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Bosnia and Herzegovina Fourth Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity


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Bosnia and Herzegovina Fourth Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity

2010 Biodiversity Targets National Assessments

April 2010



Contents

1 Introduction 2

2 National Strategy and Action Plan for Protection Biological and Landscape Diversity of Bosnia and Herzegovina 17

3 Sectoral and Cross-sectoral Approaches to Integration and Inclusion of Biological Diversity 20

4 Progress towards Achieving the 2010 Targets and Implementation of the Strategic Plan 26

Appendix 1 Information concerning reporting party and preparation of national report 42

Appendix 2 Progress towards targets of the global strategy for plant conservation and programme of work on protected areas 45





  1. Introduction


Bosnia and Herzegovina is situated in South Eastern Europe, in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula and has a total land area of 51,129 km2. The total length of its borders is 1,537 km of which 762.5 km are land borders, 751.0 km river borders and 23.5 km sea borders. Bosnia and Herzegovina has common frontiers with Republic of Croatia (931 km), Serbia (375 km) and Montenegro (249 km). To the north, BiH has access to the River Sava, and to the south to the Adriatic Sea, at Neum. The land is mainly hilly to mountainous with an average altitude of 500 meters. Of the total land area, 5% are lowlands, 24% hills, 42% mountains and 29% Karst area. Most of the western part of Dinaric Alps is situated here, descending gradually in the northern direction and suddenly in the southern direction.

BiH climate is influenced by following: the Atlantic ocean in the West, the Mediterranean in the South, and vast space of continental masses of Europe in the North, and of Asia in the northeast and East. Climate of Bosnia and Herzegovina is temperate, but shows often extremes and high diversity level. The lowest temperature characterizes highest mountain peaks. An average temperature in January on Bjelašnica Mt. amounts -7,2OC, while in Neum city, on Adriatic coast, it is +6,5OC. Annual precipitation in Bosnia and Herzegovina is unevenly distributed, whereas it increases from the South towards Dinaric massifs, and declines again towards peri-pannonian margin. Snow occurs regularly in winter, covering mountain peaks over 6 months a year. Climate of Bosnia and Herzegovina is comfortable for human life and health, being therefore an important natural wealth of our country.

Forests and forest soils cover 2,709,769 ha (about 53% of the territory). Woods cover 2,209,732 ha (about 43%), and barren land covers 500,037 ha (about 10%). The total agricultural land covers 2.5 million hectares or 0.7 hectares per capita.

With its high average annual precipitation (1250 l/m2 compared with the European average of 1000 l/m2) Bosnia and Herzegovina possesses significant water resources. There are seven river basins (Una, Vrbas, Bosna, Drina, Sava, Neretva with Trebišnjica and Cetina) of which 75.7% belong to the Black Sea catchment and 24.3% to the Adriatic Sea catchment. There are also a large number of river lakes (on Pliva and Una) and mountain lakes (in the area of Dinarides), as well as thermal and geothermal groundwater resources. BiH has got large quantity of high quality fresh water. Most of mentioned watercourses emerge under the Dinaric Mountains. The underground water collection, which country has got plenty of, occurs in lose depositions, around large river beds, karst fissures, trenches and caves. Thermal and mineral springs occur around ingenious bedrocks and tectonic disruptions. The hottest thermal spring (with water temperature of +580C) is Ilidža's spa, and other well known mineral springs are: Kiseljak, Kakanj, Srednje, Busovača, Srebrenica, Žepa, Tešanj, Maglaj, Žepče, etc.

BiH has an access to the Adriatic Sea with coastline which is 22 km long. Average annual temperature of sea water at Neum city is +9.60C; salinity varies between 29 and 35 ‰; color is blue-green, with 10 m transparency.

