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A selection of published journal articles and books focusing primarily on Australian shark species General Shark


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Seaweek 2005: Save our sharks

A selection of published journal articles and books focusing primarily on Australian shark species

General Shark

Anon (2003). Australian Shark Assessment Report for the Australian National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks. This document was prepared by the Shark Advisory Group for the Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry – Australia. 211 pp. http://www.daff.gov.au/sharkplan.

Anon (2004). National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (Shark-plan). Prepared for the Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry – Australia by the Shark Advisory Group and Mary Lack. 82 pp. http://www.daff.gov.au/sharkplan.

Bright, M. (2002). Sharks. The Natural History Museum, London. 112 pp.

Cavanagh, R.D., Kyne, P.M., Fowler, S.L. and Bennett, M.B. (2003). The conservation status of Australasian Chondrichthyans, Report of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group Australia and Oceania Regional Red List Workshop. Queensland, Australia, 7–9 March 2003. IUCN Shark Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Compagno, L.J.V., (1984). FAO species catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of sharks species known to date. Part 1. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fisheries Symposium, (125) Vol. 4, Part 1. 249 p.

Compagno, L.J.V. (1984). FAO species catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Symposium, (125) Vol. 4, Part 2. p. 251–655.

Compagno, L.J.V. (2001). Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 269 pp.

Castro, J.I., Christa, M., Woodley, C.M. and Brudek, R.L. (eds.). (1999). A Preliminary Evaluation of the Status of Shark Species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 380. Rome, FOA.

Daley, R.K., Stevens, J.D., Last, P.R. and Yearsley, G.K. (2002). Field guide to Australian sharks and rays. CSIRO publishing. 84 pp.

Fowler, S.L., Reed, T.M. and Dipper, F.A. (eds.). (2002). Elasmobranch Biodiversity, Conservation and Management. Proceedings of the International Seminar and Workshop, Sabah, Malaysia, July 1997. Occasional Paper of the Species Survival Commission No. 25. 258 pp.

Fowler, S.L., Camhi, M., Burgess, G.H., Cailliet, G.M., Fordham, S.V, Cavanagh, R.D., Simpfendorfer, C.A. and Musick, J.A. (in press 2004). Sharks, rays and chimaeras: the status of the chondrichthyan fishes. IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Krogh, M. (1994). Spatial, seasonal and biological analysis of sharks caught in the New South Wales protective beach meshing program. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45: 1087–1106.

Last, P.R. and Stevens, J.D. (1994). Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO. Australia, 513 pp.

McAuley, R., Newbound, D. and Ashworth, R. (2002). Field identification guide to Western Australian sharks and shark-like rays. Department of Fisheries, Perth, Western Australia. Fisheries Occasional Publications No. 1, July 2002.
Musick. J.A. and Bonfil, R. (eds.). (2003). Elasmobranch Fisheries Management Techniques. Joint publication between the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), International Union for the Protection of Nature (IUCN), and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS). 

http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/organizations/ssg/EFMT2004.htm

Stevens, J.D. (1999). Sharks: An illustrated encyclopedic survey by international experts. 2nd Edition. Weldon-Owen: Golden Press.

Stevens, J.D. and Last, P.R. (1998). Sharks, rays and chimaeras, pp. 60–69. In: Encyclopedia of fishes. 2nd Edition. Paxton J.R. and Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.).

Taylor, V., Taylor, R. and Goadby, P. (1978). Great Shark Stories. New York: Harper and Row.

Tricas, T.C., Deacon, K., Last, P., McCosker, J.E., Walker, T.I. and Taylor, L. (1997). Sharks and Rays, 288 pp. Nature Company, Time Life, Reader’s Digest, and Australian Geographic: San Francisco and Sydney (Published in English, Spanish, French and Japanese).

Walker, T.I. (Consultant Editor) (2002). Pocketpeadia: Home Reference Library Sharks. Fog City Press: San Francisco, 320 pp.

The diversity and biology of sharks and rays


Braccini, J.M. and Chiaramonte, G.E. (2002). Reproductive biology of Psammobatis extenta. Journal of Fish Biology 61: 272–288.

Braccini, J.M. and Chiaramonte, G.E. (2002). Intraspecific variation in the external morphology of the sandskate. Journal of Fish Biology 61: 959–972.

Bruce, B.D. (1992). Preliminary observations on the biology of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, in South Australian waters. In: Sharks: Biology and Fisheries. J.G. Pepperell (ed.). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43: 1–11.

Chidlow, J.A. (2003). The biology of wobbegong sharks (Family: Orectolobidae) from southwestern Australian waters. Unpublished Master of Science Thesis, James Cook University, QLD.

Compagno, L.J.V.C. and Stevens, J.D. (1993). Galeus gracilis, n. sp., a new sawtail catshark from Australia, with comments on the systematics of the genus Galeus Rafinesque, 1810 (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae). Records of the Australian Museum 45: 171–194.

