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Bibliography of Literature on Seabirds as Indicators of the Marine Environment

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ibliography of Literature on

Seabirds as Indicators of the Marine Environment
January 2006
Prepared by:

Ann M. A. Harding, John F. Piatt and William J. Sydeman

Background and purpose: We can observe seabirds at sea and study them at their colonies with relative ease, and so quantify many aspects of seabird behavior and biology. Seabirds forage over a wide range of marine habitats, and therefore serve as sensitive and cost-effective indicators of the health and status of marine ecosystems. Because of this, the North Pacific Research Board (NPRB, called for a synthesis of the current state of knowledge of seabirds as indicators of marine ecosystems and change in the North Pacific. To meet that request, we are working with our colleagues to: 1) review literature on seabirds as indicators, 2) hold a symposium to consolidate current knowledge about seabirds as indicators and publish those findings, and, 3) to incorporate the results of the symposium into a cost-effective research and monitoring plan for the NPRB that identifies species and parameters best suited for long-term study and most likely to be useful indicators of ecosystem status and change in the North Pacific. This bibliography comprises our effort to review literature on seabirds as indicators, and make it available as a bibliography for use in preparing products from the symposium and to locate reference material for the NPRB research plan.
Organization: Citations in this bibliography are organized into four main sections. First are papers that deal specifically or largely with using seabirds as indicators of some aspect of the marine environment. Following that are citations organized loosely into three categories of papers that deal with seabirds as indicators of the forage base, habitat or climate change. The bulk of these papers are not about seabirds as indicators per se, but represent good examples of studies in which aspects of seabird ecology provide insight into changes in the marine environment. In other words, examples where seabirds are actually used as indicators. This bibliography was created by searching several online databases for indicator-type papers, and by searching through our personal libraries. While the list of papers on using seabirds as indicators is fairly complete, the list of papers which illustrate how seabirds are used as indicators is by no means exhaustive and deals mostly with studies conducted during the past 20 years or so.
Recommended citation: Harding, A.M., J.F. Piatt and W.J. Sydeman. 2005. Bibliography of literature on seabirds as indicators of the marine environment. USGS Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. 20 pp.
A ProCite version of this bibliography is also available at the above web site.
1. Seabirds as Indicators

Literature specifically about using seabirds as indicators of the marine environment

Adams, N. J., P. J. Seddon, and Y. M. Vanheezik. 1992. Monitoring of seabirds in the Benguela upwelling system - can seabirds be used as indicators and predictors of change in the marine-environment. South African Journal of Marine Science 12: 959-974.

Ainley, D. G., W. J. Sydeman, and J. Norton. 1995. Upper trophic level predators indicate interannual negative and positive anomalies in the California current food web. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 118: 69-79.

Barrett, R. T. 2002. Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica and common guillemot Uria aalge chick diet and growth as indicators of fish stocks in the Barents Sea. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 230: 275-287.

Boersma, P. D. 1986. Ingestion of petroleum by seabirds can serve as a monitor of water quality. Science 231(4736): 373-376.

Bost, C. A., and Y. Lemaho. 1993. Seabirds as bio-indicators of changing marine ecosystems - new perspectives. Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology 14(3): 463-470.

Cairns, D. K. 1992. Bridging the gap between ornithology and fisheries science: use of seabird data in stock assessment models. Condor. 94(4): 811-824.

Cairns, D. K. 1988. Seabirds as indicators of marine food supplies. Biological Oceanography. 5(4): 261-271.

Camphuysen, K. 1998. Beached bird surveys indicate decline in chronic oil pollution in the North Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36(7): 519-526.

Carscadden, J. E. 2005. Did signals from seabirds indicate changes in capelin biology during the 1990s? - comment on Davoren & Montevecchi (2003). Marine Ecology-Progress Series 285: 289-297.

Cherel, Y., and H. Weimerskirch. 1995. Seabirds as indicators of marine resources: black-browed albatrosses feeding on ommastrephid squids in Kerguelen waters. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 129(1-3): 295-300.

Dale, V. H., and S. C. Beyeler. 2001. Challenges in the development and use of ecological indicators. Ecological Indicators 1: 3-10.

Davoren, G. K., and W. A. Montevecchi. 2005. Did signals from seabirds indicate changes in capelin biology? - reply to Carscadden (2004). Marine Ecology-Progress Series 285: 299-309.

Davoren, G. K., and W. A. Montevecchi. 2003. Signals from seabirds indicate changing biology of capelin stocks. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 258: 253-261.

Dearborn, D. C., A. D. Anders, and E. N. Flint. 2001. Trends in reproductive success of Hawaiian seabirds: is guild membership a good criterion for choosing indicator species? Biological Conservation 101(1): 97-103.

Diamond, A. W., and C. M. Devlin. 2003. Seabirds as indicators of changes in marine ecosystems: ecological monitoring on Machias Seal Island. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 88: 153-175.