Rocks that make a country's foundation have been deposited over geologic times at the bottom of former Tetis Sea. Metamorphous rocks, of which mountains in central part are made of, date back from Paleozoic. Paleozoic layers occur also in other parts of Bosnia in mosaic. Sedimentary rocks originating mainly from Mesozoic, were upraised during Alpine orogenesis, and folded into Dinaric Mountains by lateral stress. Northern and southern zones of the mid Dinaric Alps are built of Cenozoic layers. After dynamic geological events in Cenozoic, Tetis Sea has been withdrawn leaving land with smaller water bodies (Paratetis). At the end of Cenozoic, the Pannonian Sea, finally withdrew leaving shallow lakes and marshes behind. Rivers Sana, Una, Vrbas, Bosna and Drina followed east and north direction of the Sea withdrawing by increasing their lengths. In the Adriatic basin, after Pleistocene, level of the Sea elevated due to ice melting, which sunk the lower valley of Neretva river. In Bosnia and Herzegovina are prevailing soil types from auto morphous and hydro morphous division.


1.1Diversity of species


The richness of living world that exist on its territory is the result of ecological heterogeneity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, its geomorphologic and hydrological diversity, specific geological past and its eco climate diversity. Flora, Fauna and Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina are considered to be among the most diverse in Europe, being especially important in terms of global biodiversity due to its high level of endemism and relicts.

Living world that inhabit different places of Bosnia and Herzegovina compose numerous communities and ecosystems at present-day, which are specific for this area, the Balkan Peninsula and entire Europe. Main factors responsible for high diversity of BiH are:



  • Diversity of terrestrial habitats caused by:

    • occurrence of rocks of different age,

    • diversity of bedrocks,

    • diversity of soil types,

    • unique and diverse forms of relief, and

    • diversity of climate conditions.

  • Diversity of aquatic habitats reflected by:

    • rich and diverse hydrological network (mountain lakes, springs, mountain torrents, brooks, rivers, sinking streams, ponds, marshes, underground water, thermal sources, brakish water and sea)

High level of floristic diversity is based upon diversity of cyanophytes, alges and vascular plants.

By undertaken investigations, till now it is identified 1,859 species from 217 genera within group of cyanophytes and alges. The most diverse groups are Charophyta, i.e. Charophyceae and Chlorophyceae classes, and Heterokontophyta, i.e. Bacillariophyceae class.



Table1.- Diversity of cyanophytes and alges

Taxon

Genus

Species

Variety

Form

Cyanobacteria

36

303

1

4

Rodophyta

7

20

1

-

Charophyceae

33

319

31

5

Chlorophyceae

65

242

25

2

Euglenophyta

4

21

-

-

Dinophyta

5

20

-

2

Bacillarioph.

57

881

222

15

Xanthophyceae

4

21

-

-

Chrysophyceae

12

32

4

-

Total

217

1,859

284

28


Table 2 - Taxonomic diversity of higher plants




Family

Genus

Species

Sub-species

Total

Bryo-phyta

52

187

565

0

565

Pterido-phyta

14

26

61

8

71

Spermato-phyta

161

858

3,256

1,078

4,498

Total

227

1,071

3,882

1,086

5,134

The fact that identified was 5,134 taxa, underlines the floristic richness of Bosnia and Herzegovina and places it among the richest ones in Europe.

Within Spermatophyta, families with the highest species diversity are:



  • composits,

  • pea family,

  • grasses,

  • roses,

  • crucifers,

  • parsley family,

  • mint family,

  • sedges,

  • figworts,

  • pinks,

  • lilies and

  • buttercups.

A special diversity character of this group is reflected through a great number of families with only one genus and species (approximately 30 % of total number).

The most specific characteristic of BIH's flora is a great deal of paleo and neo endemic species, tertiary and glacial relicts maintained in refugial habitats, such as cliffs, canyons and mountain cirques. Most of endemic forms are recognized within the flora of higher plants, which at current state of knowledge is estimated to have 450 endemic taxa. Newly undertaken investigations indicate that this number is much bigger, especially as far as poorly investigated genera are concerned, such as:



  • Alchemilla,

  • Potentilla,

  • Rosa,

  • Rubus,

  • Hieracium,

  • Centaurea,

  • Carex,

  • Festuca.