Daley, R.K., Stevens, J.D., Last, P.R. and Yearsley, G.K. (2002). Field Guide to Australian Sharks and Rays. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, 84 pp.

Davenport, S.R. and Stevens, J.D. (1988). Age and growth of two commercially important sharks (Carcharhinus tilstoni and C. sorrah) from northern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39: 417–433.

Francis, M.P. and Stevens, J.D. (1999). Reproduction, embryonic development, and growth of the porbeagle shark, Lamna nasus, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Fisheries Bulletin 98: 41–63.

Francis, M.P., Stevens, J.D. and Last, P.R. (1988). New records of Somniosus (Elasmobranchii: Squalidae) from Australasia, with comments on the taxonomy of the genus. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 22: 401–409.

Gordon, I. (1989). Feeding biology of grey nurse sharks, (Eugomphodus taurus) (Re classified to Carcharias taurus) in captivity. Abstract printed AES, June 1989, San Francisco.

Gordon, I. (1993). Pre-copulatory behaviour of captive sandtiger sharks, Carcharias taurus. In: J.P., Wourms and Demski, L.S. The reproduction and development of sharks, skates, rays and ratfishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 38: 159–164.

Gunn, J.S., Stevens, J.D., Davis, T.L.O. and Norman, B.M. (1999). Observations on the short-term movements and behaviour of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Marine Biology 135: 553–559.

Heupel, M.R. and Bennett, M.B. (1998). Observations on the diet and feeding habits of the epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium ocellatum (Bonnaterre), on Heron Island Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 49: 753–756.

Heupel, M.R. and Simpfendorfer, C.A. (2002). Estimation of survival and mortality of juvenile blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus, within a nursery area based on telemetry data. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59: 624–632.

Heupel, M.R., Simpfendorfer, C.A. and Bennett, M.B. (1999). Skeletal deformities in elasmobranchs from Australian waters. Journal of Fish Biology 54: 1111–1115.

Heupel, M.R., Simpfendorfer, C.A. and Hueter, R.E. (2003). Running before the storm: sharks respond to falling barometric pressure associated with Tropical Storm Gabrielle. Journal of Fish Biology 63: 1357–1363.

Human, B.A. (2003). Taxonomy and molecular phylogeny of some Southern African catsharks (Family Scyliorhinidae; Chondrichthyes). PhD Thesis. Dept Clinical Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa. xii, 215 pp + appendices.

Kyne, P.M. and Bennett, M.B. (2002). Reproductive biology of the eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw and Nodder, 1794) from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 583–589.

Kyne, P.M. and Bennett, M.B. (2002). Diet of the eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw and Nodder, 1794) from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 679–686.

Lenanton, R.C.J., Heald, D.I., Platell, M., Cliff, G.M. and Shaw, J.L. (1990). Aspects of the reproductive biology of the gummy shark Mustelus antarcticus Gunther, from the waters off the south coast of Western Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41: 807–822.

McAuley, R., Newbound, D. and Ashworth, R. (2002). Field identification guide to Western Australian sharks and shark-like rays. Fisheries Occasional Publications No. 1, July 2002. Department of Fisheries, Perth, Western Australia, 25 pp.

Mollet, H.F., Cliff, G., Pratt, H.L. and Stevens, J.D. (2000). Reproductive biology of the female shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810. Fisheries Bulletin 98: 299–318.

Moulton, P.M., Walker, T.I. and Saddlier, S.R. (1992). Age and growth studies of gummy shark, Mustelus antarcticus (Günther), and school shark, Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus), from southern-Australian waters. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43: 1241–1267.

Musick. J.A. and Bonfil, R. (eds.). (2003). Elasmobranch fisheries management techniques. Joint publication between the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), International Union for the Protection of Nature (IUCN), and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS). 

http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/organizations/ssg/EFMT2004.htm

Officer, R.A., Gason, A.S., Walker, T.I. and Clement, J.G. (1996). Sources of variation in counts of growth increment lines in vertebrae from gummy shark, Mustelus antarcticus, and school shark, Galeorhinus galeus: implications for growth determination. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53: 1765–1777.

Pardini, A.T., Jones, C.S., Noble, L.R., Kreiser, B., Malcolm, H., Bruce, B.D., Stevens, J.D., Cliff, G., Scholl, M.C., Francis, M., Duffy, C.A.J. and Martin, A.P. (2001). Sex-biased dispersal of great white sharks. Nature 412: 139–140.

Pepperell, J.G. (1992) (ed.). Sharks: Biology and Fisheries. Proceedings of an international conference on shark biology and conservation, Taronga Zoo, Sydney, Australia, 25 February–1 March 1991. (This 343 page volume also appeared as issue No. 1, Vol. 43 of the Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research).