Furness, R. W., and C. J. Camphuysen. 1997. Seabirds as monitors of the marine environment. Ices Journal of Marine Science 54(4): 726-737.

Gill, V. A., S. A. Hatch, and R. B. Lanctot. 2002. Sensitivity of breeding parameters to food supply in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla. Ibis 144: 268-283.

Gjerdrum, C., A. M. J. Vallée, C. C. St. Clair, D. F. Bertram, and J. L. Ryder. 2003. Tufted puffin reproduction reveals ocean climate variability. Ecology 100(16): 9377-9382.

Gray, C. M., R. A. Phillips, and K. C. Hamer. 2003. Non-random nestling mortality in northern fulmars: implications for monitoring marine environments. Journal of Zoology 259: 109-113.

Hatch, S. A., and G. A. Sanger. 1992. Puffins as samples of juvenile pollock and other forage fish in the Gulf of Alaska. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 80: 1-14.

Kushlan, J. A. 1993. Colonial waterbirds as bioindicators of environmental-change. Colonial Waterbirds 16(2): 223-251.

Lanctot, R. B., S. A. Hatch, V. A. Gill, and M. Eens. 2003. Are corticosterone levels a good indicator of food availability and reproductive performance in a kittiwake colony? Hormones and Behavior 43: 489-502.

Le Corre, M., and S. Jaquemet. 2005. Assessment of the seabird community of the Mozambique Channel and its potential use as an indicator of tuna abundance. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 63(3): 421-428.

Lemaho, Y., J. P. Gendner, E. Challet, C. A. Bost, J. Gilles, C. Verdon, C. Plumere, J. P. Robin, and Y. Handrich. 1993. Undisturbed breeding penguins as indicators of changes in marine resources. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 95(1-2): 1-6.

Miller, G. D., and L. S. Davis. 1993. Foraging flexibility of Adelie penguins Pygoscelis Adeliae - consequences for an indicator Species. Biological Conservation 63(3): 223-230.

Monaghan, P., J. D. Uttley, and J. D. Okill. 1989. Terns and sandeels - seabirds as indicators of changes in marine fish populations. Journal of Fish Biology 35: 339-340.

Montevecchi, W. A., and R. A. Myers. 1996. Dietary changes of seabirds indicate shifts in pelagic food webs. Sarsia 80(4): 313-322.

Montevecchi, W. A., and R. A. Myers. 1995. Prey harvests of seabirds reflect pelagic fish and squid abundance on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 117(1-3): 1-9.

Parrish, J. K., and S. G. Zador. 2003. Seabirds as indicators: An exploratory analysis of physical forcing in the Pacific Northwest coastal environment. Estuaries 26: 1044-1057.

Regehr, H. M., and W. A. Montevecchi. 1997. Interactive effects of food shortage and predation on breeding failure of black-legged kittiwakes: Indirect effects of fisheries activities and implications for indicator species. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 155: 249-260.

Reid, K., J. P. Croxall, D. R. Briggs, and E. J. Murphy. 2005. Antarctic ecosystem monitoring: quantifying the response of ecosystem indicators to variability in Antarctic Krill. Ices Journal of Marine Science 62(3): 366-373.

Robards, M. D., P. J. Gould, and J. F. Piatt. 1997. The highest global concentrations and increased abundance of oceanic plastic debris in the North Pacific: evidence from seabirds. Pages 71-80 in J. M. Coe and D. B. Rogers, editors. Marine Debris. Springer-Verlag , New York, USA.

Rogers, S. I., and B. Greenaway. 2005. A UK perspective on the development of marine ecosystem indicators. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50: 9-19.

Ryan, P. G., and M. W. Fraser. 1988. The use of great skua pellets as indicators of plastic pollution in seabirds. Emu 88: 16-19.

Tasker, M. L., and R. W. Furness. 2003. Seabirds as monitors of the marine environment. ICES Cooperative Research Report. Copenhagen.

Thompson, D. R., R. W. Furness, and P. M. Walsh. 1992. Historical changes in mercury concentrations in the marine ecosystem of the North and North-East Atlantic-Ocean as indicated by seabird feathers. Journal of Applied Ecology 29(1): 79-84.

Thompson, D. R., F. M. Stewart, and R. W. Furness. 1990. Using seabirds to monitor mercury in marine environments. The validity of conversion ratios for tissue comparisons. Marine Pollution Bulletin 21: 339-342.

van Franeker, J. A. 1992 . Top predators as indicators for ecosystem events in the confluence zone and marginal ice zone of the Weddell and Scotia Seas, Antarctica, November 1988 to January 1989. Polar Biology 12(1): 93-102.

Velarde, E., M. S. Tordesillas, L. Vieyra, and R. Esquivel. 1994. Seabirds as indicators of important fish populations in The Gulf of California. Reports of California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations 35: 137-143.

Vermeer, K. 1976. Colonial auks and eiders as potential indicators of oil pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin 7(6): 165-167.