Flora of higher plants in BIH is also characterized by stenoendemic species, which includes, among others:

  • Acinos orontius (K.Maly) Šilić,

  • Alyssum moellendorfianum Aschers. ex G.Beck,

  • Asperula hercegovina Degen,

  • Barbarea bosniaca Murb.,

  • Campanula hercegovina Degen and Fiala,

  • Centaurea bosniaca (Murb.) Hayek,

  • Dianthus freynii Vandas,

  • Edraianthus niveus G.Beck,

  • Minuartia handelli Mattf.,

  • Oxytropis prenja G.Beck,

  • Symphyandra hofmanni Pantocsek etc.

More than one half of them occur in Herzegovina, within the area of mountain complex Prenj-Čvrsnica-Velež and canyon of the Neretva River, as well as canyons of its tributaries. These data confirm the statement that it is the centre of endemism in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Thanks to the abundance and diversity of certain animal groups, Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to the top of European biodiversity. This is also confirmed by great deal of endemic and relict species, especially among the invertebrates. BIH's fauna is characterized by the occurrence of refugia and development centres, and by the most unique fauna of karst sources, mountain torrents and canyons.



Despite of the abundance of the distinct animal groups, in Bosnia and Herzegovina hasn't been undertaken any action to make an inventory and compile existing knowledge on those groups. Although some zoologist confirms their enormous enthusiasm by attempts to organize the knowledge in more systematic manner, the fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina is far from being full. Thus, the attempt to compile records on fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina has recognized unequal knowledge level by groups. For the regnum of Protozoa, there are missing data on species and phylla, while phylla of Metazoa, such as Plathelminthes, Nemertina, Nematoda, Rotatoria, Pogonophora happen to be the least, or not at all investigated in BiH. Within invertebrates, special attention of scientist is paid to different groups of Arthropoda.

Table 3 – Diversity of certain groups of invertebrates

Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Arachnida:Acarina

208

Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Amphipoda

31

Arthropoda: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Decapoda

5

Arthropoda: Chilopoda

9

Arthropoda: Diplopoda

55

Arthropoda: Pauropoda

23

Arthropoda: Symphila

12

Arthropoda: Insecta: Colembola

224

Arthropoda: Insecta: Ephemeroptera

58

Arthropoda: Insecta: Plecoptera

74

Arthropoda: Insecta: Trichoptera

215

Arthropoda: Insecta: Protura

18

Arthropoda: Insecta: Diplura

15

Arthropoda: Insecta: Zygentoma

2

Arthropoda: Insecta: Mantodea

4

Arthropoda: Insecta: Blattodea

17

Arthropoda: Insecta: Heteroptera

705

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Adephaga

701

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Lymexylidae

1

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Buprestidae

129

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Hydrophilidae

47

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Sphaeridiidae

30

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Sphaeritiidae

1

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Dascillidae

1

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Trogidae

3

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Geotrupidae

9

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Scarabaeidae

159

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Lucanidae

7

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Chrysomelidae

322

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Cerambicidae

218

Arthropoda: Ins.: Col., Polyphaga: Scolytidae

55

Arthropoda: Insecta: Lepidoptera

1,622

Arthropoda: Insecta: Caelifera

70

Arthropoda: Insecta: Ensifera

85

Arthropoda: Insecta: Hymenoptera

353

Due to the diversity of aquatic habitats, and the occurrence of different kind of watercourses, limnofauna of invertebrates of Bosnia and Herzegovina ought to be very diverse (50 species of annelids that belong to 19 genera; 8 species of leaches belonging to 7 genera, etc). River crustaceans encompass 31 species, of which 16 are endemic.

For freshwater ecosystems in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the most characteristic is fauna of aquatic insects, with high level of the diversity and endemism. Thus, fauna of mayflies comprises 58 species belonging to 20 genera, of which five are Dinaric, Balkan or Dinaric-alpine endemic species. In the fauna of stoneflies, it has been described 74 species from 15 genera. Water moths ought to be numerous groups with 215 detected species from 78 genera. 50 of these species possess endemic character and 24 of them are endemic with the Dinaric distribution range. The most interesting is genus Drusus.