Salini, J.P., Blaber, S.J.M. and Brewer, D.T. (1992). Diets of sharks from estuaries and nearshore waters of the northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43: 87–96.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. (1992). The biology of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) caught by the Queensland Shark Meshing Program off Townsville, Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43: 33–43.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. (1992). Reproductive strategy of the Australian sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon taylori (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhinidae), from Cleveland Bay, North Queensland. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43: 67–76.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. (1993). Age and growth of the Australian sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon taylori, from north Queensland, Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 36: 233–241.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. (1998). Diet of the Australian sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon taylori, from northern Queensland. Marine and Freshwater Research 49: 757–761.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. (1999). Demographic analysis of the dusky shark fishery in south-western Australia. In Musick, J.A. (ed.), Life in the Slow Lane: Ecology and Conservation of Long-Lived Marine Animals, pp 149–160. American Fisheries Society Symposium No 23, Bethesda, Maryland.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. (1999). Mortality estimates, and demographic analysis, for the Australian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon taylori) from northern Australia. Fishery Bulletin 97: 978–986.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. (2000). Growth rates of juvenile dusky sharks, Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur, 1818), from south-western Australia based on tag-recapture data. Fishery Bulletin 98: 811–822.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. (2000). Predicting population recovery rates for endangered western Atlantic sawfishes using demographic analysis. Environmental Biology of Fishes 58: 371–377.

Simpfendorfer, C.A., Chidlow, J., McAuley, R.B. and Unsworth, P. (2000). Age and growth of the whiskery shark, Furgaleus macki (Whitley, 1943), from south-western Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 58: 335–343.

Simpfendorfer, C.A., Goodreid, A.B. and McAuley, R.B. (2001). Size, sex and geographic variation in the diet of the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) from Western Australian waters. Environmental Biology of Fishes 61: 37–46

Simpfendorfer, C.A., Goodreid, A. and McAuley, R.B. (2001). The diet of three commercial important sharks from Western Australian waters. Marine and Freshwater Research 52: 975–985.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. and Heupel, M.R. (2004). Assessing habitat use and movements. In: Biology of sharks, skates and rays. Carrier, J., Musick, J.E. and Heithaus, M. (eds.). CRC Press.

Simpfendorfer, C.A., Kitchingman, A.M. and McAuley, R. B. (2002). Distribution, biology and fisheries importance of the pencil shark, Hypogaleus hyugaensis (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae), in the waters of south-western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 781–789

Simpfendorfer, C.A., McAuley, R., Chidlow, J. and Unsworth, P. (2002). Validated age and growth of the dusky shark, Carcharhinus obscurus, from Western Australian waters. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 567–573

Simpfendorfer, C.A. and Unsworth, P. (1998). Reproductive biology of the whiskery shark, Furgaleus macki, from south-western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 49: 687–693.

Stevens, J.D. (1973). Stomach contents of the blue shark (Prionace glauca L.) off southwest England. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 53: 357–361.

Stevens, J.D. (1975). Vertebral rings as a means of age determination in the blue shark (Prionace glauca L.). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 55: 657–665.

Stevens, J.D. (1976). The ecology of the blue shark (Prionace glauca L.) in British waters. Ph.D. thesis London University, 255 pp.

Stevens, J.D. (1983). Observations on reproduction in the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus. Copeia 1: 126–130.

Stevens, J.D. (1984). Biological observations on sharks caught by sport fishermen off New South Wales. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35: 573–590.

Stevens, J.D. (1984). Life-history and ecology of sharks at Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 222: 79–106.

Stevens, J.D. (1984). The families Carcharhinidae, Hemigaleidae, Sphyrnidae and Alopiidae, together with a checklist of the sharks of northern and north western Australia. In: Continental fishes of northern and north-western Australia. Sainsbury, K.J., Kailola, P. and Leyland, G.G. (eds.). Clouston and Hall, Canberra.

Stevens, J.D. (1986). The orders Hexanchiformes, Squaliformes, Pristiophoriformes, Squatiniformes, Heterodontiformes, Orectolobiformes, Lamniformes and Carcharhiniformes. In: A field guide to trawl fish from temperate waters of Australia. 2nd edition. Maxwell, J.G.H. and May, J.L. (eds.). CSIRO Division of Fisheries Research.

Stevens, J.D. (1987). Shark biology. In: Sharks: an illustrated encyclopedic survey by international experts. Stevens, J.D. and Weldons, K. (eds.). Golden Press, Sydney.

Stevens, J.D. and Cuthbert, G.J. (1983). Observations on the identification and biology of Hemigaleus (Selachii: Carcharhinidae) from Australian waters. Copeia 2: 487–497.

Stevens, J.D. and Lyle, J.M. (1989). The biology of three hammerhead sharks (Eusphyra blochii , Sphyrna mokarran and S. lewini) from northern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 40: 129–146.

Stevens J.D. and McLoughlin K.J. (1991). Distribution, population structure, reproductive biology and diet of sharks from northern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 42: 151–199.

Stevens, J.D. and Paxton, J.R. (1985). A new record of the goblin shark Mitsukurina owstoni (Family Mitsukurinidae) from eastern Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of NSW 108: 37–45.