Walsh, P. M. 1990. The use of seabirds as monitors of heavy metals in the marine environment. Pages 183-204 in R. W. Furness and P. S. Rainbow, editors CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (USA).

Weimerskirch, H., P. Inchausti, C. Guinet, and C. Barbraud. 2003. Trends in bird and seal populations as indicators of a system shift in the Southern Ocean. Antarctic Science 15(2): 249-256.

Williams, T. D., and J. P. Croxall. 1990. Is chick fledging weight a good index of food availability in seabird populations? Oikos 59(3): 414-416.

Wilson, R. P., D. Grémillet, J. Syder, M. A. M. Kierspel, S. G. Garthe, H. Weimerskirch, C. Schäfer-Neth, J. A. Scolaro, C.-A. Bost , J. Plötz, and D. Nel. 2002. Remote-sensing systems and seabirds: their use, abuse and potential for measuring marine environmental variables. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 228: 241-261.

2. Seabirds as Indicators of the Forage Base

(a) indicator of forage base characteristics like community

composition, diversity, size, energy value, etc.

Abraham, C. L., and W. J. Sydeman. In Press. Prey-switching by Cassin's auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus reveals the seasonal cycle of Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera relative to ocean climate in the Gulf of the Farallones, California. Marine Ecology-Progress Series .

Baillie, S. M., and I. L. Jones. 2004. Response of Atlantic puffins to a decline in capelin abundance at the Gannet Islands, Labrador. Waterbirds 27(1): 102-111.

Ballance, L. T., R. L. Pitman, and S. B. Reilly. 1997. Seabird community structure along a productivity gradient: importance of competition and energetic constraint. Ecology 78(5): 1502-1518.

Bryant, R., I. L. Jones, and J. M. Hipfner. 1999. Responses to changes in prey availability by common murres and thick-billed murres at the Gannet Islands, Labrador. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77: 1278-1287.

Bunce, A. 2004. Do dietary changes of Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) reflect variability in pelagic fish stocks? Wildlife Research 31(4): 383-387.

Carscadden, J. E., W. A. Montevecchi, G. K. Davoren, and B. S. Nakashima. 2002. Trophic relationships among capelin (Mallotus villosus) and seabirds in a changing ecosystem. Ices Journal of Marine Science 59(5): 1027-1033.

Croxall, J. P., K. Reid, and P. A. Prince. 1999. Diet, provisioning and productivity responses of marine predators to differences in availability of Antarctic Krill. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 177: 115-131.

Davoren, G. K. 2000. Variability in foraging in response to changing prey distributions in rhinoceros auklets. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 198: 283-291.

Hill, H. J., P. N. Nathan, J. P. Croxall, and J. L. Watkins. 1996. A comparison of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba caught by nets and taken by Macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus: evidence for selection? Marine Ecology-Progress Series 140: 1-11.

Kakela, R., A. Kakela, S. Kahle, P. H. Becker, A. Kelly, and R. W. Furness. 2005. Fatty acid signatures in plasma of captive herring gulls as indicators of demersal or pelagic fish diet. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 293: 191-200.

Litzow, M. A., J. F. Piatt, A. K. Prichard, and D. D. Roby. 2002. Response of pigeon guillemots to variable abundance of high-lipid and low-lipid prey. Oecologia 132(2): 286-295.

Sydeman, W. J., K. A. Hobson, P. Pyle, and E. B. McClaren. 1997. Trophic relationships among seabirds in Central California: Combined stable isotope and conventional dietary approach. The Condor 99: 327-336.

Wanless, S., M. P. Harris, P. Redman, and J. R. Speakman. 2005. Low energy values of fish as a probable cause of a major seabird breeding failure in the North Sea. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 294: 1-8.

Wanless, S., P. J. Wright, M. P. Harris, and D. A. Elston. 2004. Evidence for decrease in size of lesser sandeels Ammodytes marinus in a North Sea aggregation over a 30-yr period. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 279: 237-246.

(b) indicator of forage base relationships, prediction of stock size,

functional/numerical responses, ecosystem dynamics
Abraham, C. L., and W. J. Sydeman. 2004. Ocean climate, euphausiids and auklet nesting: inter-annual trends and variation in phenology, diet and growth of a planktivorous seabird, Ptychoramphus aleuticus. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 274: 235-250.

Barrett, R. T., and Y. V. Krasnov. 1996. Recent responses to changes in stocks of prey species by seabirds breeding in the southern Barents Sea. Ices Journal of Marine Science 53(4): 713-722.

Burger, A. E., and J. F. Piatt. 1990. Flexible time budgets in breeding common murres: buffers against variable prey abundance. Studies of Avian Biology 14: 71-83.

Durant, J. M., T. Anker-Nilssen, and N. C. Stenseth. 2003. Trophic interactions under climate fluctuations: the Atlantic puffin as an example. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 270(1523): 1461-1466.

