backing for the presses. Have not developed a rural to urban supply chain to fully exploit the market potential.

Field Staff: Limitations of training (input sourcing and preparation, establishing supply chains, marketing and sales, business management, etc.) lack of marketing and sales support at retail level, lack of monitoring and evaluation, and lack of ongoing technical and business support to technology owners.

Retailers: No sales incentives or marketing support from KickStart. Unclear whether KickStart trains retailers or does training themselves. Need to set up good system. Training needs enhancement as well.

CRITERION #8: PROJECTED IMPACT ON LOCAL YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE:

4.25 (FINCA Uganda Staff) + 3.75 (FINCA Clients)



Positive:

FINCA Uganda Staff: Women likely to be interested in the oil press.
Neutral:

FINCA Uganda Staff*: This result is based on the staff’s assessment of youth demand for each type of business and parental willingness to cosign for a loan.

FINCA Clients*: This score was derived from the collective results of three questions – perceived youth interest in each opportunity, perception of local youth unemployment issue, and willingness to guarantee a loan on behalf of one’s child (asked of all, not just those who had young adult children).

CRITERION #9: ADDITIONAL FINCA STAFF RESOURCES REQUIRED

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 1.7

1.25 (Management) +1.25 (FINCA Uganda Staff)



Positive:

Authors’ Note*: While the management note is legitimate and additional staffing may be necessary beyond what would be required in the case of Honey Care, it is not nearly as bleak as the number attributed to management’s comment implies. If additional market linkages are necessary, it may require more staff time than setting up a block press project.
Negative:

Management: Additional staff resources may be necessary to establish all linkages necessary to launch the project and ensure that FINCA clients have adequate support in the absence of current backing for the presses. May need to get involved in the training or at least collaborate in the development of enhanced training manuals.

FINCA Uganda Staff: Additional staff might be needed to sell the technologies. (1 comment)

CRITERION #10: PROJECT STARTUP COST FOR FINCA

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 2.5

2.5 (Management) + 2.5 (FINCA Clients)



Positive

Management: KickStart’s previous efforts to help bolster production during high demand periods indicate a willingness to take on more responsibility in resources and financing, which could be applied to the weak links in the current model. No separate investment fund will be necessary to finance clients, since they can earn nearly immediate returns on investment to begin loan repayment.
Neutral:

FINCA Clients*: Based on comments only.
Negative:

Management: Additional funding may be necessary to establish all linkages necessary to launch the project and ensure that FINCA clients have adequate training and support in the absence of current backing for the presses.

CRITERION #11: COST OF ENTRY FOR FRANCHISEES

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 3.2

3.5 (Management) + 2.9 (Field Staff) + 3.15 (Retailers)



Positive:

Management: Although startup cost is much higher than the beekeeping business, income returns are immediate and there is potential to achieve profitability within a few months, meaning that the initial investment is tied up for less time and less interest is paid per dollar

Field Staff: Although microfinance will not lower the cost of entry, it lowers the amount of capital that must be raised to meet that cost.

Retailers: Successful repayment by those taking out loans indicates that the cost of entry is manageable.
Negative:

Field Staff: Suggestion that startup cost may be cause for delay or avoidance of purchase by potential investors, especially since production costs have risen in recent years.

Retailers: Perception that the cost of entry is too high for individuals, although it may be due to lack of access to credit.

CRITERION #12: CURRENT PARTNER FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 3.0

1.25 (Management)



Positive:

Author’s Note: KickStart has been very successful in obtaining donor funding and has operated its business much like a for-profit would, rigorously monitoring aspects of its operations to improve efficiency and cut costs. It is looking into moving production to China to further reduce costs and increase grassroots impact. The only significant negative is that they do not earn strong financial returns on the presses, which has limited their support for them.
Negative:

Management: Low financial returns on the presses has reduced KickStart’s and their donors’ incentive to support them.

CRITERION #13: COMMUNITY POVERTY/HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IMPACT

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 3.75

Positive:

Authors’ Note*: The oil press will have an employment impact and therefore a poverty reduction impact that could be comparable to the block press’s – fewer employees per press, but perhaps more presses sustainable in any given community. Cooking with seed oil will improve health outcomes over other oils and fats used.

CRITERION #14: FINCA AVOIDS PARTICIPANT SELECTION RESPONSIBILITY

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 2.5

Neutral:

Authors’ Note*: FINCA will inevitably have full participant selection responsibility because KickStart is unlikely to be involved directly with clients except to train them, and even there it may be through retailers. However, beyond assessing a client’s creditworthiness, the only additional criteria will be that s/he has established a market, knows where s/he will source soil and cement, and has people in mind as laborers. As a result, it is likely that FINCA would want to retain this control.