Stevens J.D., West G.J. and McLoughlin, K.J. (2000). Movements, recapture patterns, and factors affecting the return rate of carcharhinid and other sharks tagged off northern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 51: 127–141.

Stevens, J.D. and Wiley, P.D. (1986). Biology of two commercially important carcharhinid sharks from northern Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 37: 671–688.

Strong, W.R. Jr, Bruce, B.D., Nelson, D.R. and Murphy, R.C. (1996). Population dynamics of white sharks in Spencer Gulf, South Australia. In: Great White Sharks: The biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Klimley, A.P. and Ainley, D.G. (eds.). Academic Press, pp 401–414.

Vas, P., Stevens, J.D., Bonwick, G.A. and Tizini, O.A. (1990). Cd, Mn, and Zn concentrations in vertebrae of blue shark and shortfin mako in Australian waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin 21: 203–206.

Walker, T.I. (1990). Biology of gummy shark and school shark. In: Management Meets Industry – Papers from the Southern Shark Fishery Seminars held in Victor Harbour, Phillip Island and Hobart, October 1989. Fisheries Paper No. 90/5. 13 pp. (Australian Fisheries Service: Canberra).

Walker, T.I. (1998). Shark fisheries management and biology: Introduction. Marine and Freshwater Research 49, iii. (23 papers, 117 pp.)

Walker, T.I., Taylor, B.L., Hudson, R.J. and Cottier, J.P. (1998). The phenomenon of apparent change of growth rate in gummy shark (Mustelus antarcticus) harvested off southern Australia. In: Science and Management of Shark Fisheries. Hueter, R.E. (ed.). Fisheries Research 39: 139–163.

Walker, T.I. (1976). Effects of species, sex, length and locality on the mercury content of school shark Galeorhinus australis (Macleay) and gummy shark Mustelus antarcticus (Guenther) from south-eastern Australian waters. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 27: 603–616.

West, J.G. and Carter, S. (1990). Observations on the development and growth of the epaulette shark Hemiscyllium ocellatum (Bonnaterre) in captivity. Journal of Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences. Vol 5, No 4: 111–117.

White, W.T., Hall, N.G. and Potter, I.C. (2002). Reproductive biology and growth during pre- and postnatal life of Trygonoptera personata and T. mucosa (Batoidea, Urolophidae). Marine Biology 140: 699–712.

White, W.T., Hall, N.G. and Potter, I.C. (2002). Size and age compositions and reproductive biology of the nervous shark Carcharhinus cautus in a large subtropical embayment, including an analysis of growth during pre- and postnatal life. Marine Biology 141: 1153–1164.

White, W.T., Platell, M.E. and Potter, I.C. (2001). Relationship between reproductive biology and age composition and growth in Urolophus lobatus (Batoidea, Urolophidae). Marine Biology 138: 135–147.

White, W.T., Platell, M.E. and Potter, I.C. (2004). Comparisons between the diets of four abundant species of elasmobranchs in a subtropical embayment: implications for resource partitioning. Marine Biology 144: 439–448.




Role of sharks in the ecosystem


Simpfendorfer, C.A and Milward, N.E. (1993). Utilisation of a tropical bay as a nursery area by sharks of the families Carcharhinidae and Sphyrnidae. Environmental Biology of Fishes 37: 337–345.

Stevens, J.D., Bonfil, R., Dulvy, N.K. and Walker, P.A. (2000). The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 476–494.

Stevens, J.D., Bonfil, R., Dulvy, N.K. and Walker, P.A. (2000). The effects of fishing on chondrichthyans: with some implications for marine ecosystems. (Abstract of key note lecture). In: Proceedings of the 4th European Elasmobranch Association Meeting, Livorno, Italy. Vacchi, M., La Mesa, G., Serena, F. and Seret, B. (eds.). ICRAM, ARPAT and SFI.

The vulnerability of particular shark species, focusing primarily on critical habitat areas, current threats and status:


i) Great white


Anon (2002). White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) Recovery Plan. The Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra. 43 pp. (http://www.deh.gov.au/coasts/species/sharks/greatwhite/plan/index.html)

Bruce, B.D. (1992). Preliminary observations on the biology of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, in South Australian waters. Australian Journal of Marine Freshwater Research 43: 1–11

Cavanagh, R.D., Kyne, P.M., Fowler, S.L. and Bennett, M.B. (2003). The conservation status of Australasian Chondrichthyans, Report of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group Australia and Oceania Regional Red List Workshop. Queensland, Australia, 7–9 March 2003. IUCN Shark Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Compagno, L.J.V., Marks, M.A. and Fergusson, I.K. (1997). Threatened fishes of the world: Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lamnidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes. 50: 61–62.

Heithaus, M.R. (2001). Predator-prey and competitive interactions between sharks (order Selachii) and dolphins (suborder Odontoceti): a review. Journal-of-Zoology-(London). 253: 53–68.

Klimley, A.P. and Ainley, D.G. (eds.). (1996). Great white sharks: the biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Academic Press: San Diego, London: i-xi, 517 pp.