Frederiksen, M., S. Wanless, P. Rothery, and L. J. Wilson. 2004. The role of industrial fisheries and oceanographic change in the decline of North Sea black-legged kittiwakes. Journal of Applied Ecology 41(6): 1129-1139.

Frederiksen, M., P. J. H. M. P. Wright, R. A. Mavor, M. Heubeck, and S. Wanless. 2005. Regional patterns of kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla breeding success are related to variability in sandeel recruitment. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 300: 201-211.

Furness, R. W., and R. T. Barrett. 1991. Seabirds and fish declines. Research & Exploration 7(1): 82-95.

Furness, R. W., and M. L. Tasker. 2000. Seabird-fishery interactions: quantifying the sensitivity of seabirds to reductions in sandeel abundance, and identification of key areas for sensitive seabirds in the North Sea. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 202: 253-264.

Gaston, A. J., K. Woo, and J. M. Hipfner. 2003. Trends in forage fish populations in northern Hudson Bay since 1981, as determined from the diet of nestling thick-billed murres Uria lomvia. Arctic 56(3): 227-233.

Grémillet, D., G. Kuntz, F. Delbart, M. Mellet, A. Kato, J. P. Robin, P. E. Chaillon, J. P. Gendner, S. H. Lorentsen, and Y. Le Maho. 2004. Linking the foraging performance of a marine predator to local prey abundance. Functional Ecology 18(6): 793-801.

Hennicke, J. C., and B. M. Culik. 2005. Foraging performance and reproductive success of Humboldt penguins in relation to prey availability. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 296: 173-181.

Hislop, J. R. G., and M. P. Harris. 1983. Recent changes in the food of young puffins Fratercula arctica on the Isle of May in relation to fish stocks. Ibis 127: 234-239.

Houston, A. I. 2000. Prey size of single-prey loaders as an indicator of prey abundance. Ecology Letters 3(1): 5-6.

Hunt, G. L. Jr. 1991. Occurrence of polar seabirds at sea in relation to prey concentrations and oceanographic factors. Polar Research 10(2): 553-559.

Hunt, G. L. Jr, M. B. Decker, and A. S. Kitaysky. 1996. Fluctuations in the Bering Sea ecosystem as reflected in the reproductive ecology and diets of kittiwakes on the Pribilof Islands, 1975 to 1990. Pages 142-153 in S. P. R. Greenstreet and M. L. Tasker, editors. Aquatic Predators and their Prey. Blackwell Sciences Ltd., London.

Kitaysky, A. S., J. C. Wingfield, and J. F. Piatt. 1999. Dynamics of food availability, body condition and physiological stress response in breeding black-legged kittiwakes. Functional Ecology 13: 577-584.

Litzow, M. A., J. F. Piatt, A. A. Abookire, A. K. Prichard, and M. D. Robards. 2000. Monitoring temporal and spatial variability in sandeel (Ammodytes hexapterus) abundance with pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) diets. Ices Journal of Marine Science 57(4): 976-986.

Mills, J. L., T. Laidig, S. Ralston, and W. J. Sydeman. In Press. Top predator diet as an indicator of pelagic juvenike rockfish (Sebastes spp.) recruitment in the California Current System, with implications for ecosystm-based fisheries management. Fisheries Oceanography .

Monaghan, P., P. Walton, S. Wanless, J. D. Uttley, and M. D. Burns. 1994. Effects of prey abundance on the foraging behaviour, diving efficiency and time allocation of breeding guillemots Uria aalge. Ibis 136: 214-222.

Oka, N., N. Maruyama, and I. Skira. 1987. Chick growth and mortality of short-tailed shearwaters in comparison with sooty shearwaters, as a possible index of fluctuations of Australian krill abundance. Proceedings of the NIPR Symposium on Polar Biology 1: 166-174.

Oro, D., E. Cam, R. Pradel, and A. Martinez-Abrain. 2004. Influence of food availability on demography and local population dynamics in a long-lived seabird. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 271(1537): 387-396.

Oro, D., X. Ruiz, L. Jover, V. Pedrocchi, and González-solís. 1997. Audouin's gull diet and adult time budget responses on changes in food availability induced by commercial fisheries. Ibis 112: 242-255.

Piatt, J. F. 1990. Aggregative response of Common Murres and Atlantic Puffins to their prey. Studies in Avian Biology 14: 36-51.

Poloczanska, E. S., R. M. Cook, G. D. Ruxton, and P. J. Wright. 2004. Fishing vs. natural recruitment variation in sandeels as a cause of seabird breeding failure at Shetland: a modelling approach. Ices Journal of Marine Science 61(5): 788-797.

Reid, K., M. Sims, R. W. White, and K. W. Gillon. 2004. Spatial distribution of predator/prey interactions in the Scotia Sea: Implications for measuring predator/fisheries overlap. Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies in Oceanography 51(12-13): 1383-1396.

Rindorf, A., S. Wanless, and M. P. Harris. 2000. Effects of changes in sandeel availability on the reproductive output of seabirds. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 202: 241-252.