CRITERION #15: GEOGRAPHIC RANGE/FLEXIBILITY OF BUSINESS

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 3.4

2.5 (Management) + 2.1 (Field Staff)



Positive:

Management: No difficulty seen in the potential to expand the reach of the presses.

Authors’ Note*: Although seed availability is the primary potential geographic limitation, once a source is found, it can be transported to most areas FINCA serves. More importantly, the press can be operated successfully in urban and rural areas as long as owners can find a market and survive against competition.
Negative:

Management: Additional confirmation here of geographic limitations resulting from seed availability, although the situation described here is Kenya specific. Demand may be constrained if there is no investment in marketing.

Field Staff: Retailers need to be in high visibility areas and need to have reliable credit ratings. The project may need to be in an area in close proximity to a retailer to keep transportation costs down.

CRITERION #16: MINIMIZE APPLE OF DISCORD

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 3.25

Positive:

Authors’ Note*: Loan application standards will be higher than for beehives, but lower than for the block press. The only two issues beyond creditworthiness are sourcing seeds, which applies to anyone who is not a grower and to some growers as well, and knowing one’s market and avoiding saturation. These skills are less specialized than what is required to access the oil market.

CRITERION #17: FINCA EXCLUSIVE REGIONAL PARTNER

KICKSTART OIL PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 4.85

4.75 (Management) + 5 (Field Staff)



Positive:

Management: Lack of retail presence in Uganda and lack of sales and marketing effort behind the presses means that FINCA will be the initial point of entry into Uganda and has a good chance of remaining at least the exclusive MFI partner.

Field Staff: Lack of consistent access to credit among purchasers reinforces the potential for FINCA to be an exclusive regional partner for the presses.

APPENDIX 3.5 – FINAL COMPOSITE SCORES FOR KICKSTART BLOCKS PRESS
Description: Below is a composite of all the scores derived from each relevant interview for every criterion in the Evaluation Scorecard for KickStart’s Block Press. Under each criterion, the final score attributed to responses from each interview group who commented on a given criterion are listed individually. The overall score at the top was derived from these individual scores, taking their average and making any minor adjustments in the event of limited data availability under the guidelines described in Section VIII of the text. Additionally, brief summaries of positive, negative and neutral feedback from each interview group are included as a way of providing a written explanation for the final score assigned to it.
Note: Some descriptions below are not summaries of comments made by respondents. Rather they are either explanations or comments on how scores were obtained or they are author comments on the responses or scoring. For example, some scores from FINCA clients were derived from individual comments rather than from collective responses to quantitative focus group questions. These explanations are indicated with a * next to the interview group from which they come.
CRITERION #1: FINCA CLIENT DEMAND FOR EACH BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY

KICKSTART BLOCK PRESS OVERALL SCORE: 3.25

3.25 (Management) + 2.0 (Field Staff) + 3.75 (Owners) + 2.9 (Retailers) + 3.1 (Manufacturer) + 2.25 (Consultant) +4.3. (FINCA Uganda Staff) + 3.9 (FINCA Clients)



Positive:

Management: Uganda has been a strong market despite the fact that they lack a retail presence, suggesting that the presses may be appealing to FINCA clients. FINCA financing mechanism will boost client demand given startup cost.

Field Staff: Demand rises in high traffic areas, which is how retail outlet locations are targeted. Demand would also increase with active product marketing.

Owners: Limited challenges, strong operational training are enticing to clients.

Retailers: No claims of quality issues and perception of compatibility with microcredit program to facilitate financing.

Manufacturer: Research found that there is a manufacturing in Uganda who markets and sells block presses. This lead the team to conclude that there is a local market for the technology.

Consultant: With revisions and improvements to training, including marketing and setting cost structure, demand will rise.

FINCA Staff: Perception that the economy is growing and can support it, and that high returns will be enticing.
Neutral:

FINCA Clients*: This was determined by combining the percentage of actual respondents who expressed interest in the product (alone or as compared with the others) with individual comments indicating enthusiasm or skepticism about it.
Negative:

Management: Perception that the MicroFranchisee must have all of the following to be successful: business drive, entrepreneurship, enthusiasm and determination, access to inputs and the drive to market and sell.

Field Staff: Limited existing product marketing and sales, rich variety of skills including construction experience and strong drive required to achieve success, rising technology production costs, and competition all lower demand.

Owners: Clients need training in marketing and sales.

Retailers: Market demand issues for oil impacted sales of the technology. No product promotion and competition from cheaper imitations. Only groups and NGOs purchase the product – no individuals.
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