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Chapter 29 Colonization of Land Plants

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Chapter 29 Colonization of Land Plants

  1. The charophytes are modern-day green organisms; they are similar to the most recent common ancestor of all land plants because they feature mitosis similar to land plants. However, charophytes do not have apical meristem.

2. Mitotic activity occurs at the apical meristem of roots allowing for an increase of the above-ground stem.
3. Structural integrity of bacteria : peptidoglycan

Structural integrity of plant spores : sporopollenin

  1. Plantae taxon is also known as “embryophytes”. Alkaloids are secondary compounds of embryophytes.

  1. Plant adaptations for life on land

  • Cuticle – protects plant from desiccation.

  • Tracheida and phloem – transport water, minerals, and nutrients.

  • Seeds

  • NOT --- rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes

  1. Animal predation was not a challenge for the first land plants.

  1. Viridiplantae – Taxa including the largest amount of genetic diversity among plantlike organisms.

  1. Bryophytes DO NOT have lignified vascular tissue or microphylls; thus, they will form mats but not forests. During plant reproduction, both male and female bryophytes produce gametangia. Mature sporophyte depend on the gametophyte for nutrition. Early bryophytes have gene sequences most similar to the charophytes.

  1. Plant spores are produced directly by sporophytes. The broadcast of spores may be hindered due to a fungal infection that damages peristomes.

  1. Archegonia – May temporarily contain sporophyte embryos.

  1. Structures arranged from largest to smallest (top to bottom)

    • Gametophytes

    • Gametangia

    • Antheridia

    • Gametes

  1. Mosses have life cycles that DO NOT include growing embryos that will give rise to gametophytes.

  1. Moss spore germinates, below is the sequence of structures that develop after germination (top to bottom)

  • Protonema

  • Gametophore

  • Gametes

  • Embryo

  • Sporophyte

  1. Rhizoids of Polytricum mosses are not absorptive structures for absorbing nitrogen from the soil, but Polytrichum moss may grow as tall as 2 meters. How? They have conducting tissues or “stems”.

  1. How do you determine a true moss from a club moss? Look for spore-producing structures.

  1. Ferns – Flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte and sporophyte generations with sporophyte dominant, no seeds.

  1. How do you determine a lycophyte sporophyte from a pterophyte sporophyte? The presence of microphylls vs. megaphylls. The dust of lycophyte sporophytes have tiny spheres with high oil content. Within the spheres are sporopollenins. Within the stem are lignified vascular tissues.

  1. The evolution of algae to land plants involved branched sporophytes? How was this helpful? Increased spore production.

  1. Pterophytes have sporophylls.

  1. What contributed to coal deposits during evolution? Horsetails, whisk ferns, tree ferns, and lycophytes.

  1. Most inclusive or largest to least inclusive or smallest structures if all are found in the same plant.

  • Sporophytes

  • Sporophylls

  • Sporangia

  • Spores

  1. Whole forests were dominated by large, seedless vascular plants during the Carboniferous period.

  1. What groups have flagellated sperm? Lycophyta, Bryophyta, Chlorophyta, and Pterophyta.

  1. Deep strata to shallow strata. The sequence of fossils which would appear first.

  • Single-celled green algae

  • Charophytes

  • Hornworts

  • Plants with a dominant sporophyte

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