Suryan, R. M., D. B. Irons, and J. Benson. 2000. Inter-annual variation in diet and foraging effort of kittiwakes in relation to prey abundance. Condor 102: 374-384.

Uttley, J. D., P. Walton, P. Monaghan, and G. Austin. 1994. The effects of food abundance on breeding performance and adult time budgets of guillemots Uria aalge. Ibis 136: 205-213.

Velarde, E., E. Ezcurra, M. A. Cisneros-Mato, and M. F. Lavín. 2004 . Seabird ecology, El Nińo anomalies, and prediction of sardine fisheries in the Gulf of California. Ecological Applications 14(2): 607-615.

Votier, S. C., R. W. Furness, S. Bearhop, J. E. Crane, R. W. G. Caldow, P. Catry, K. Ensor, K. C. Hamer, A. V. Hudson, E. Kalmbach, N. I. Klomp, S. Pfeiffer, R. A. Phillips, I. Prieto, and D. R. Thompson. 2004. Changes in fisheries discard rates and seabird communities. Nature 427(6976): 727-730.

3. Seabirds as Indicators of Habitat

(a) indicator of oceanographic features, habitat quality, spatial variability

Barbraud, C., H. Weimerskirch, C. Guinet, and P. Jouventin. 2000. Effect of sea-ice extent on adult survival of an Antarctic top predator: the snow petrel Pagodroma nivea. Oecologia 125(4): 483-488.

Daunt, F., G. Peters, B. Scott, D. Gremillet, and S. Wanless. 2003. Rapid-response recorders reveal interplay between marine physics and seabird behaviour. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 255: 283-288.

Davoren, G. K., W. A. Montevecchi, and J. T. Anderson. 2003. Distributional patterns of a marine bird and its prey: habitat selection based on prey and conspecific behaviour. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 256: 229-242.

Hyrenbach, K. D., and R. R. Veit. 2003. Ocean warming and seabird communities of the southern California Current System (1987-98): Response at multiple temporal scales. Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies in Oceanography 50(14-16): 2537-2565.

Piatt, J. F., and A. M. Springer. 2003. Advection, pelagic food webs, and the biogeography of seabirds in Beringia. Marine Ornithology 31: 141-154.

Piatt, J. F., Wetzel/ J., K. Bell, A. DeGange, G. Balogh, G. Drew, T. Geernaert, C. Ladd, and G. V. Byrd. 2005. Predictable hotspots and foraging habitat of the endangered short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus) in the North Pacific: implications for conservation. Deep Sea Research.

Pinaud, D., Y. Cherel, and H. Weimerskirch. 2005. Effect of environmental variability on habitat selection, diet, provisioning behaviour and chick growth in yellow-nosed albatrosses. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 298: 295-304.

Raymond, B., and E. J. Woehler. 2003. Predicting seabirds at sea in the southern Indian Ocean. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 263: 275-285.

Ribic, C. A., D. G. Ainley, and L. B. Spear. 1997. Scale-related seabird-environmental relationships in Pacific equatorial waters, with reference to El Nińo Southern Oscillation Events. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 156: 183-203.

Spear, L. B., L. T. Ballance, and D. G. Ainley. 2001. Response of seabirds to thermal boundaries in the tropical Pacific: the thermocline versus the equatorial front. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 219: 275-289.

Springer, A. M., J. F. Piatt, and G. Van Vliet. 1996. Sea birds as proxies of marine habitats and food webs in the western Aleutian arc. Fisheries Oceanography 5(1): 45-55.

Wanless, S., D. Grémillet, and M. P. Harris. 1998. Foraging activity and performance of shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis in relation to environmental charactersitics. Journal of Avian Biology 29: 49-54.

Weimerskirch, H., C. P. Doncaster, and F. Cuenotchaillet. 1994. Pelagic seabirds and the marine environment - foraging patterns of wandering albatrosses in relation to prey availability and distribution. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 255(1343): 91-97.

Wilson, P. R., D. G. Ainley, N. Nur, S. S. Jacobs, K. J. Barton, G. Ballard, and J. C. Comiso. 2001. Adelie penguin population change in the Pacific sector of Antarctica: relation to sea-ice extent and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 213: 301-309.

Yen, P. P. W., W. J. Sydeman, K. H. Morgan, and F. A. Whitney. 2005. Top predator distribution and abundance across the eastern Gulf of Alaska: Temporal variability and ocean habitat associations. Deep-Sea Research II 52: 799-822.

Yen, P. P. W., W. J. Sydeman, and K. D. Hyrenbach. 2004. Marine bird and cetacean associations with bathymetric habitats and shallow-water topographies: Implications for trophic transfer and conservation. Journal of Marine Systems 50: 79-99.

(b) indicator of habitat degradation, oil pollution, contaminants, plastics, etc.