McCosker, J.E. (1991). Great white shark. Harper Collins in collaboration with Stanford University Press: New York: i-xi, 270 pp.

Pardini, A.T., Jones, C.S., Noble, L.R., Kreiser, B., Malcolm, H., Bruce, B.D., Stevens, J.D., Cliff, G., Scholl, M.C., Francis, M., Duffy, C.A.J. and Martin, A.P. (2001). Sex-biased dispersal of great white sharks. Nature 412: 139–140.

Rodda, K.R. and Bruce, B. (1997). White shark killed. Southern Fisheries 4 (6).

Strong, W.R. Jr, Bruce, B.D., Nelson, D.R. and Murphy, R.C. (1996). Population dynamics of white sharks in Spencer Gulf, South Australia. In: Great white sharks: The biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Klimley, A.P. and Ainley, D.G. (eds.). Academic Press, pp 401–414.

Strong, W.R., Murphy, R.C., Bruce, B.D. and Nelson, D.R. (1992). Movements and associated observations of bait-attracted white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias: A preliminary report. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43: 13–20.

Tricas, T.C. (1985). Feeding ethology of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. Memoirs of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 9: 81–91.

Tricas, T.C. and McCosker, J.E. (1984). Predatory behaviour of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, and notes on its biology. Proceedings of the California Academy of Science 43 (14): 221–238.

West, J.G. (1996). White shark attacks in Australian waters. In: Great white sharks - the biology of Carcharodon carcharias, pp. 449–455.

West, J.G. (1996). Recorded white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) attacks in Australian waters. Proceedings of the Second World Fisheries Congress. Vol 2.

ii) Grey nurse


Anon (2002). Recovery Plan for the Grey Nurse Shark (Carcharias taurus) in Australia. The Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra. 53 pp. (http://www.deh.gov.au/coasts/species/sharks/greynurse/plan/index.html)

Cavanagh, R.D., Kyne, P.M., Fowler, S.L. and Bennett, M.B. (2003). The conservation status of Australasian chondrichthyans, Report of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group Australia and Oceania Regional Red List Workshop’. Queensland, Australia, 7–9 March 2003. IUCN Shark Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Gordon, I. (1989). Feeding biology of grey nurse sharks, (Eugomphodus taurus) (Re classified to Carcharias taurus) in captivity. Abstract printed AES, June 1989, San Francisco.

Otway N. (2001). Grey nurse shark. Nature Australia 26 (12): 20–21.

Otway N.M., Burke A.L., Morrison N.S. and Parker, P.C. (2003). Monitoring and identification of NSW critical habitat sites for conservation of grey nurse sharks. EA Project No.22499. NSW Fisheries Final Report Series No.47.

Otway, N.M. and Parker, P.C. (2000). The biology, ecology, distribution, abundance and identification of marine protected areas for the conservation of threatened grey nurse sharks in south east Australian waters. New South Wales Fisheries, Cronulla (Australia); Natural Heritage Trust, (Australia). NSW fisheries final report series. Cronulla, No. 19, 101 pp. Feb 2000.

Pollard, D.A., Smith, L.M.P. and Smith, A.K. (1996). The biology and conservation status of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus Rafinesque 1810) in New South Wales, Australia. Aquatic-Conservation. March; 6(1): 1–20.

iii) Whale shark


Anon (2004-draft). Whale shark (Rhincodon typus) recovery plan 2004-2009.The Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra. 5 pp.

(http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/recovery/public-comment/whale-shark/index.html)

Chang, W.B., Leu, M.Y. and Fang, L.S. (1997). Embryos of the whale shark, Rhincodon typus: early growth and size distribution. Copeia 2: 444–446.

Chan, R.W.K., Dixon, P.I., Pepperell, J.G. and Reid, D.D. (2003). Application of DNA-based techniques for the identification of whaler sharks (Carcharhinus spp.) caught in protective beach meshing and by recreational fisheries off the coast of New South Wales. Fishery Bulletin (U.S) 101: 910–914.

Chen, V.Y. and Phipps, M.J. (2002). Management and trade of whale sharks in Taiwan. TRAFFIC East Asia-Taipei.

Clark, E. and Nelson, D.R. (1997). Young whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, feeding on a copepod bloom near La Paz, Mexico. Environmental biology of fishes. The Hague. 50: 63–73.

Colman, J.G. (1997). A review of the biology and ecology of the whale shark. Journal of Fish Biology. 51: 1219–1234.

Colman, J. (1997). Whale shark interaction management with particular reference to Ningaloo Marine Park. 1997–2007. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program. 27: i–x, 63 pp.

Duffy, C.A.J. (2002). Distribution, seasonality, lengths, and feeding behaviour of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) observed in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 36: 565–570

Fowler, S.L., Reed, T.M. and Dipper, F.A. (2002) Elasmobranch biodiversity, conservation and management. Proceedings of the International Seminar and Workshop, Sabah, Malaysia, July 1997. IUCN Occasional Paper No. 25.

