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* Nandinia, Cryptoprocta, Fossa, Eupleres, Prionodontidae, Paradoxurinae


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Appendix 4. List of the 117 shared convergences between each viverrid-like taxon and the Felidae, Viverridae, Paradoxurinae, Viverrinae, Hemigalinae, Herpestidae (plus Poiana in the case of Prionodon; see Introduction).
* Nandinia, Cryptoprocta, Fossa, Eupleres, Prionodontidae, Paradoxurinae:

63(1): Palatine, orbital process: 1 = greatly expanded in orbital region forming a horizontal shelf.


* Nandinia, Cryptoprocta, Fossa, Eupleres, Felidae:

- 279(1): Rhinarium, philtrum: 1 = present, wide.


* Nandinia, Cryptoprocta, Fossa, Eupleres, Viverridae:

- 139(1): Sternomastoideus and cleidomastoideus fossa: 1 = pronounced.


* Nandinia, Cryptoprocta, Fossa, Eupleres, Hemigalinae:

- 304(1): External pinnae, anterior surface: 1 = same as ground color.


* Nandinia, Fossa, Eupleres, Prionodontidae, Viverrinae:

- 54(1): Lacrimal, inferior oblique muscle fossa: 1 = separate from nasolacrimal foramen, in maxilla.


* Cryptoprocta, Fossa, Eupleres, Prionodontidae, Viverridae :

- 262(2): Pelvis, overall shape: 2 = rhomboidal.


* Nandinia, Cryptoprocta, Fossa, Eupleres:

- 86(1): Ectotympanic, ring, medial expansion: 1 = slight chambering or inflation.


* Nandinia, Fossa, Eupleres, Prionodontidae:

- 24(3): Palatine/maxilla suture: 3 = medial to P3-P2.


* Cryptoprocta, Fossa, Eupleres, Felidae:

- 208(1): Diastema, C1 - P1 (or to first postcanine tooth): 1 = present.

- 256(0): Radius, cross section: 0 = flattened.
* Cryptoprocta, Fossa, Eupleres, Viverridae:

- 116(2): Petrosal, mastoid, exposed ventrolateral process: 2 = process absent, small deltoid.


* Cryptoprocta, Fossa, Eupleres, Hemigalinae:

- 203(1): M2/M2 relative size: 1 = slightly smaller than M1/m1.


* Cryptoprocta, (Prionodontidae, Felidae), Poiana:

- 196(1): M2: 1 = absent.


* Fossa, Eupleres, Prionodontidae, Viverridae :

- 85(1): Ectotympanic/entotympanic division: 1 = externally visible, without clear suture.


* Fossa, Eupleres, Prionodontidae, Viverrinae:

- 41(1): Alisphenoid, optic foramen interorbital connection: 1 = clearly open.


* Nandinia, Cryptoprocta, Prionodontidae:

- 49(1): Jugal: 1 = does not reach lacrimal.


* Nandinia, Cryptoprocta, Felidae:

- 192(1): M1 hypoconid: 1 = absent.

- 245(1): Humerus, radial and coronoid fossas: 1 = distinct.
* Nandinia, Cryptoprocta, Paradoxurinae:

- 311(3): Feet (pes), metatarsal pad(s), size: 3 = larger than tarsal pads.


* Nandinia, Fossa, Eupleres:

- 218(2): dP4, buccal lobes: 2 = symmetrical.

- 283(2): Rhinarium, profile: 2 = concave.
* Nandinia, Fossa, Hemigalinae:

- 271(2): Calcaneum, medial tuberosity on calcancal tuber: 2 = approximately equal to lateral tuberosity.


* Nandinia, Fossa, Viverrinae:

- 319(1): Nuchal stripes: 1 = thin.


* Nandinia, Prionodontidae, Paradoxurinae:

- 254(1): Ulna, olecranon process: 1 = ventral process, vestigial/absent.

- 255(2): Ulna, olecranon, inclination: 2 = anterior.

- 259(1): Radius, head - articular surface: 1 = without.


* Cryptoprocta, Prionodontidae, Viverridae:

- 92(1): Ectotympanic, styliform process: 1 = reduced.


* Cryptoprocta, Prionodontidae, Paradoxurinae:

- 232(2): Tail: 2 = approximately equal to head-body length (85-105%).


* Cryptoprocta, Felidae, Hemigalinae:

- 70(0): Pterygoid, hamular process: 0 = descends considerably ventral to the palate.


* Fossa, Eupleres, Felidae:

- 287(0): Ear bursa: 1 = ear bursa absent.