Barrett, R. T., J. U. Skaare, and G. W. Gabrielsen. 1996. Recent changes in levels of persistent organochlorines and mercury in eggs of seabirds from the Barents Sea. Environmental Pollution 92(1): 13-18.

Blais, J. M., L. E. Kimpe, D. McMahon, B. E. Keatley, M. L. Mallory, M. S. V. Douglas, and J. P. Smol. 2005. Arctic seabirds transport marine-derived contaminants. Science 309(5733): 445.

Bustnes, J. O., K. E. Erikstad, J. U. Skaare, V. Bakken, and F. Mehlum. 2003. Ecological effects of organochlorine pollutants in the Arctic: a study of the glaucous gull. Ecological Applications 13(2): 504-515.

Cifuentes, J. M., P. H. Becker, U. Sommer, P. Pacheco, and R. Schlatter. 2003. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Environmental Pollution 126(1): 123-137.

Golet, G. H., P. E. Seiser, A. D. McGuire, D. D. Roby, J. B. Fischer, K. J. Kuletz, D. B. Irons, T. A. Dean, S. C. Jewett, and S. H. Newman. 2002. Long-term direct and indirect effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on pigeon guillemots in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 241: 287-304.

Hebert, C. E., and D. V. C. Weseloh. 2003. Assessing temporal trends in contaminants from long-term avian monitoring programs: the influence of sampling frequency. Ecotoxicology 12(1-4): 141-151.

Kahle, S., and P. H. Becker. 1999. Bird blood as bioindicator for mercury in the environment. Chemosphere 39(14): 2451-2457.

Mochizuki, M., R. Hondo, K. Kumon, R. E. Sasaki, H. Matsuba, and F. Ueda. 2002. Cadmium contamination in wild birds as an indicator of environmental pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 1: 229-235.

Monteiro, L. R., and R. W. Furness. 1997. Accelerated increase in mercury contamination in North Atlantic mesopelagic food chains as indicated by time series of seabird feathers. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16(12): 2489-2493.

Monteiro, L. R., and R. W. Furness. 1995. Seabirds as monitors of mercury in the marine-environment. Water Air and Soil Pollution 80(1-4): 851-870.

Montevecchi, W. A. 2001. Seabirds as indicators of ocean pollution. Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences 5 (S): 2686-2690.

Oxynos, K., J. Schmitzer, and A. Kettrup. 1993. Herring gull eggs as bioindicators for chlorinated hydrocarbons (contribution to the German-Federal-Environmental-Specimen-Bank). Science of the Total Environment 140: 387-398.

Pastor, D., L. Jover, X. Ruiz, and J. Albaiges. 1995. Monitoring organochlorine pollution in Audouins gull eggs - the relevance of sampling procedures. Science of the Total Environment 162(2-3): 215-223.

Pusch, K., M. Schlabach, R. Prinzinger, and G. W. Gabrielsen. 2005. Gull eggs- food of high organic pollutant content? Journal of Environmental Monitoring 7: 635-639.

Riffaut, L., K. D. McCoy, C. Tirard, V. L. Friesen, and T. Boulinier. 2005. Population genetics of the Common Guillemot Uria aalge in the North Atlantic: Geographic impact of oil spills. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 291: 263-273.

Thompson, D. R., R. W. Furness, and L. R. Monteiro. 1998. Seabirds as biomonitors of mercury inputs to epipelagic and mesopelagic marine food chains. Science of the Total Environment 213: 307-315.

Vander Pol, S. S., P. R. Becker, J. R. Kucklick, R. S. Pugh, D. G. Roseneau, and K. S. Simac. 2004. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan murre (Uria spp.) eggs: geographical, species, and temporal comparisons. Environmental Science and Technology 38: 1305-1312.

Wiese, F. K., and P. C. Ryan. 2003. The extent of chronic marine oil pollution in southeastern Newfoundland waters assessed through beached bird surveys 1984-1999. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(9): 1090-1101.

Wilson, L. J., P. J. Bacon, J. Bull, U. Dragosits, T. D. Blackall, T. E. Dunn, K. C. Hamer, M. A. Sutton, and S. Wanless. 2004. Modeling the spatial distribution of ammonia emissions from seabirds in the UK. Environmental Pollution 131(2): 173-185.

4. Seabirds as Indicators of Climate Change

(a) indicator of anomalous events, one time events, short term events like ENSO

Gaston, A. J., H. G. Gilchrist, and M. L. Mallory. 2005. Variation in ice conditions has strong effects on the breeding of marine birds at Prince Leopold Island, Nunavut. Ecography 28(3): 331-344.

Gaston, A. J., and J. L. Smith. 2001. Changes in oceanographic conditions off northern British Columbia (1983-1999) and the reproduction of a marine bird, the ancient murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 79(10): 1735-1742.

Guinet, C., O. Chastel, M. Koudil, J. P. Durbec, and P. Jouventin. 1998. Effects of warm sea-surface temperature anomalies on the blue petrel at the Kerguelen Islands. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 265(1400): 1001-1006.