Gunn, J.S., Stevens, J.D., Davis, T.L.O. and Norman, B.M. (1999). Observations on the short-term movements and behaviour of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Marine Biology 135: 553–559.

Norman, B.M. (1999). Aspects of the biology and ecotourism industry of the whale shark Rhincodon typus in north-western Australia. MSc Thesis (Murdoch University, Western Australia).

Norman, B. (2002). CITES Identification Manual: Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus Smith 1829). Commonwealth of Australia.

Scott, E.A. and Brent, S. (2001). Telemetry and satellite tracking of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Sea of Cortez, Mexico, and the north Pacific Ocean. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 60(1–3): 299–308.

Stevens, J.D. (1994). Whale sharks at Ningaloo Reef, northern Western Australia. Chondros 5 (3): 1–3.

Taylor, J.G. (1996). Seasonal occurrence, distribution and movements of the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research. 47(4): 637–642.

Thomson, C. and Stevens, J. (1994). A whale of a shark. Landscope, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia 10 (2): 29–34.

Wilson, S.G. (2002). A whale shark feeding in association with a school of giant herring at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 85: 43–44.



Safe swimming and diving guidelines


Stevens, J.D. (1987). The shark attack problem in Mogadishu, Somalia. Final report to UNEP, 11 pp.

West, J.G. (1993). The Australian Shark Attack File with notes on preliminary analysis of data from Australian waters. In: Shark Conservation. Pepperell, J., Woon, P. and J. West, J. (eds.). Taronga Zoo, pp. 93–101.



The cultural significance of sharks to Indigenous peoples


McDavitt, M.T. (1996). The cultural and economic importance of sawfishes (Family Pristidae). Shark News (Newsletter of the IUCN Shark Specialist Group) 8: 10–11.

McDavitt, M.T. (2000). Land sharks: The symbolism of sharks and rays in Aboriginal Australia. Lecture at the Kluge-Ruhe Aboriginal Art Collection, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, June 9, (Chronicles of the Sea: Aboriginal Coastal Landscapes in Art, May 9 through August 26, 2000.)

McDavitt, M.T. (2001). Sharks in land. The symbolism of freshwater sharks and sawfishes in north Australian Aboriginal societies. Paper presented before the 17th American Elasmobranch Society Annual Meeting, State College, PA, July 9.

McDavitt, M.T. (in press). Cultural significance. In: Fowler, S.L., Camhi, M., Burgess, G., Fordham, S. and Musick, J. (eds.). Sharks, rays and chimaeras: the status of the chondrichthyan fishes. IUCN/SSG Shark Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK. 2003.



Shark fisheries (including selected reports)

Anon. (2000). Fisheries management 1. Conservation and management of sharks. In: FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. Vol. 4. Supplement 1, pp. 37. (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations: Rome.)


Bonfil, R. (1994). Overview of world elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 341, Rome, FAO. 119 pp.

Brown, L.P., Bridge, N.F. and Walker, T.I. (2000). Summary of tag releases and recaptures in the Southern Shark Fishery. Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute Report No. 16: 1–61.

Graham, K.J., Andrew, N.J. and Hodgson, K.E. (2001). Changes in relative abundance of sharks and rays on Australian South East Fishery trawl grounds after twenty years of fishing. Marine and Freshwater Research 52: 549–61.

Kailola, P.J., Williams, M.J., Stewart, P.C., Reichelt, R.E., McNee, A. and Grieve, C. (1993). Atlas of Australian fisheries resources. Bureau of Rural Resources and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation: Canberra.

Kulka, D.W., Musick, J.A., Pawson, M. and Walker, T.I. (eds.). (2004, in press). Proceedings of North Atlantic Fisheries Organisation Symposium. Elasmobranch Fisheries: Managing for Sustainable Use and Biodiversity Conservation. 11–13 September 2002. Santiago de Compestela, Spain. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 35: 00–00.

Kyne, P.M., Courtney, A.J. and Bennett, M.B. (2003). Life history and bycatch of the argus skate Raja polyomata (Ogilby, 1910) in the Queensland East Coast Trawl Fishery (ECTF), Australia. Conservation and management of deep sea chondrichthyan fishes, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Kyne, P.M., Courtney, A.J., Campbell, K., Chilcott, S., Gaddes, C., Turnbull, C., Van der Geest, C. and Bennett, M.B. (2002). An overview of the elasmobranch by-catch of the Queensland East Coast Trawl Fishery (Australia). NAFO syposium ‘ Elasmobranch Fisheries: Managing for Sustainable Use and Biodiversity Conservation’, Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Ab. 4.2. NAFO SCR Doc.02/97. Serial No. N4718. 1–11.

Lenanton, R.C.J., Millington, P. and Smyth, C. (1989). Shark and chips. Research and management in the edible shark fishery. Western Fisheries 1:17–23.

McAuley, R. (2000). Effects of a 3 nautical mile demersal gillnet and longline fishing closure on the stocks of three commercially important shark species. Shark Section Research Advice (13) July 2000, 5 pp.