* Fossa, Eupleres, Viverridae:

- 188(3): M1, talonid: 3 = length near equal length of trigonid.

- 226(1): Axis, cranial articular processes and ventral surface of dens (odontoid) process: 1 = one continuous surface.
* Fossa, Eupleres, Viverrinae:

- 230(1): Cervical vertebrae, ventral keel on vertebrae 6 and 7: 1 = present.

- 298(1): Feet, interdigital pads: 1 = partially fused together, shallow grooves.

- 314(0): Head, rhinarial patch: 0 = present, lighter than ground color.


* Fossa, Eupleres, Hemigalinae:

- 236(1): Scapula, coracoid process: 1 = present, small.


* Eupleres, Prionodontidae, Poiana:

- 76(1): Bassioccipital, m. longus capitis rugosity: 1 = absent.

- 209(1): diastema, P2 - P3 (or second and third postcanine teeth): 1 = large.
* Eupleres, (Prionodontidae, Felidae):

- 145(0): Parietal/supraoccipital, lambdoial crest: 0 = not well produced dorsally or laterally beyond braincase.


* Eupleres, Prionodontidae, Herpestidae:

- 45(1): Frontal, postorbital region (width): 1 = approximately equal to interorbital region.


* (Prionodontidae, Felidae), Viverrinae:

- 61(2): Maxilla, anterior edge of orbit: 2 = anterior to P3-P4.


* (Prionodontidae, Felidae), Herpestidae:

- 310(1): Feet (pes), tarsal hallical pad, 1 = about equal to digital pads.


* (Prionodontidae, Felidae), Poiana:

- 44(3): Frontal, temporal crest: 3 = double, lyre shaped.

- 145(0): Parietal/supraoccipital, lambdoial crest: 0 = not well produced dorsally or laterally beyond braincase.

-167(1): P3/3, size (when viewed from the buccal aspect): 1 = considerably larger than P2/2.


* Prionodontidae, Paradoxurinae, Poiana:

- 113(1): Petrosal, subarcuate (floccular) fossa: 1 = shallow.


* Nandinia, Cryptoprocta:

- 105(1): Entotympanic, anterior extension: 1 = small anterior extension.

- 241(2): Humerus, pectoral crest: 2 = robust, with crest developed towards midpoint of distal end.

- 251(2): Ulna, olecranon process, medial and lateral ridges: 2 = vestigial/absent.

- 263(1): Femur, trochanteric fossa: 1 = expanded medially from lesser trochanter.

- 265(1): Femur, lesser trochanter, position: 1 = medial most position, directly below head.

- 272(1): Calcaneum, peroneal tubercle: 1 = medial to astragular tubercle.

- 276(1): Calcaneum, posterior projection off of cuboid surface: 1 = present.


* Nandinia, Fossa:

- 65(2): Palatine, location of the sphenopalatine foramen: 2 = dorsal to M1.


* Nandinia, Eupleres:

- 178(1): P4, talonid: 1 = present.


* Nandinia, Prionodontidae:

- 14(1): Nasals and frontals, midline depression: 1 = present in nasals only.

- 26(2): Palatine, relative size (excluding mesopterygoid): 2 = midline length greater than midline length of maxilla.

- 160(1): P1, number of roots: 1 = 2 roots, completely or partially fused.

- 233(1): Scapula, teres major process (axillary border): 1 = present, small, on plane of scapula.

- 242(2): Humerus, deltoid crest: 2 = absent.

- 257(2): Radius, tubercle: 2 = present, large.
* Nandinia, Felidae:

- 93(1): Ectotympanic, eustachian tube: 1 = narrow (pterygoid nerve sulcus and eustachian tube closely adjacent).

- 211(1): Mandible, angular process: 1 = present, weak.
* Nandinia, Viverridae:

- 219(1): dP3, accessory lingual cusp: 1 = present.

- 252(1): Ulna, olecranon process, medial fossa with ventral/medial flange: 1 = present, small.

- 289(1): Perineal glands: 1 = present in both sexes or female only.

- 299(2): Feet (manus), carpal (palmar) surface, central depression: 2 = present, without hair.

- 309(3): Feet (pes), tarsal hallical pad: 3 = adjacent to other tarsal pads.


* Nandinia, Paradoxurinae:

- 198(2): M2, roots: 2 = 1.

- 244(1): Humerus, distal condyle: 1 = trochlea distal extension approximately equal to capitellum.

- 274(3): Calcaneum, cuboid surface: 3 = dorsal slope.

- 300(4): Feet (manus), metacarpal pad(s): 4 = metacarpal pads very large and completely fused.

- 303(3): Feet (manus), metacarpal pad(s), size: 3 = larger than carpal pads.