Harding, A. M. A., J. F. Piatt, and K. C. Hamer. 2003. Breeding ecology of horned puffins (Fratercula corniculata) in Alaska: annual variation and effects of El Nińo. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81(6): 1004-1013.

Inchausti, P., C. Guinet, M. Koudil, J. P. Durbec, C. Barbraud, H. Weimerskirch, Y. Cherel, and P. Jouventin. 2003. Inter-annual variability in the breeding performance of seabirds in relation to oceanographic anomalies that affect the Crozet and the Kerguelen sectors of the Southern Ocean. Journal of Avian Biology 34(2): 170-176.

Piatt, J. F., and T. I. Van Pelt. 1997. Mass-mortality of guillemots (Uria aalge) in the Gulf of Alaska in 1993. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34: 656-662.

Wilson, U. W. 2005. The effect of the 1997-1998 El Nińo on rhinoceros auklets on Protection Island, Washington. The Condor 107: 462-468.

(b) indicator of long-term change in marine climate, cyclic changes,

decadal changes, regime shifts, etc.

Aebischer, N. J., J. C. Coulson, and J. M. Colebrook. 1990. Parallel long-term trends across four marine trophic levels and weather. Nature 347: 753-754.

Agler, B. A., S. J. Kendall, D. B. Irons, and S. P. Klosiewski. 1999. Declines in marine bird populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska coincident with a climatic regime shift. Waterbirds 22: 98-103.

Ainley, D. G., E. D. Clarke, K. Arrigo, W. R. Fraser, A. Kato, K. J. Barton, and P. R. Wilson. 2005. Decadal-scale changes in the climate and biota of the pacific sector of the southern ocean, 1950s to the 1990s. Antarctic Science 17(2): 171-182.

Ainley, D. G., and G. J. Divoky. 2001. Seabird responses to climate change. Pages 2669-2677 in J. H. Steele, K. K. Turekian, and S. A. Thorpe, editors. Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences 5.

Ainley, D. G., L. Spear, and S. G. Allen. 1996. Variation in the diet of Cassin's auklets reveals spatial, seasonal and decadal occurrence patterns of euphausiids off California, USA. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 137: 1-10.

Barbraud, C., and H. Weimerskirch. 2003. Climate and density shape population dynamics of a marine top predator. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences. 270.

Bertram, D. F., D. L. Mackas, and S. M. Mckinnell. 2001. The seasonal cycle revisited: interannual variation and ecosystem consequences. Progress in Oceanography 49: 283-307.

Bunce, A., F. I. Norman, N. Brothers, and R. Gales. 2002. Long-term trends in the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) population in Australia: the effect of climate change and commercial fisheries. Marine Biology 141(2): 263-269.

Causey, D., D. G. Corbett, C. Lefévre, D. L. West, A. B. Savinetsky, N. K. Kiseleva, and B. F. Khassanov. 2005 . The paleaoenvironment of humans and marine birds of the Aleautian Islands: three millennia of change. Fisheries Oceanography 14: 259-276.

Chavez, F. P., J. Ryan, S. E. Lluch-Cota, and M. C. Ńiquen. 2003. From anchovies to sardines and back: multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science 299: 217-221.

Croxall, J. P., P. N. Trathan, and E. J. Murphy. 2002. Environmental change and Antarctic seabird populations. Science 297(5586): 1510-1514.

Durant, J. M., N. C. Stenseth, T. Anker-Nilssen, M. P. Harris, M. P. Thompson, and S. Wanless. 2004. Marine birds and climate fluctuation in the North Atlantic . Pages 95-105 in N. C. Stenseth, G. Ottersen, J. W. Hurrell, and A. Belgrano, editors. Marine ecosystems and climate variation. Oxford University Press, New York.

Frederiksen, M., M. P. Harris, F. Daunt, P. Rothery, and S. Wanless. 2004. Scale-dependent climate signals drive breeding phenology of three seabird species. Global Change Biology 10(7): 1214-1221.

Gaston, A. J., H. G. Gilchrist, and J. M. Hipfner. 2005. Climate change, ice conditions and reproduction in an arctic nesting marine bird: brunnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia L.). Journal of Animal Ecology 74(5): 832-841.

Grosbois, V., and P. M. Thompson. 2005. North Atlantic climate variation influences survival in adult fulmars. Oikos 109(2): 273-290.

Harris, M. P., T. Anker-Nilssen, R. H. McCleery, K. E. Erikstad, D. N. Shaw, and V. Grosbois. 2005. Effect of wintering area and climate on the survival of adult Atlantic puffins Fratercula arctica in the eastern Atlantic. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 297: 283-296.

Harris, M. P., and S. Wanless. 1990. Breeding success of British kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla in 1986-88: Evidence for changing conditions in the northern North Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology 27: 172-187.