McAuley, R. (2001). Fisheries status and stock assessment for the southern and west coast demersal gillnet and demersal longline fisheries and northern shark fisheries. No. 9, August 2001. Department of Fisheries (Government of Western Australia) document for public release.

McAuley, R. (2002). Interim status report for the southern and west coast demersal gillnet and demersal longline fisheries and northern shark fisheries. May 2002. Department of Fisheries (Government of Western Australia) document for public release.

McAuley, R. (2002). Advice regarding management options for the whiskery shark, Furgaleus macki, in the Southern Shark Fishery. Shark Section Research Advice (15) September 2002, 5 pp.

McAuley, R. and Allison, R. (2002). Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of two commercially important shark species in Western Australian waters. Shark Section Research Advice (14) August 2002, 6 pp.

McAuley, R. and Moran, M. (2000). Scalefish catch by the southern and west coast demersal gillnet and longline fisheries. Shark Section Research Advice (12) June 2000, 13 pp.

McAuley, R., Moran, M., Simpfendorfer, C., Lenanton, R. and Hall, N. (2000). Fisheries status and stock assessment for the southern and west coast demersal gillnet and demersal longline fisheries and northern shark fisheries. No. 7, June 2000. Department of Fisheries (Government of Western Australia) document for public release.

McAuley, R. and Stephenson, P. (2001). Fisheries status and stock assessment for the southern and west coast demersal gillnet and demersal longline fisheries and northern shark fisheries. No. 8, June 2001. Department of Fisheries (Government of Western Australia) document for public release.

McLoughlin, K., Walker, T.I. and Punt, A.E. (1998). Southern Shark. In: Fishery Status Reports 1997—Resource Assessments of Australian Commonwealth Fisheries. Caton, A., McLoughlin, K. and Staples, D. (eds.). pp. 67–73. (Bureau of Resource Sciences: Canberra).

McLoughlin, K., Walker, T.I. and Punt, A.E. (1999). Southern Shark Fishery. In: Fishery Status Reports 1998—Resource Assessments of Australian Commonwealth Fisheries. Caton, A., McLoughlin, K. and Staples, D. (eds.). pp. 85–91. (Bureau of Resource Sciences: Canberra).

McLoughlin, K., Walker, T.I. and Punt, A.E. (2000). Southern Shark Fishery. In: Fishery Status Reports 1999—Resource Assessments of Australian Commonwealth Fisheries. Caton, A. and McLoughlin, K. (eds.). pp. 143–150. (Bureau of Resource Sciences: Canberra). (ISSN 1322–655X).

McLoughlin, K. and Walker, T.I. (2002). Southern Shark Fishery. In: Fishery Status Reports 2000–2001: Resource Assessments of Australian Commonwealth Fisheries. Caton A. (ed.). pp. 135–144. (Bureau of Rural Sciences: Canberra). (ISSN 1322–655X).

Musick. J.A. and Bonfil, R. (eds.). (2003). Elasmobranch Fisheries Management Techniques. Joint publication between the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), International Union for the Protection of Nature (IUCN), and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS). 

Pepperell, J.G. (1992). Trends in the distribution, species composition and size of sharks caught by gamefish anglers off south-eastern Australia, 1961–90. Sharks: Biology and Fisheries. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43: 213–225.


Pepperell, J.G. and Henry, G.H. (2001). Data collection at Australian gamefishing tournaments: Long term monitoring of catch and effort and biological sampling. In: Miller, M., C. Daxboeck, C. Dahl, K. Kelly and P. Dalzell (eds.). Proceedings of Pacific Island Gamefish Symposium, Kona Hawaii, July/August 1998. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, 131–136.

Pribac, F., Punt, A.E., Walker, T.I. and Taylor, B.L. (2004, in press). The value of length, age and tagging data in a stock assessment of a length selective fishery for gummy shark. In: Proceedings of North Atlantic fisheries organisation symposium. Elasmobranch fisheries: Managing for sustainable use and biodiversity conservation. 11–13 September 2002. Santiago de Compestela, Spain. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 35: 00–00.

Punt, A.E., Pribac, F., Taylor, B.L. and Walker, T.I. (2004, in press). Harvest strategy evaluation for school and gummy shark. In: Proceedings of North Atlantic Fisheries Organisation Symposium. Elasmobranch Fisheries: Managing for Sustainable Use and Biodiversity Conservation. 11–13 September 2002. Santiago de Compestela, Spain. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 35: 00–00.

Punt, A.E., Pribac, F., Walker, T.I. and Taylor, B.L. (2001). Population modelling and harvest strategy evaluation for school and gummy shark. FRDC Project No. 99/102. Final Report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, 136 pp. (CSIRO Marine Research: Hobart.)

Punt, A.E., Walker, T.I. and Prince, J.D. (2002). Assessing the costs and benefits of fishery-independent surveys in Australia’s southern shark fishery: results of numerical simulations. Fisheries Research 55: 281–295.