* Nandinia, Hemigalinae:

- 92(2): Ectotympanic, styliform process: 2 = absent.

- 199(2): M2, shape: 2 = round.

- 213(1): Mandible, mandibular condyle: 1 = slightly above alveolar line.


* Cryptoprocta, Prionodontidae

- 221(2): P4, anterior accessory cusp: 2 = about equal to posterior.

- 270(1): Calcaneum, calcaneal tuber or process: 1 = present, asymmetrical.
* Cryptoprocta, Felidae:

- 156(0): C1, flanges: 0 = posterior flange present.

- 172(3): P4, parastyle: 3 = present, larger than protocone.

- 182(0): M1, shape: 0 = rhomboidal.

- 187(3): M1, trigonid: 3 = absent.

- 189(2): M1, metaconid: 2 = absent.

- 200(1): M2: 1 = absent.
* Cryptoprocta, Paradoxurinae:

- 22(1): Palate, tooth rows, lingual edge: 1 = divergent.

- 33(0): Premaxilla/maxilla suture (midline): 0 = posterior to canines.

- 150(0): I3, size: 0 = considerably larger than I1 or I2.

- 233(2): Scapula, teres major process (axillary border) (Taylor, 1974): 2 = present, large perpendicular plane to scapular plane.

- 243(1): Humerus, olecranon fossa: 1 = ossified. This allows for greater arc movement of the antebrachium.

- 246(1): Humerus, greater tuberosity, proximal end: 1 = supraspinatus fossa small, restricted to narrow ridge, anterior process small (considerably smaller than articular surface).

- 305(2): Feet (pes), plantar surface, central depression: 2 = elongate.


* Cryptoprocta, Viverrinae:

- 3(1): Maxilla, infraorbital foramen, shape: 1 = round.


* Cryptoprocta, Hemigalinae:

- 275(2): Calcaneum, trochlear process: 2 = large.


* Cryptoprocta, Herpestidae:

- 164(2): P3, number or roots: 2 = 3.


* Fossa, Prionodontidae:

- 229(2): Axis, ventral 'keel’: 2 = present, large.


* Fossa, Viverridae:

- 191(0): M1 entoconid: 0 = present.

- 205(2): Upper molars, cingulum: 2 = present, complete around the base of the protocone.
* Fossa, Viverrinae:

- 248(1): Humerus, distal supracondyloid crest: 1 = small.


* Fossa, Paradoxurinae:

- 241(0): Humerus, pectoral crest: 0 = slender with little development of crest.


* Fossa, Hemigalinae:

- 68(1): Palatine, orbital exposure: 1 = convex or inflated orbital wall.

- 317(2): Head, supraoccular eye patches: 2 = present, distinct.
* Eupleres, (Felidae, Prionodontidae):

- 145(0): Parietal/supraoccipital, lambdoial crest: 0 = not well produced dorsally or laterally beyond braincase.


* Eupleres, Prionodontidae:

- 16(0): Frontals, inflation anterior to the postorbital processes: 0 = absent.

- 42(4): Frontal, supraorbital process: 4 = absent.

- 69(0): Pterygoid, epipterygoid processes: 0 = absent or weakly defined.

- 309(2): Feet (pes), tarsal hallical pad: 2 = separated from other tarsal pads by bare skin.
* Eupleres, Hemigalinae:

- 172(2): P4, parastyle: 2 = present, large (near equal to protocone).


* Prionodontidae, Viverridae:

- 43(2): Frontal-parietal suture (at midline): 2 = anterior to anterior edge of glenoid fossa.

- 117(1): Petrosal, mastoid, occipital exposure: 1 = absent.

- 123(1): Paroccipital process, width: 1= paraoccipital process very wide and covering all the posterior surface of the mastoid, so that the mastoid can not be seen in a caudal view of the skull.

- 177(0): P4, posterolingual cingulum: 0 = present.
* Prionodontidae, Viverrinae:

- 4(1): Maxilla, infraorbital foramen: 1 = dorsal to the P3-P2 area.


* Prionodontidae, Poiana:

- 144(2): Parietal, sagittal crest (adult males): 2 = small double.

- 285(1): External pinnae, posterior, subbursa lobe: 1 = present (a posterior external lobe that projects ventral to the ear bursa).

- 330(1): Tail, tip: 1 = same as ground color.


* Prionodontidae, Hemigalinae:

- 267(0): Tibia, cross section: 0 = round.


* Prionodontidae, Herpestidae:

- 251(0): Ulna, olecranon process, medial and lateral ridges: 0 = lateral ridge larger.


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