Hedd, A., J. L. Ryder, L. L. Cowen, and D. F. Bertram. 2002. Inter-annual variation in the diet, provisioning and growth of Cassin's auklet at Triangle Island, British Columbia: responses to variation in ocean climate. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 229: 221-232.

Hunt, G. L. Jr, P. Stabeno, G. Walters, E. Sinclair, R. D. Brodeur, J. M. Napp, and N. A. Bond. 2002. Climate change and control of the southeastern Bering Sea pelagic ecosystem. Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies in Oceanography 49(26): 5821-5853.

Jenouvrier, S., C. Barbraud, B. Cazelles, and H. Weimerskirch. 2005. Modelling population dynamics of seabirds: Importance of the effects of climate fluctuations on breeding proportions. Oikos 108(3): 511-522.

Jenouvrier, S., C. Barbraud, and H. Weimerskirch. 2003. Effects of climate variability on the temporal population dynamics of Southern fulmars. Journal of Animal Ecology 72(4): 576-587.

Jenouvrier, S., H. Weimerskirch, C. Barbraud, Y. H. Park, and B. Cazelles. 2005. Evidence of a shift in the cyclicity of Antarctic seabird dynamics linked to climate. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 272(1566): 887-895.

Jones, I. L., F. M. Hunter, and G. J. Robertson. 2002. Annual adult survival of least auklets (Aves, Alcidae) varies with large-scale climatic conditions of the North Pacific Ocean. Oecologia 133(1): 38-44.

Kitaysky, A. S., and E. G. Golubova. 2000. Climate change causes contrasting trends in reproductive performance of planktivorous and piscivorous alcids. Journal of Animal Ecology 69(2): 248-262.

Kuletz, K. J., S. E. Stephensen, D. B. Irons, E. A. Labunski, and K. M. Brenneman. 2003. Changes in distribution and abundance of Kittlitz's murrelets Brachyramphus brevirostris relative to glacial recession in Prince William Sound, Alaska . Marine Ornithology 31: 130-140.

McDaniel, J. D., and S. D. Emslie. 2002. Fluctuations in adelie penguin prey size in the mid to late Holocene, Northern Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology 25(8): 618-623.

Miller, A. K., and W. J. Sydeman. 2004. Rockfish response to low-frequency ocean climate change as revealed by the diet of a marine bird over multiple time scales. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 281: 207-216.

Montevecchi, W. A., and R. A. Myers. 1997. Centurial and decadal oceanographic influences on changes in northern gannet populations and diets in the North-West Atlantic: Implications for climate change. Ices Journal of Marine Science 54(4): 608-614.

Oedekoven, C. S., D. G. Ainley, and L. B. Spear. 2001. Variable responses of seabirds to change in marine climate: California Current, 1985-1994. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 212: 265-281.

Perriman, L., D. Houston, H. Steen, and E. Johannesen. 2000. Climate fluctuation effects on breeding of blue penguins (Eudyptula minor). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 27(4): 261-267.

Piatt, J. F., and P. Anderson. 1996. Response of Common Murres to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and long-term changes in the Gulf of Alaska marine ecosystem. Pages 720-737 in S. D. Rice, R. B. Spies, D. A. Wolfe, and B. A. Wright, editors. Proceedings of Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Symposium. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. Symposium 18.

Sandvik, H., K. E. Erikstad, R. T. Barrett, and N. G. Yoccoz. 2005. The effect of climate on adult survival in five species of north Atlantic seabirds. Journal of Animal Ecology 74(5): 817-831.

Sydeman, W. J., M. M. Hester, J. A. Thayer, F. Gress, and P. B. J. Martin. 2001. Climate change, reproductive performance and diet composition of marine birds in the Southern California Current System 1969-1997. Progress of Oceanography 49: 309-329.

Thompson, P. M., and J. C. Ollason. 2001. Lagged effects of ocean climate change on fulmar population dynamics. Nature 413(6854): 417-420.

Veit, R. R., J. A. McGowan, D. G. Ainley, T. R. Wahls, and P. Pyle. 1997. Apex marine predator declines ninety percent in association with changing oceanic climate. Global Change Biology 3: 23-28.

Veit, R. R., P. Pyle, and J. A. Mcgowan. 1996. Ocean warming and long-term change in pelagic bird abundance within the California Current System. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 139(1-3): 11-18.

Votier, S. C., B. J. Hatchwell, R. H. McCleery, F. M. Hunter, J. Pellatt, M. Trinder, and T. R. Birkhead. 2005. Oil pollution and climate have wide-scale impacts on seabird demographics. Ecology Letters 8: 1157-1164.

Wagner, B., and M. Melles. 2001. A Holocene seabird record from raffles so sediments, east Greenland, in response to climatic and oceanic changes. Boreas 30(3): 228-239.

Weimerskirch, H., L. Zimmermann, and P. A. Prince. 2001. Influence of environmental variability on breeding effort in a long-lived seabird, the yellow-nosed albatross. Behavioral Ecology 12(1): 22-30.

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