Punt, A.E., Walker, T.I., Taylor, B.L. and Pribac, F. (2000). Standardization of catch and effort data in a spatially-structured shark fishery. Fisheries Research 45: 129–145.

Shotton, R. (ed.). (1999). Case studies of the management of elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 378. Rome, FAO. 479 pp.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. (1999). Demographic analysis of the dusky shark fishery in south-western Australia. In: Musick, J.A. (ed.). Life in the slow lane: Ecology and conservation of long-lived marine animals. pp 149–160. American Fisheries Society Symposium No 23, Bethesda, Maryland.

Simpfendorfer, C.A. (1999). Management of shark fisheries in Western Australia. In: R. Shotton (ed.). Case studies of the management of elasmobranch fisheries. pp. 425–455. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 378, Part I. FAO, Rome.

Simpfendorfer, C.A, and Donohue, K. (1998). Keeping the fish in fish’n’chips: research and management of the Western Australian shark fishery. Marine and Freshwater Research 49: 593–600.

Simpfendorfer, C.A., Kitchingman, A.M. and McAuley, R.B. (2002). Distribution, biology and fishery importance of the pencil shark, Hypogaleus hyugaensis (Elasmobranchii: Triakidae), in the waters off south-western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 781–789.

Stevens, J.D. (1990). World patterns and problems in shark fisheries. In: Management meets industry. Papers from the southern shark fishery seminars held in Victor Harbour, Phillip Island and Hobart, October 1989. Fisheries Paper 90/5, 8 pp.


Stevens, J.D., Bonfil, R., Dulvy, N.K and Walker, P.A. (2000). The effects of fishing on sharks,

rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 476–494.

Walker, T.I. (1998). Galeorhinus galeus fisheries of the world. Prepared for United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 52 pp. (Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute: Queenscliff, Victoria).

Walker, T.I. (1998). Southern Australian Shark Fishery Management. Prepared for United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 37 pp. (Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute: Queenscliff, Victoria).

Walker, T.I. (1999). Galeorhinus galeus fisheries of the world. In: Case studies of management of elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 378/2. 24, 728–773.

Walker, T.I. (1999). Southern Australian shark fishery management. In: Case studies of management of elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 378/2. 17, 480–514.

Walker, T.I., Brown, L.P. and Bridge, N.F. (1997). Southern shark tagging project. Final report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, 61 pp. (Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute: Queenscliff, Victoria).

Walker, T. I., Brown, L.P. and Clement, J.G. (2001). Age validation from tagged school and gummy sharks injected with oxytetracycline, FRDC Project No. 97/110, Final Report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, 25 pp. September 2001. (Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute: Queenscliff, Victoria, Australia.)

Walker, T.I., Hudson, R.J. and Gason, A.S. (2004, in press). Catch evaluation of target, byproduct, and bycatch species taken by gillnets and longlines in the shark fishery of south-eastern Australia. In: Proceedings of North Atlantic fisheries organisation symposium. Elasmobranch fisheries: managing for sustainable use and biodiversity conservation. 11–13 September 2002. Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 35: 00–00.

Walker, T.I., Officer, R.A., Clement, J.G. and Brown, L.P. (1995). Southern shark age validation: Part 1 – Project overview, vertebral structure and formation of growth-Increment bands used for age determination. final report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC Project 91/037), 78 pp. (Victorian Fisheries Research Institute: Queenscliff).

Officer, R.A., Gason, A.S., Walker, T.I. and Clement, J.G. (1995). Southern shark age validation project: Part 2–Sources of variation in growth increment counts from vertebrae of gummy shark (Mustelus antarcticus) and school shark (Galeorhinus galeus), implications for age determination. Final report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC Project 91/037), 24 pp. (Victorian Fisheries Research Institute: Queensclif.

Walker, T.I., Taylor, B.L., Hudson, R.J. and Cottier, J.P. (1995). Southern shark age validation project: Part 3 – The phenomenon of apparent change of growth rate in gummy shark (Mustelus antarcticus), harvested by gill-net and hooks off southern Australia. Final report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC Project 91/037), 40 pp. (Victorian Fisheries Research Institute: Queenscliff).



Walker, T.I., Taylor, B.L. and Brown, L.P. (2000). Southern shark tag database project, FRDC Project No. 96/162, Final report to Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, 82 pp. (Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute: Queenscliff, Victoria).

Acknowledgements: compiled by John Ackerman, Carolyn Stewardson and Danielle Curran (Bureau of Rural Sciences, DAFF), 27 October 2004, with funding from the Natural Heritage Trust and Fisheries Research and Resources Fund.

[Most of the above publications were taken from: Carolyn Stewardson and Kevin McLoughlin (2004). Shark Education and Awareness Raising Strategy: Register of shark scientists and shark fisheries/conservation managers. Report compiled for Marine Industries Environment Branch, the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (funded by the Natural Heritage Trust and the Fisheries Resources Research Fund), 31 August 2004, 185 pp.]


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