As interesting forms of life it should be mentioned species that inhabit Herzegovina's caves. Among them endemic are:

  • Eremulus simplex Willmann, 1940,

  • Autognata willmanni Willmann, 1941,

  • Chamobates petrinjensis Willmann, 1940 and

  • Carabodes bosniae Frank, 1965.

Fauna of vertebrates in Bosnia and Herzegovina is represented by following groups:

  • fish (Pisces),

  • amphibians (Amphibia),

  • reptiles (Reptilia),

  • birds (Aves) and

  • mammals (Mammalia).

Table 4 – Fauna of vertebrates in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Animal group

Number of families

Total number of species

Threatened species in BIH

Endemic species

Fish

27

119

?

12

Amphibians

7

20

3

6

Reptiles

12

38

11

12

Birds

60

326

97

-

Mammals

19

85 (+2?)

24

9

Total

125

588 (2?)

135

39

Fish fauna in Bosnia and Herzegovina is relatively well investigated. There are 119 fish species in total. The highest diversity is recognized within the family Cyprinidae (26 genera and 51 species) and Salmonidae (5/8). More than one species comprise families:

  • Acipenseridae (2/7),

  • Mugilidae (1/6),

  • Percidae (4/7),

  • Cobitidae (3/6),

  • Clupeidae (1/3),

  • Gasterosteidae (2/2),

  • Gobiidae (5/7) and

  • Cottidae (1/ 2).

From 27 families, 7 live exclusively in the Black Sea and 12 in the Adriatic Sea confluence.

Diversity of amphibians in BIH is bespoken in 7 genera, 21 species and 22 subspecies. Among tail-less most abundant is genus Rana with 7 species and among caudate amphibians this is genus Triturus with 5 species.

Reptiles inhabit freshwater, ponds, marshes and almost all terrestrial ecosystems (especially extreme habitats, such as rocky grassland) belonging to 40 species (45 sub-species) from 12 families. The highest reptile diversity in BiH is evident in the Mediterranean region and supra-mediterranean belt. However, some species are spread up to the highest mountain peaks (Bosnian and Orsiny's viper live in mountain swards, then on screes and rock crevices all around BIH).

Birds diversity recorded are 326 species belonging to 60 families and 18 orders. Most of them are stationary (nesting), while migratory ones spend some time in ecosystems of Bosnia and Herzegovina only by seasons (wetlands: Buško Blato, Hutovo Blato, Bardača, lower flow of Drina river etc.).

After Bird life's data in Bosnia and Herzegovina nest five endangered species pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus), ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca), saker falcon (Falco cherrug), white-tailed eagle (Haliaetus albicilla), corncrake (Crex crex), while three globally endangered species (Aegypius monachus, Pelecanus crispus and Aquila clanga), are listed in Bosnia and Herzegovina as extinct nesting birds.

The fauna of mammals encompasses 85 identified species from 51 genera and 19 families. Most of the species lives in terrestrial habitats, while small number of them inhabits aquatic ecosystems on secondary basis or only occasionally. High abundance and diversity characterize the family Vespertiolinidae with 20 identified species from 8 genera.

Fungi inhabit both terrestrial and aquatic environment. It is being estimated that in Bosnia and Herzegovina live between 15,000 – 20,000 mushroom species. However, identified are only 552 species of higher Fungi.

There are many macromycetes in Bosnia and Herzegovina which has high economic potential and value being therefore an important income source for a local community since ever. The most important among them are:



  • smrčak (Morchella sp.),

  • vrganj (Boletus sp.),

  • lisičarka (Cantarelus cybarius),

  • sunčanica (Macrolepiota sp.),

  • mliječnica (Lactarius deliciosus),

  • pečurka (Psaliota procera) i ostali.
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